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v. 5 










C r. CLAY, Manager. 

lonlrait; FETTER LANE, E,C. 

esinSutslit loo, PRINCES STREET. 

litoij: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 
Snlln: A. ASHER AND CO. 
^rto 8n<i: G. F. PUTNAM'S SONS. 
Vnnki)) antt dtalnitl*: MACMILLAN AND CO. 

h. i."ih,Googlc 


ving in Schrtick's Abbildangcn bcriikmUr Gilck, 
(LeipzLE, 1766), i pi. 30. 





VOL. Ill 







Die Bahn ist breit genug, um vielen Beweriern urn den PrHs 
neben anander Raum zu gebm ; darum woUen wir nichl nut 
neidios, sondern auch mit dankbarer Anerkennung dm Leislungen 
unserer amwartigen Milkampfer gereekl werdeit. 

BuRSiAN, CI. Philologie in Deulschland, p. 1248, 188.1. 

Une renaissance des Hudes classiquts iest manifesfie chez nous. 
Elk se distingue par Palliance des qualitis franfaises de darti et 
de mithode avec la soliditi de Vkrudition et la connaissana des 
Iravaux Strangers. 

S. Reinach, Manuel de Philologie Classique, i 13, 1883. 

TTiis century is the first since the revival of learning in which 
a serious challenge has been thrown down to the defenders of the 
humanistic tradition. But I think it will be found that the position 
of humanism in this country at the close of the century is much 
stronger than it was at the beginning. 

Jebb, Humanism in Education, p. 30, Oxford, 1899- 

European scholars., find that they have to count with a neiv 
factor and have to recognise in our philological work a national 

GiLDERSLEEVE, Oscillations and Nutations of Philo- 
logical Studies, p. II, Philadelphia, 1900, 



7 / 


List of Illustrations 

Bibliography. See vol. ii p. xv 

Outline of Principal Contents of pp. i — 485 

Index .... 



History of Srholarship, 1700 — 180O xiv 

„ „ 1800— 1900 4S — 49 


continued from Vol. II p. xiv. 

(41) J. A. Fabbicius. From the engraving in Schrock's Abbildungen 
brruhmtrr Gelehrien (Leipzig, ij66), i pi. 30 . . . Fronlispiict 

(41) J. A. Ernbsti. From an engraving by J. Elias Haid (Augsburg, 
1776) of a portrait by Anton Graff 11 

(43) Reiskb. From the portrait by J. D. Philippin geb, Sysangin, 
printed as frontispiece to the Oratorei Gra^H (1770) .... 16 

(44) Hevne. From C. G. Geyser's engraving of the early portrait by 
Tischbein 37 

(+5) F. A. Wolf. From Wagner's engraving of the portrait by Jo. 
Wolff (1833); printed as frontispiece to HotTmann's edition of Wolfs AUer- 
Ikutns-lVissenschaft (iSjj) SO 

(46) NiEBUHR. From Sichling's engraving of the portrait by F. Schnorr 
von Carolsfeld 76 

(4J) Gottfried Hermann. From Weger's engraving of the portrait 
by C. Vogei; frontispiece to Kijchly's CoUjried Hermann (1874). For a 
latter reproduction of the same portrait, see frontispiece to Hermann's 
Aeschylus (1851) . ' 88 

(48) BOECKH. Reproduced (by permission) from the frontispiece to 
Hoffmann's .4u,^vj/ fwi'M (Teubner, Leipzig, 1901) . . . . 9C 

(49) Mbinekb. Reduced from Engelbaeh's lithcgraphed reproduction 
of the presentation portrait by Oscar Begas 116 

(50) Lachmann. Reduced from A. Teichel's engraving of the photo- 
graph by H. Biow 116 

(51) RITSCHL. Reduced from a hthi^raphed reproduction of the drawing 
by A. Hohneck (1844). published by Henry and Cohen, Bonn, with autt^raph 
and motto nil lam difficUut quin quatraida investigari pcsstil {Terence, Haul. 
675) '38 

(51) Franz Bopp. From the frontispiece of the Life by Lefmann 
(Reimer, Berlin, 1891) facing p. 105 

(53) Karl Otfried MIjller. Reduced from a drawing by Temite 
lithographed by Wildt 111 

(54) Thbodor Mommsbn. Reduced from the original drawing by Sir 
William Richmond (1890), now in the possession of Prof. Ulrich von Wila- 
mowitz-Moellendorff 334 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 


(55) BOISSONADE. From the Medallion by David d' Angers ; reduced 
from a cast in the possession of W. Salomon Reinacb . . . ^48 

(56) CoBET. Reproduced from 1 copy (lent by Prof, tlartman of 
Leyden) of the presentation portrait drawn by J. H. Hoflhieisler and lilho- 

. graphed by Spamer 174 

(57) Madvig. From a. photograph reproduced in the Opusrula A(a- 
demica (ed. 1887) and in the Nordisk Tidskrifi. Ser. 11, vol. viii . 310 

(58) Thomas Gaisfokd. Reproduced (by permission of Messrs Ryman, 
Onford) from a proof copy of the mezzotint by T, L. Atkinson of the portrait 
by H. W. Pickersgill, R.A., in the Hall of Christ Church, Oxford (1848) 396 

(59) Richard Clavbrhousb Jegb. Reproduced (by permission) from 
a photc^raph taken l)y Messrs Window and Grove, London . . 41J 

(60) Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro. From a phott^raph taken 
in Cambridge by Sir William Davidson Niven, K.C.B. . . -431 

(61) Georgb Grotb. From a reproduction of the portrait by Slewartson 
(1814), now in possession of Mr John Murray . . . fming f. ^ifi 

{6t) Medallion of the American School of Classical Studies at 
Athens (igSi); Panathenaic Vase, with olive-wreath and inscription, irofi- 
Birau 01Xat ^M, Aesch. Eum. looa. Reproduced from the original block, 
lent by Prof. J. R. Wheeler, New York, Chairman of the Managing Com- 
mittee of the School 470 




Ckrmalagica/ Tahli, 1700 — iSoO A.D. . xiv 

CHAPTER XXVI. Germany in the Eighteenth Century, (i) Leibnitz. 

J. A. Fabiicius, Bergkr. C. G. Schwan, Heinecke, Hederich, Walch, 

Funck, Heumann. Heusinger, Kortte. J. M. Gesner, Damm. Scheller, J. G. 

Schneider. Ernesli. Reiske. Reii 1 — tg 

CHAPTER XXvn. (ii) J. F. Christ, Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, 
Wieland, Heinse, Heyne, Eckbel, Rasche. Schiilz . . 10 — 46 


Chronological TabUs, 1800— 1900 A.D. . 48—49 

CHAPTER XXVIII. F. A. Wolf and his contemporaries, Voss, Ilgen, 

Jacobs, Doring, RosE, E. F, Wilslemann, Creuzer, W. A. Becker, W. von 

Humboldt, Goethe and Schiller. A. W. and F. von Schl^el. SUvem. 

Rotscher, Bbliiger, Sillig, A. Malthiae. Heeren, Niebuhr, Spalding, 

Schleiermacher, Heindorf, Buttmann.Bekker . . - 47—8; 

CHAPTER XXIX. Hermann and Boeekh . . . 88—101 

CHAPTER XXX. Grammarians and Textual Critics, from I-obeck to 

Ritschl. Lobeck, Spitiner, G. W. Nitzsch, NageUUch, Spohn, Lehrs. 

Seidler, Reisig, Wunder, Pflugk, Naeke, Heinrich, Thiersch, Ast, DoederLein, 

Dissen, Passow, Wellauer, Goltling, Hand, Nipperdey, Meineke. Kri^er, 

Kuhner, and Ahrens. Schneidesvin and von Leutsch. Bemhardy, Teuffel, 

Nicolai. Meislethans, K. L. Schneider, K. G. Zumpt. J. F. Jacob, Forbiger. 

Lachmann, Kochly, Haupt. F. Haase. Ritschl, Fteckeisen, Studeniund, 

Corssen, W. Wagner, Brix, Lorenz and O. Seyffert . . 101 — 143 

CHAPTER XXXI. Editors of Greek Classics. ( Virse etc.), K. W. and 

L. Dindorf, Harlung, Bergk. A. Scholl. Buchholz. Nauck. Tycho Monim- 

sen, LUbbert, Mezger, M. Schmidt, and W. Christ. Obeidick, Kaibel and 

Prinz. Velsen, Kocit, and MUUer-Strllbing. Ziegler, Ahrens and A. T. H. 

Frilzsche. O.Schneider. Weslphal and Rossbach; J. H. H. Schmidt, von 

■^'"' h. i., ii,l^.OO^IC 


(fl-Dje), Dahlmann. Poppo and Classen, K. SchenkI, Bieitenbach and 
Hug. Stallbanm ; Orelli, Bailer and A. W. Windtelmann ; K. F. IlennaDn, 
Cron, and Deuschle. Westennann, Sauppe, MaeUner, K. C. Schiller, 
Scheibe, Bremi, Rauchenstein, Frohbei^er, Schomann, Meier, Benseler, 
Voemel, Pankhaenel, E. W, Weber, Rehdanti, Franke, Schulu, Arnold 
Schaefer, Bohnecke, F. G. Kiessling, and F. Blass. Brandts, Zeller, Riller 
and Preller, Tiendelenbui^, Biese, Schw^ler, Wailz, Bonitz, Bemays, Teich- 
■nuller, Spengel, Prantl, Susemihl, Onclten, Torstrik, Heitz, Rose, and 
Ueberweg. Walz and Schubart. Volkmann. Usenei. Hultsch. Lehmann, 
Jacobitz, F. V. Frilzsche, Sommerbrodt. Hercher. Rohde. Kuhn. Dielz, 
and J. L. Ideler . . 144—187 

CHAPTER XXXII. Editors of Latin Classics. {C^rsf), Ribbeck, 
Lucian Mliller. Baehrens. Umpfenbacii. Ililler, P. Wagner, l.adewig, 
and Gossrao. Keller and Holder, Meineke, Lehrs. Merkel. Editors of 
Valerius Flaccus, Lucan, Statius, Persius, Juvenal, Martial, and Claudian. 
Bocking, Peiper. Traube. {Pruse), R. Kloli, Nobbe, Halm, Theodor 
Mommsen, R. Scholl, Mendelssohn, Hertz. Jordan. Eyssenliardt. Nip- 
perdey, Kraner, Doberenz. Alschefski, Kreyssig, Weissenbom, Klllinasl. 
Ritter, Draget, Hetaeus, Schweizei-Sidler. K. L. Uilichs. Keil. Geoi^es, 
Paucker, Ronsch 18S — 104 

CHAPTER XXXIII. Comparative Philologists. Bopp, Benfey, Leo 
Meyer, Georg Curtius, Steinlhal, Schleicher. The New Grammarians. Fick. 
Ludwig Lange. Benaiy, Corssen 105 — ill 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Archaeologists:— K.O. Milller,Welcker, Gerhard, 
Panofka, Biaun, Otto John, Brunn, Helbig, Kohler. Wieseler, Stephani. 
Architects: — Schinkel, von Klenze, Semper, Boetticher, Strack, Bohn. 
Schliemann. Stark, Friederichs, Overbeck. Bursian. Benndorf, Malz. 

Get^raphers : — Forcbhammer, H. Ulricbs, Kiepert. Historians etc. of 
Gre^e-.—ErnU Curtius, Curt Wachsmuth. (G. Hirschfeld and Karl Humann.) 
Duncker, Droysen, Hertzberg, Holm. Willielm Wachsmuth, Philippi, 
Gilbert. Historians, etc. of j?i"HC ; — Schwegler, Karl Peler, Drumann, 
Hoeck, Ihne, Theodor Mommsen. Hilbner. Gregorovius. Mytholt^ists, 
etc.: — Preller, Kuhn, Mannhardt 113 — 140 

CHAPTER XXXV. Italy in the Nineteenth Century. Mai and Feyron. 
Vallauri. Pezzi and Ascoli. Bonghi. De-Vit, Corradini, Gandino. Com- 
paretti. Archaeologists : — Canina, Borghesi, Cavedoni, Avellino, Garrucci, 
Fabretti, the Duca di Serradifaico, Cavallari, Fiorelli. Bruzza and De Rossi. 
Spain and Portugal 141 — 147 

CHAPTER XXXVl. France m the Nineteenth Century. Gail, Chardon 
de la Rocheite, Boissonade, Courier, J. L. Barnouf, Cousin, Patin. Qui- 
cherat, Alexandre, Littr^. Disir£ and Charles Nisard, Eqimanuel Milter, 



Gustav d'Eichthal, E^jer. Martin, Tannery. Daremberg, Thurot. Tour- 
nier, Weil, Couat, Benoist, Riemann, Giaux. Barthelemy Sainl-Hilaire. 
C. Waddington. 

Geographers and Hislorians ; — Baron Walckenaer, Desjardbs, Tissot, 
Renier, M^rimee, A. Thierry, De Presle, De Coulajiges, Arehaeologials : — 
Millin, Quatrem^re de Quincy, Comte de Clarac, Raoul Rochette, Letroane, 
Le Bas, Texiei, Due de Luynes, Charles and Franijsiis Lenormanl, Long- 
perier, BeuW, Laborde. The School of Athens. W. H. Waddington, Mion- 
net, Cohen, and de Saulcy. Rayet. Villemain, Wallon, Duruy. K. B. 
Hiae and Diibner. Cougny. Didot. Victor Henry. Betant . 348—173 

CHAPTER XXXVII. The Netherlands in the Nineteenth Century, 
(i) Holland. Pupils of Wyttenbach :— Mahne, D. J. van Lennep, and P. W. 
van Heusde. Peerlkamp and Hoeufit. Bake, Rinkes and Suringar. Geel. 
Reuvens and Janssen. Limbourg-Brouwer. Karsten and Francken. Boot. 
Cobet. Pluygers. Naber, Halbertsma, and Du Rieu. Cornelissen. Van 
der Vliet. Dutch ui 

(ii) Belgium. Belgian universities. Baion de Witte. Ghent :— Ronlez, 
Gantrelle and Wagener. Liege :— Roersch ; Fuss. Louvain :— G. J. Bekker, 
Baguet, Nive, Thonissen, Wiltems 191 — 309 

CHAPTER XXXVilL Scandinavia. Denmark :— university of Copen- 
hagen, Sivcnttcnth Century; — Bang, Laurembei^, Oluf Boich. Eightemth 
Century ;— Gram, Falster, Jacob and Torkil Baden, Nyerup, Schow, MUnler. 
NineteeiUh Century;— Thorlacius, Bloch, Krarup. Iceland: — Magniisson and 
Amessen. Archaeologists : — Zoega, Brondsted, F. C- Petersen, Kelleiniann. 
Madvig. Henrichsen, Eiberling, Bojesen, Wesenberg, Tregder, Lund. Ussing. 
Hutzhom. Compaiative Philologists ; — Rask and Vemer . . 310—330 
Norway: — university of Chrisliania. Sophus Bugge . . 330 — 331 
Sweden : — Fifteinlh Century, Conrad Ro^e. Sixteinth Century : — Johan- 
nes and Glaus Magni. Upsala, Dorpat and Abo. Greek in Sweden ; — Gustaf 
Trolle, Laurentiua Andreae, Olaus and I-aurentius Petri, Laurentius Petri Go- 
thus, Glaus Martini, Jacob Erik ; SeuiaitetUh Century ;— J. Rudbeck, Stalenus, 
Ansius. Latb Verse ; — Sixlcmlh Century :— Henricus MoUerus (Hessus), 
Lanrentius Petri Gothus; Seventeenth Century, Fomelius. Buraeus and Stiern- 
hielm. Loccenius. Queen Christina's patronage of learning: — Grotius, 
Isaac Vossius, N. Heinsius ; Descartes and Salmasius ; Marcus Meibom and 
Naude ; Bochart and Hue! ; Conring, Comenius, Freinsheim, Boekler, 
Schefler; Spanheim. University of Lund; the Collegium Antiquilatum. 
Verelius, Figrelius, Johan Columbus, Lageriof, Upmaik, Nornnan, Sparwen- 
feldl ; Eighteenth Century, Benzelius. Historians of Greek in Sweden. Flo- 
deras. Lund ; — Norberg, Lundblad ; NiTulecnth Century, Lindfors, Tegner, 
Linder, Walberg and Cavallin. Upsala; — Spongbeig, Aulin, Lofstedt, 
Knos ; Kolmodin, Torneros, Peteisson, Ha^sltom, Prigell, Lagergren, Sand- 
Strom. Upsala under Oscar II. The Tidshyift for Fitologi, and the Nordiska 

fildogmSten 33S— 3S» 



CHAPTER XXXIX. (i) Greece -.—Sixtantk and Srvenleenth Centuries. 
Greek Scholars from Crete, the Ionian Islands, and Chios ; Greeks in 
England. State of learning in Greece. Schools of Constantinople, Tripolilza, 
loinnina, Athos, Mesolonghi, Dimitzana ; Patmos, Chios and Smyrna ; 
Trebizond and Sinope ; Bucharest and lassi. The Phanariols, Alexandros 
and Nicolas Mavrocordatos. Eightitnlh and Ninttecnth Centuries ; — Eugenics 
Bulgaiis. Koraes. Kodrikas. Kumas. Photiades. Dukas, Bardalachos, 
Georgios Gennadios and his pupils. The Ionian Islands and the university of 
Corfu ; Asopios, Phijelas, Pikkolos ; Musloxydes ; Oeconomides ; Thereianos. 
The university of Athens; Ross and UlHch ; Latin scholarship { works on 
Homer, Sophocles and Euripides :—Semilelos and Papageorgios ; on Iso- 
ctates etc.: — Kypiianos; Plutarch's Moralia: — G. N. Betnardakes; the 
Greek Gianimar of D. Bernardakes : the Greek History of Paparrigopulos ; 
the Greek Lexicon of Constantinides. Translations by A. R. Rangabes. 
Ancient Greek verse imitated by Levkias and Philippos loannu. The con- 
troversies on language, and on pronunciation. Greek MSS at Constantinople, 
Cyprus, Jerusalem, Patmos, Megaspelaion, Athens, Athos. Minoides Menas 
and Conslantine Simonides. 

Archaeolt^ls ; — Pittakes, A. R. Rangabes, Kumanudes. Constantinople 
and Smyrna 353 — 384 

(ii) Russia : — Sevenlienth Centuiy, ecclesiastical Academy of Kiev, and 
Graeco-Latin Academy of Moscow. Universities of Moscow {1755), Kiev 
{1833), St Petersbu^ ('8.'9'. Kazan (1804), Odessa (1865), and Kharkov 
(1804). Dorpat (1631); Abo (1640), and Helsingfors (i8ij). Germans in 
Russia. Atchaeoli^ts 384 — 390 

{iii) Hungary: — Tilfy and Abel 390 — 391 

CHAPTER XL. England in the Nineteenth Century. Roulh ; Mallby 
and Kidd ; Elmsley and Gaisfoid. 

Greek scholars of Cambridge :— Samuel Butler ; Dobree, Monk, C. J. and 
E. V. Blomfield, E. H. Barker, the Valpys, Burges, Scholefield, B. H. and 
C. R. Kennedy, T. W. Peile, Chr. Wordsworth, Blakesley, Lushinglon, 
Shilleto, Thompson, Badham, Cope, Donaldson, Paley, T. S. Evans, W. G. 
Clark, Babington, H. A. Holden, Holmes, Jebb, Shuckbui^h. Warr, Neil, 
Adam and Strachan. Greek scholars of Oxford ;— Liddell and Scotl, Jowett, 
George Rawlinson, Greenhill. (Comparative Philolt^sts; — Max MuUer and 
Cowell.) Chandler, Grant, W. E. Jelf ; Eaton and Congreve ; Riddel) ; Lin- 
wood, Conington ; Worsley, Lord Derby, Gladstone, Monro, Simcox, Haigh. 
Greek Scholars in Scotland : — Adams, Dunbar, Sandford, Veitch, Blackie, 
Geddesj Latin Scholar! :—PilIan5, Carson, W. Ramsay. 

Latin Scholars in England : — Cambridge etc. : — Tate, Keighlly, Key, 
Long! W. Smith, Rich; Hildyard, Munro, A. S. Wilkins; Oxford:— 
Conington, Sellar, Fumeaux, Henry Neltleship. Dublin : — Henry, Allen, 

Historians :— Thirl wall, Grole, Mure, Fynes Clinton; Arnold, G. C. 
Lewis, Long, Merivale; M^ne; Freeman; Evelyn Abbott j Pelham. Topo- 


grapheis: — Leake, Cramer, Law, fllis. Archaeolt^sts : — Fellows, Spialt, 
Murdoch Smith, Porcber, Dennis, Lajard, Newton, Penrose, A. Murray, 
Bum, Parker, Middleton. The Hellenic Sodety and the Schools of Athens 
and Rome. Literary Discoveries 393 — 449 

CHAPTER XLI, The United Stales of America. Ov\A'i Mttamorf hosts 
translated in Virginia (iSJS). Early editions of the Classics. Colleges and 
Universities. E. Robinson. Harvard :— Tickoor, Everett, Bancroft, Felton, 
E. A. Sophocles, Beck, Lane, {Brown : — Lincoln, Harkness, Frieze,) 
Greenough, J. H. and W. F. Allen ; F, D. Allen, Minton Warien, Hayley. 
Vale :— Kingsley, Thacher, Tyler, Woolsey, Hadley, Packard, W. D. 
Whitney, Seymour. New York :— Anthon, Drisler, Tayler Lewis, Charlton 
T. Lewis, Merriam, Earle. Classical Periodicals. The Schools at Athens 

and Rome 450 — 470 

Retrospect 471 — 476 

ADDENDA. Zeller, Kirchhoff, Ditlenberger, Von Hartel, Furtwangler, 
Biicheler, Von Schwabe; Boissier, Hauvette; Walter Headlam 477—485 




>. 143 1. II i for Leignitz, read Liegniu. 

1. 167 I. 7 ; for poems of Tbet^is, read Theogonia of Hesiod. 

I. 140 U30; Von Hariel has since died (1907); see Addenda, p. 

). t6s '■ 8; for 1794 — 1860 read 1803 — 1871. 

>. 36S n. 1 I. J ; for Athanasios, read Anaslasios. 


Histoty of Scholarship in the Eighteenth Century. 













J, A. Fabndui 







■^-1743 . 



167— 1744 












































1694— .775 


































1731 'iBio 


1733- 179* 





















1733— 1B13 


J, A. Cpperonnttr 














1747— iBiS 
pBjne Knighi 


















F. A. Wolf 







(i) Fabricius, Gesner, Ernesti, Reiske. 

In the year 1700 the earliest of German Academies was 
founded in Berlin. The intellectual originator of 
that Academy was the many-sided man of genius, 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646 — 1716), whose scholarly tastes 
are represented by his Latin poems', by his speculations on the 
origin of language', and by his prompting the empress Catharine 
of Russia to collect the vocabularies of many nations'. At the 
age of eight, he had taught himself I^tin with the aid of an 
illustrated edition of Livy and the Opus Chrona/ogicum (1605) of 
Calvisius. Before he was twelve, he wrote Latin verses and had 
begun Greek. At Jena, in 1663, he attacked the imitators of the 
harsh and obscure Latinity of Lipsius*, and published a treatise 
in which he proposed to prove the spuriousness of the ' Epistles 
of Phalaris ' on the ground of their being written in the Attic 
dialect and in the style of Lucian'. In 1670 he wrote an essay 
on philosophic style as an introduction to an edition of the Anti- 
barbarus of Nizolius'; and in Paris, three years later, during his 
correspondence with Huet on a proposed edition of Martianus 
Capella, he protested against the contempt for Plato and Aristotle 

' Roenickius, Carmina Lalina Scleetiara (1 ;48), 3 (. 
' Benfey, Gisth. dtr Sfrackwissens^haft, I43 f; Haupt, Ofmc. ni i lis — 
11* (Butsian. i 358 "). 

' Max MuUei's Lectures, i 144 n. 18'. 

* Julian Schmidt, Gesch. da gailigeH Lebins in Dcutschland von Leibnitz 
bis Leisings Torf (1681— 1781), i loi. 

» Hanpt, Ofusc. in i 119. 

* Sorley on Leibniti, in Enc. Brit. ; ii 1 46 n. s supra. 

"^ s. III. I,. i,Mh,Googlc 


expressed by certain students of the natural sciences'. To the 
end of his life he could still recite long passages from Virgil. 

A celebrated theologian of Augsburg, J. J. Brucker {1696 — 
1770), author of the Hisloria Critica Philosopkiue, was elected a 
member of the Berlin Academy in 1731, but, in the first half of 
the century, the interests of classical learning were far less pro- 
moted by the Academy than by masters of German schools, who 
studied the Classics in connexion with the general history of 

Foremost among these was Johann Albert Fabricius (1668 — 
1736), a student in the university of his native town 
of Leipzig, who, from 1699 to 1711, was succes- 
sively an assistant-master and a head-master at Hamburg. He had 
already produced, in the three small volumes of his Biblioiheca 
Latina, a comprehensive biographical and bibliographical work 
on the Latin literature of the classical period (1697)'. He was 
still holding a scholastic appointment, when he began his far 
more extensive Bibliotheca Graeca, a work that, in the course of 
fourteen quarto volumes, traverses the whole range of Greek 
literature down to the fall of Constantinople (1705-28)'. It is 
founded, so far as possible, on a first-hand knowledge of every 
edition quoted, and it has supplied the basis for all subsequent 
histories of Greek Literature. The 350 quarto pages, assigned to 
Homer alone, include indices to all the authors cited in the scholia 
and in Eustathius. The earlier work on Latin litemture was 
subsequendy continued in the five volumes of the Bibliotheea 
Latina mediae et infimae aetaiis (1734)*, while the modern lite- 
rature of Classical Antiquities was surveyed in the Biblioiheca 
Antiquaria (1713-6), and that of Numismatics in a new edition 
of Banduri's Bibliotheca Nummaria (1719). The varied learning 
and indomitable industry displayed in these four and twenty 
volumes may fairly entitle their author to be regarded as the 
modern Didymus. But the list of his published works is not yet 

' Haupl, /. c, HI f ; cp. PaltJson, Essays, \ 378. 

' Finally revised ed. 1711 ; also in two vols, quarto, Venice, 1718 (better 
than Ernesti's ed. of 1773 f), and in six vols. Florence, 1858. 

• Ed. Harless in 11 vols. 1790 — ^1809 (incomplete); index, 1838. 

* Suppl. by Schiittgeii, 1746; also ed. Mansi, Padua, 1754. 

h. i., iiA.OOgIc 


exhausted. He edited Sextus Empiricus, the life of Proclus by 
Marinus, and the commentary of Chalcidius on Plato's Timaetts', 
while his valuable edition of Dion Cassius, including a full com- 
mentary, was completed after his death by his son-in-law and 
biographer, Reimar'. 

Fabricius counted among his coirespondents ihe leading scholars of his age. 
He was assisted in ihe compilation of ihe BibliolAtca Lalina 
by theDanish scholar, Christian Falsler'; and, in that of the 
Bibliotkeia Graeea, by Kilster'. He was also lai^ely aided in the latter by 
Slephan Bergier (^. i6So— c. 1746), who, by his knowledge of Greek, oiighl 
have attained a place among the foremost scholars of his lime, but was reduced 
to the level of a literary hack by an insatiable craving for drink. Early in the 
century he was a corrector of proofs at Leipzig ; in 1 705 he left for Amsterdam, 
where he produced indicts to the edition of Pollux begun by Lederlin and con- 
tinued by Hemsterhuya, and himself completed Lederiin's edition of Homer 
(1707). We next find him helping Fabricius at Hamburg and elsewhere. 
During his second stay at Leipzig, he produced an excellent edition of 
Alciphron (ijrfji his edition of Aristophanes was published after his deatli 
by the younger Burman (1760); his work on Herudotus is represented only by 
some critical notes in the edition of Jacob Gronovius ([7r5); while his Latm 
translation of Herodian was not published until i^Sg. His rendering of a 
modern Greek work on moral obligations' led to his being invited to undertake 
Ihe tuition of the author's sons at Bucharest, a position for which his intemperate 
habits made him peculiarly unfit. However, he was thus enabled to send 
Fabricius a few notes on (he Greek Mss in his palnsn's library. Aflei this he 
disappears from view. On his patron's death in 1730, he is said to have left 
for Constantinople, and to have adopted the religion of Islam. If so, he 
probably ended his days m perfect sobriety". 

Antiquarian and legal lore was the domain of Fabricius' contemporary. 
Christian Gottlieb Schwarz (i6;5— I76r), who by his wide 
and varied learning raised the reputation of the university of 
Altdorf. A large part of that learning lies buried in a vast number of " 
programs, and in the exegetical and critical notes to an edition of the Panc^iic 
of the younger Pliny (174*'}'. 

' Printed wilh the ed. of Hippolytus. 

' H. S. Reimar, Dc VUa d S.riplis J. A. F. Cammmlarias, Hamburg, 
1737; Bureau i 360-1 ; for portrait see /'Von/u/i>« to this volume. 
' Cp. chap, xxxviii init. 

' Nic. Mavrokordatos, xepl rSiv saBiiKSiiTav, 1721. 

' Cp- Burman's Ariiiophams, i 1-14; Reimar, De Vita Fabi-icii, 169 f, 
111 f; Saxe, Onom. vi 78 — 811 Bursian, i 361-4. 
' Bursian, i 371 f- 

1. ii^fooglc 


The study of Roman Law is well represented byJohannGoHlieb Heinecke, 
Hcinecke ^tinttcius (1681 — 174'), professor at Halle, where he pro- 

duced a celebrated -Syn/afaia, which owes its abiding popularity 
to its excellent Latin style'. His own treatise on style was more than once 

An inteUigent knowledge of the subject-maltei of the Classics was promoted 

Hed ri h ^^ '''* '''''''^"* "^ '''^ Saxon schoolmaster, Benjamin Hederich 

(1675— 1748), and especially by his oft.reprinted Lexicon 1^ 

Mythology. His Latin and German Dictionary was long in use, and his Greek 

and Latin Lexicon {1711) attained the honour of a new edition more than 

a century later^. 

Among the numerous elementary editions of the Classics which appeared in 
Wal h ''''* century, a place of honour is due to those produced in 

1711-S by Johann Georg Walch of Meiningen (1693 — 1775). 
the well-known author of the Historia Crilica Laliaae LinguaeK In this work 
he traces (he history of (he language from the earliest times to the Revival of 
Learning, adding a survey of the principal works in each age*. The history of 
Latin was far more minutely treated by Johann Nicolaus Funck, 
or Funccius (1693 — 1777), the author of a series of ten con- 
siderable treatises on the fortunes of the language, the titles of which are taken 
from the successive stages of human lifel The last two remained unpublished. 
Their place is inadequately taken by the work of Jacob Burckhard (1681 — 
1753) on the fortunes of the langu^e in Germany (1713-it)'. 

Among scholars who were natives of Thuringia, mention may here be made 
oF Christoph August Heumann (16S1 — 1764), for many years 
a professor at Giittingen. Besides producing a considerable 
amount of miscellaneous literature on classical subjects, he edited many of the 
speeches of Cicero, and the ' Dialogue on the causes of the corruption of 
eloquence', which he ascribed to Quintilian and not to Tacitus (1719)'- His 
countryman, Johann Michael Heusinger (1690 — 175J), who 
ended his days as head of xht gymnasium at Eisenach, is best 
known as the editor of Cicero, Dt OfficUs, posthumously published in 1783'. 
Latin usage was studied, and Latin MSS diligjently collated, by Gottlieb Kortte, 
KortM CoTtius (1698—1731), who in his short life distinguished him- 

self as an able editor of Sallust (1714). His edition of the 
Letters of the younger Pliny was completed and publislied by his pupil, Paul 

' Afitiquitatum Ramanorum jurispntdetitiam illuslratUium Synlagma 
steundum ordintm instilulionum Juitiniani digistam (1719); republished in 

* Ed. Gesner, 1748, and Niclas, r766. Cp. Bursian, i 371 f. 

* Bursian, i 374. * [716; ed. 3, 1761. 
° Bursian, i 377 f. 

' Dt origint, pmritia, adoUscentia, etc. Latitat linguat (1710-50). 
' Bursian, i 380-3. ' Bursian, i 393-6. 

' Bursian, i 396 f. 



Daniel Longolius (1744), while his work on Lncan was first given to the world 

byK. F.Weber (i8»8)'. 

One of the greatest scholars in the eighteenth century was 
Johann Matthias Gesner (1691 — 1761), who, by 
his published works and by his influence as a 
teacher, did much towards raising the standard of classical 
studies in Northern and Central Germany. He was still a 
Student at Jena, when he produced a striking treatise on the 
Philopatris ascribed to Lucian, as well as a work on Education 
giving proof of wide knowledge and remarkable maturity of 
judgement'. For the next twenty years he was a school-master 
at Weimar, Ansbach, and Leipzig, where the Thomas-Schuk 
flourished under his sway. In 1734 he was called to the uni- 
versity of Gottingen, then in course of being founded by 
Geoi^e II; and, for the remaining twenty-seven years of his 
life, he there remained as professor of Poetry and Oratory, as 
head of the classical and educational Seminar, as university 
librarian, as chief inspector of the schools of the Hanoverian 
kingdom, and as an active member of the Academy founded 
in 1751 as the second of the learned societies of Germany". 

As a Greek schobr, he contributed an admirable I.^tin trans- 
lation, and many excellent notes and emendations, to the great 
edition of Lucian, which bears the names of Hemsterhuys and 
Reitz (1743 f); and towards the end of his life he was engaged on 
an edition of the 'Orphic' poems (1764)*. As a head-master at 
Leipzig, he published a Chrtstomaihia Graeca {1731), which pro- 
moted the introduction of the best Greek Classics into the schools 
of Germany. In the province of Latin literature, he did similar 
service by his selections from Cicero and the elder Pliny, and by 
an important preface on the proper method of reading classical 
authors, originally prefixed to an edition of Livy (1735)°. In the 
same year he edited the Scriptores Rei RuUicae, which were soon 
followed by the Tnstitutio Oratoria of Quintilian, and the Letters 

■ Baisian, i 397 f. 

* InstilnlioHes rti schotastUat, 1715. Cp. Paulsen, ii 16^ n. 

* Socittai Rtgia Scientiarum Gctlingtnsis. 

* Posthumously published at the above date. 

* Ofttscula Minora, vii 189 f. 


and Panegyric of the younger Pliny, and ultimately by Horace, and 
Claudian (1759). In the preface to the latter he candidly states 
that his aim had been, not to make a display of learning, but 
simply to explain his author; that he had frankly noticed any- 
thing he had failed to understand; and that, with a view to forming 
the students' taste, he had drawn attention, not only to passages 
that were beautiful and poetical, but also to those that were at 
variance with nature and the best literary models. It will thus 
be seen that Gesner anticipated Heyne in introducing the prin- 
ciples of taste into the interpretation of the Classics'. In all 
these works the textual criticism is inadequate, but the explanatory 
notes are models of their kind. All, except the Horace (founded 
on Baxter's edition), are equipped with excellent indices. The 
whole range of classical Latin literature is traversed in the four 
folio volumes of his greatest work, the Novus Linguae el Erudi- 
ttortis Romanae Thesaurus (1749). 

He had already produced, in 1726-35, his two revisions of the TAaaums 
of Faber (ij/i), Ibe besl edition of which appeared in the same year as his 
own Thesaurus. Gesner's work, which was founded on Faber, and on the 
recent London reprint of the Thesaurus of Robert Stephanus, was the resnlt of 
ten years of strenuous labour. We here find a tnarked iniprovemenC in the 
correction of many errors; words and names unconnected with classical Latin 
are removed; phraseology is treated more fully than before; and difficult 
passages are explained. On the other hand, less is done for the writers of 
prose than for the poels, and there is a certain unevenness in the execution, 
while the historical developemeni of the use of individual words and phrases is 
n^lected. Nevertheless, it marks the most important advance in Latin 
lexicogrB|ihy since the time of Stephanus'. 

While Gesner breaks new ground in many of his works, he 
represents the traditions of the typical Polykistor of the seven- 
teenth century in the outlines of an encyclopaedia of philology, 
history, and philosophy, which he produced as the syllabus of a 
course of lectures given at the request of the authorities of the 

■ J. Schmidt, i 480. 

' Cp. J. E. B. Mayor in/™™a/o/a.a«^5fl,«rf/»j7o/a^,ii 179 (.855), 
' By rejection of encyclopaedic articles and of barbarisms, by many insertions, 
and particularly by interpretations of veiled passages, (Gesner's Tkesaarus) 
did very much towards simplifying and enlarging the science: indeed for 
fulness, neat arrangement, and exactness without pedantic minuteness of 
explanation, il has strong claims to be regarded as the best that has appeared '■ 



university of G6ttingen. These lectures, which consisted of 
observations on almost all the 1543 items of the syllabus, were 
afterwards published by one of his pupils'. 

Gesner was one of the foremost leaders of the movement 
known as the New Humanism. 1'he Old Humanism had aimed 
at the verbal imitation of the style of the Latin Classics, and at 
the artificial prolongation of the modem life of the ancient Latin 
literature. This aim was gradually found to be impracticable, 
and, about 1650, it was abandoned. I^tin was still taught in 
schools ; it also survived as the medium of university instruction 
and as the language of the learned world. But the ancient litera- 
ture came to be considered as a superfluity ; neglected at school, it 
was regarded simply as a waste and barren field, where the learned 
might burrow in quest of the facts required for building up the 
fabric of an encyclopaedic erudition. Such was practically the 
view of the School of Halle. 

The School of Gottingen, as represented by Gesner, found 
a new use for the old literature. The study of that literature was 
soon attended with a fresh interest. Thenceforth, in learning 
Greek (as well as Latin) the aim was not to imitate the style, 
but to assimilate the substance, to form the mind and to cultivate 
the taste, and to lead up to the production of a modem literature 
that was not to be a mere echo of a bygone age, but was to have 
a voice of its own whether in philosophy, or in learning, or in art 
and poetry. The age of Winckelmann, Lessing and Goethe, was 
approaching, and Gesner was its prophet and precursor'. 

Latin, in Gesner's view, should be learnt, not by commiuing lo memory 
the rules of Grammar that make the language hateful to the learner, but, in 
the first place, by reading a Latin rendering of the New Testament. It was 
also lo be learnt by practice. The master should converse with his pupils in 
Latin, ringing the changes on the shortest and simplest phrases ; and ihe pupil 
should be encouraged lo speak Latin, even if he made mistakes at lirst. 
Gesnec frankly records his earliest attempt, when, on meeting his master in 
the street after sunset, he gaily accosted him with the ungrammatical sentence : 
— Domiae fraectptor, prttor It bona hox*. At a later stage he recommends 

' Primac Lineae /sagega in Erudilionem Unhieriahm, ed. J. N. Niclas, 

' Cp. Paulsen (ed. 1896-7), ii i5> '■ 



the cursory reading of lai^e masses of ihe best Latin with a view to the 
appreciation of (he Latin Classics as litenttDte'. 

As a school-master at Leipzig, Gesner abolished the use of 
the old Latin compendium^ and introduced the Latin Classics in 
its place, carrying his pupils in a, few months through the whole 
of Terence, and insisting on the literary and educational value 
of the continuous study of a single author. For a quarter of 
a century, in his Seminar at Gottingen, he was constantly training 
a chosen band of the future preceptors of Germany, his aim being 
to produce intelligent teachers rather than erudite scholars. He 
set a high value on the study of Greek literature: — Latin itself 
{he held) could not be thoroughly understood without Greek, 
Boys at school (he added) should not be allowed to give up 
Greek. After learning the elements of the Grammar, they should 
go on to easy reading, such as Aesop, Lucian and the Greek 
Testament, and afterwards take up Homer. When he lectured 
on Homer (in and after 1739) he always had a good class*. 

' The interest in Hotner i9 a note of Ihe New Humanism. Thus far the 
Odyssty and Ihe Iliad had only once been rendered in German, in 1537 and 
1610 respectively. But the middle of the eighteenth century was marked by 
two translaiioRs of the early books of the Iliad, followed in 1754 by the 
illustrated translation that was Goelhe's iirst introduction to Homer. The 
text was edited by Emesti in 1759-64. This was foUoned by live new 
translations, culminating in that completed by Voss in 1793, which was 
immediately succeeded by the edition of Wolf, with its memorable ProlegBmma 
(1794-5). and by the edition of Heyne (1801 f)'. 

Gesner's life and works are well portrayed in Latin prose by 
Ernesti, his successor as the head of the school in Leipzig*. He 
assures us that the Cambridge scholar, Dr Askew, on coming to 
Leipzig, said of Gesner, whom he had just left at Gottingen, taletn 
virum nunquam vidi^. The bi<^rapher also notices Gesner's 
learning and his social gifts, his refinement and courtesy, his 
services as an educational reformer, his disapproval of 'conjectures' 

' Preface to Livy, 

* IsagBgc% IS4, p. i;i. 
' Paulsen, ii 7' f, 

* Narratii> Ruhnkcnium in Opincula Ora/oria, 307 — 541, reprinted in 
Biogr. acad. Golting. i 309 f. 

" Opusi. Or. p. 308. 



in his useful editions of the Greek and Latin Classics', his merits 
as a Latin lexicographer, his interest in Oriental and European 
languages', and his skill in literary portraiture. He adds that the 
satirical touch was the only flaw in the excellent portrait of 
Gesner, which forms the frontispiece of the Latin TA^saurus'. 

In connexion with Gesner we may here notice some of the 
other lexicographers of the same century. Christian 
Tobias Damm (r6g9— r778), the head of the 
oldest gymnasium of Berlin, besides producing a work on the 
elements of Greek and an annotated edition of the Battle of the 
Frogs and Mice {ii%2-^, made his mark, thirty years later, with 
his great lexicon to Homer and Pindar', In the same year he 
translated into German the text of the Gospel according to St 
John, and, in the following year, was required, on theological 
grounds, to resign his head-mastership. But he remained true to 
his two favourite Greek authors. His prose translation of both 
was completed in 1771. In his translation of Homer he un- 
happily endeavoured to represent the simplicity of a primitive age 
by constantly resorting to the language of the lower classes, but 
his renderings served to make both poets better known among 
the German people. In his work in general he was prompted by 
a conviction that the Greek language and literature were superior 
to the Latin. He held that the imitation of Greek models was 
necessary to raise the level of German culture, and, in the 
increasing interest in Greek literature, he saw the sign of a new 
Renaissance'. A very few years later, the ' imitation of Greek 

' P- 331- Canjecturas ingeniesas laudaial magis quam firabaial ; cl nihil 
magis qvant dutett ilia! ingenii illaibras injudieanda cavenduin monebat. 

* P' 3'Si ""' '''<' admirabatur vtlim, ut cimttmttirrt netntiores. 

' p. 341. Other bit^iaphical notices by J. D. MichaeJis in Biagr. acad. 
Gotting. i ■m—iid, and by Niclaa, ib. Hi 1—180, 187—496. Cp. Gesnet's 
Epp. (1768 f), Sfluppe'a Vorirag (1856) and ' Gbctjngen Proressoren' in Got- 
tingen Abhandl. ([871) p. jg f ; Julian Schmidt, i 475 — 481; and Eckstein's 
Ride (1869); Jahn, Pepuldre Aufidtze, 15; also Bursian, i 387—393, and 
Paulsen, ii rs- 18', 

* 1765; ed. 1, 1774. The arrangement is etymological, all the words being 
placed nnder 300 roots. Its contents were republished in alphabetical order 
by J. M. Duncan {i8it), whose edition was improved by V. C. F. Rost 

' ' Videor jam saeculum renascentis apud nos Giaecitatis cemere animo : 


models ' in the world of Art was to be the theme of the earliest 
work of his most famous pupil, Winckelmann, who was an 
enthusiastic student of Homer. Winckelmann was under his 
tuition for a single year (1735-6), the year of the publication of 
the edition of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice, but the master's 
appreciation of Homer did not prevent the pupil from placing 
him in the class of pedants'. Damm appears in fact to have 
taken more interest in the vocabulary than in the poetry of 
Homer. That poetry was better appreciated by Moses Men- 
delssohn, who, with Friedrich Nicolai, resorted to him for instruc 
tion in the language that was now exciting a new interest in 
Germany. Nicolai complains that the master's delivery was 
monotonous, but adds that he had an admiration for exceptionally 
euphonious lines, and even smacked his lips over the finely 
sounding phrase xoXu^XoiV^oio SnXoirinjs'. His interest was not 
confined to Greek literature. He produced an edition of Nama- 
tianus, translated the Panegyric of Pliny, with two of the Speeches 
and all the letters of Cicero. His small hand-book of Greek and 
Roman Mytholc^ long remained a standard work'. 

As a Latin lexicographer, Gesner had in the next generation 
a worthy successor in Immanuel Johann Gerhard 
Scheller (1735 — -1803), successively Rector of the 
school at Lubben, S.E. of Berlin, and of that at Brieg, S.E. of 
Breslau. His Latin-German Dictionary' was founded on an 
independent study of the authors, and on a careful and intelligent 
use of the best commentaries and lexicons. It was enlarged and 
improved in two later editions, and subsequently abridged by the 
lexicographer himself, who added a German-Latin Dictionary in 
1792. He has been chained with borrowing from Forcellini 
(1771) without mentioning his name". It is also alleged that 

i1 lustres viri, imoet roeminae, ailamate incipiunthas lileras et in pre tio habere', 
Programm of 1752 (Justi's IVinckelmann, i 34 n). 
' 'praecep'orcsdfKiiniout ' ijusli, i 34). 

• J-l, i Jd. 

' Buisian, i 385-7; cp. Justi's fVincielmann, i 30 — 36. 

* Attsfuhrticha u. mSglichsl voUitatidig/s latiitiisih-deutsehes Lexicon oiltr 
Worlerbuih zunt Behu/e dcr Erilarung der Alien a. Uehtug in der laiein- 
ischen Sprache, i vols. 1783; ed. i, in 3 vols. 1788; ed. 3, in 5 vols. 1804-5. 

s ' Censor Germanus ', quoted in Fumaletlo'a ed. of Forcellini. 




' if he studies a more scientific arrangement, if he displays con- 
siderable reading, and if he has not neglected new discoveries in 
criticism, his arrangement is still defective, his criticism is un- 
critical, and his reading mainly limited to Caesar, Cicero, and 
other classical authors' '. But his independence has been amply 
vindicated, and his appreciation of the importance of the authors 
of the Silver Age and his other merits have been fully set forth by 
Professor Mayor'. 

Scheller's counterpart among Greek Lexicographers is Johann 
Gottlob Schneider (1750 — 1822), who was born in 
Saxony, and died as professor and university libra- 
rian at Breslau. His Greek lexicon' marked a great advance on 
the manuals of Schrevelius, Hederich and others, in fulness of 
material, and in critical skill and method. It was also the first 
comprehensive and independent work that had appeared in this 
department since the lexicon of H. Stephanus (1572)'. Schneider 
did much in the way of collecting and explaining technical and 
scientific terms. His knowledge of natural science, in combina- 
tion with classical literature, is exemplified in \\ls Ec/ogae Physicae, 
and in his editions of the zoological works of Aelian and Aristotle. 
He also edited the Politics and the second hook of the Oeconomics, 
and the whole of Theophrastus, Nicander, and Oppian, as well as 
the Scriptores RH Rusticae, and Vitruvius. 

Gesner's efforts as an educational reformer were ably seconded 
by Johann August Ernesti (1707 — 1781). Born ii 
Thuringia and educated at Schulpforta', and at 

' Olto on Lai. Ltxicpgraphii in Allg. Monalschrifl, Braunschweig, iSjJ, 
p. 990 IT. 

* Journal of CI. and Sacrid Philelogy, ii 183—190 (1855).— Scheller also 
produced in two volumes the Praeetpta stili htiir Latini (1779), a longer and a 
shorter Latin Grammar (1779 f and 1780 r)i >" Introduction to the exposition 
of the Latin Classics and to the proper imitation of Cicero (1770), with 
Oliservations on Cicero and the first six books of Livy (1785). Cp. Bursian, 
i 507-9- 

' Kriliitkts grieckhchis WSrterbuck, in Iwo vols. 1797 f; ed. i, 1805-6; 
ed. 3, 1819-, Sappl. 18] [; abridged by F. W. Riemer, 1801-4. 

* It has supplied the basis for the lexicons of Passow (1819-J4 etc.), and 
Passow's for that of Rost and Palm (1841-57) and that of Liddell and Scott 
(.843 etc.). 

' Far in advance of his fellow-pupils in a knowledge of Greek, he was 

J. A, 1 


Wittenberg and Leipzig, he lived at the last of those seats of 
learning for half a century. He was for three years the colleague, 
and, for a quarter of a century, the successor of Gesner as head of 
the great local school. For the last seventeen of those years he 
was also professor of Eloquence in the university, and, on resign- 
ing both of those positions, in 1759, became professor of Theology 
for the last twenty-two years of his life. His reputation as a 
scholar depends mainly on the edition of the whole of Cicero, 
completed in six volumes in 1739, and supplemented in its third 

already reading to himself in class the last book of Herodian, while the master 
was slowly expounding the first. Cp. Opuicula Oraloria, 3 1 1 f. 

J. A. Ernesti. 

Vir clarhjimus, /aculi huius Cicero, qui tt docendo et firihetide rebus 
tSuinis huntatiisqut plurimum luminis attuHt. 

Prom an engraving by J. Ellas Haid (Augsburg, 1776) of a portrait 
by Anton Graff. 



edition by historical intioductions and critical notes (1777). The 
most permanently valuable part of the original work is the Clavts 
Ciceroniana', an excellent dictionary of Cicero's vocabulary and 
phraseology, tc^ether with a conspectus of the Roman laws men- 
tioned in the orator's pages. The explanatory and critical notes 
are kept within reasonable limits, and the choice between con- 
flicting readings is generally determined by a fine taste for Cicero- 
nian usage. But the standard of Cicero's style was injudiciously 
applied in his editions of Suetonius (1748) and Tacitus (i753)> 
He was still a school-master, when he edited the MemoradHia of 
Xenophon and the Clouds of Aristophanes. On resigning that 
position he produced an edition of Homer (1759-64}, founded on 
that of Samuel Clarke; he also edited Callimachus (1761), and 
(in 1764) re-edited Casaubon's Polybius. The orations and dis- 
sertations collected in his Opusatla', as well as the prefaces to 
his Latin texts, are written in an excellent style, and the same is 
true of the small encyclopaedic text- book of Mathematics, Philo- 
sophy and Rhetoric, the Initia Doctrinae Solidioris. 

Superficial as a writer, but intelligent as an expositor, Emesti 
has long been over-rated. Even his explanatory notes are meagre. 
What the Dutch commentators had carried to the excess of an 
inordinate prolixity, he carried to the opposite extreme. His 
pious horror of conjectural criticism did not prevent him, as an 
editor of Cicero, from accepting his own guesses, while he 
rejected the emendations proposed by his predecessors. But he 
deserves the credit of having contributed much towards the wider 
diffusion of classical education in Germany'. 

or (he three other scholars, who bear the same name, the best known is his 
favourite nephew, Johann Christian Gottlieb Ernesli (i7s6 — rSoi), who was 
profeawr of Eloquence in Leipzig for the twenty years that succeeded his 
uncle's death, and produced, among other works, a ' lechiiological lexicon' lo 

' Ed. Rein, 1831, 

' Opusisda Oratoria (1761) and Opuscula Phili>li>gica (1764), both published 
at Leyden; also a Nbvum Valwaen of the former (1791)1 ^"^ Opusc. Varii 
Argumenti (1794), both published at Leipzig. 

* Urlichs, 105'. Cp. Bursian, I 400— 404. Emesti's opinions on classical 
education may be studied in his rectorial speeches (in the Opmcula Varii Arg.), 
especially those of 1736 and 1738, and also in his official scheme for the schools 
of Saxony, 1773 (ably analysed by Paulsen, ii 19 — 31'). 




Greek and Latin rheloric (1795-7)- An elder nephew, August Wilhelm 
(1733 — 1801), the son of an elder brother, edited Livy in 1769 etc. For other 
pupils of Ernesti the briefest mention must suffice. Among these are Johann 
Tobias Krebs (1718-85), Rector of Grimma, and editor of Hesiod (1746); 
J. F. Fischer (1716-99), who, for the last thirty-two years of his life, was one 
of Emesti's successors as head-master in Leipzig, and, besides producing 
several volumes of Animadversions on Weller's 'Greek Grammar', edited 
Anacreon and Palaephatus, and many dialc^ues of Flato, white he published 
no lesG than fourteen dissertations on the Cralylus; and lastly, K. L. Bauer 
{1730-90), who completed Goltleber's edition of Tbucydides and produced a 
German-Latin Dictionarjr. All of them have been characterised as 'learned 
and industrious and dull scholars'". Besides these there was C. A. Klotz 
(i;38-7i), professor in Gottingen and Halle, best known for his controversies 
with Burman and Lessing', and S. F. N. Moras (1736-93), professor in 
Leipzig, and editor of Isocrates' Panegyruus, 'Longlnus', and Xenopbon's 
Cyrepaedcia, Anahash and Htllenica. A pupil of Moms. C. D. Beck (1757 — 
1S31), joined him id an extensive edition of Mu^rave's Enrifida ( 1 778-88), to 
which he contributed an excellent Index Vrrhorum. His numerous editions 
include a diffuse Commentary on Demosthenes, De Paa 11799). ^^ '1*° 
wrote De Philologia Satculi Plelcmaairvm (1818), and reviewed the progress 
of philol'^cal and historical studies during the fifty years ending in iSjq*. 

When Gesner died at Gottingen in 1761, his vacant Chair 
was offered first to Emesti, who, twenty-seven years before, had 
succeeded Gesner as a head-master in Leipzig. Ernesti declined 
the offer and suggested the name of Ruhnken, who, eighteen 
years previously, had been advised by Emesti to learn Greek, not 
at Gottingen under Gesner, but at Leyden under Hemsterhuys. 
Ruhnken also declined, and suggested Ernesti's former pupil, 
Heyne, whose distinguished career at Gottingen will be noticed 
in the sequel*. Ernesti appears to have deliberately ignored the 
claims of Reiske, who had been living for the last fifteen years in 
Leipzig and had already given proof of being among the foremost 
Greek scholars of the day. 

Johann Jacob Reiske (1716 — 1774), who had been well 
grounded in Latin at Halle, entered the university 
of Leipzig in 1732. He attended no lectures what- 
soever ; indeed, on Greek, there were none to attend. He worked 

' Uriichs, 105°. 

> Harless, VUae Philol. i 168-iri; p. liiinfra. 

" Cp. BuTsian, i 417 — 416. 

* p. 36 infra. 



by himself at a few Greek authors, but found Demosthenes and 
Theocritus too ditlicult at that stage of his reading. He also 
studied Arabic until 1738, when, notwithstanding his poverty, he 
left for I^eyden to attend the lectures of Schultens, whom he 
ultimately surpassed in his knowledge of the language'. At 
Leyden he supported himself by helping D'Orville in his edition 
of Chariton, and by correcting the proofs of Alberti's Hesyekius'. 
Under the stress of want, he was driven to the study of medicine 
and took the degree of M.D. in 1746, though he never practised. 
Shortly after his return to Germany, he settled once more in 
Leipzig, supporting himself for twelve years by hack-work, while 
Ernesti and other influential persons, who had it in their power 
to help him, looked with suspicion on his frankness and indepen- 
dence of character". Ernesti even warned visitors to Leipzig 
'not to call on that strange man". It is lair, however, to re- 
member, that, in Reiske's darkest days, it was Ernesti who invited 
him daily to dinner'. Notwithstanding all his difficulties, he 
never lost courage, his eager enthusiasm in the cause of scho- 
larship never abated. In 1748 he attained the barren honour 
of being appointed 'extraordinary professor of Arabic' at an 
almost nominal stipend, and even this was irregularly paid. But, 
early in 1756, his knowledge of the language led to his being 
invited to Dresden to catalogue the Arabic coins in the Elector's 
cabinet. During the six months that he thus spent amid many 
hardships, the keeper of the cabinet brought him a gem engraved 
with minute characters, which no one had been able to decipher. 
Reiske solved the riddle and was permitted to take the gem to 
l^ipzig, where he wrote and printed a description for the owner, 
the Graf von Wackerbart, who at once presented Reiske with 
100 thalers and, two years" later, at a critical point of Reiske's 
career, when he was a candidate for the office of Rector of the 
Nicolai-Schule in Leipzig, intervened in his favour, secured him 
the appointment, and pkced the poverty-stricken scholar in a 
position of dignity and emolument for the remaining sixteen years 
of his life (1758)'. He thus obtained some of the leisure needed 

' On Reiske's Arabic scholarship cp- Ene, Brit. 

' Ltbensbeschniliung, Ji, 37 f. 

' ii- 67. * it- 147- ° **• 77- ' »A 74— J9- 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 


for the completion of a number of important editions of Greek 
authors. In 1764 he married a lady of high spirit and noble 
temper, who, for her husband's sake, learnt Greek and Latin, 
pledged her jewels to enable him to pay for the printing of his 
Demosthenes', helped him in the collation of Hss', and com- 
pleted and published the works that he left unfinished at his 

The earUest proof of Reiske's profound knowledge of Greek was 
his (ditio pritueps of the work of Constantine Porphyrogenitus on 

' Ltfxnsieschreikung, 94. nole. ^ ib. 93. 

From the portrait by J. D. Fhilippin geb. Sysangin, fronlispiet 
Oralens Gra/ci (1770). 



the customs of the Byzantine court (1751-4). His edition of three 
books of the Palatine Anthology contains much that is valuable in 
the departments of criticism, exegesis and literary history (1754). 
He had meanwhile printed at his own expense his 'Animadver- 
sions' on Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes, including some 
excellent emendations (1753-4)- In the five volumes of his 
further*' Animadversions' on Greek authors (1757-66), he pro- 
posed many corrections in the texts of the Characters of Theo- 
phrastus, Diodorus, Dion Chrysostom and Dion Cassius, as 
well as the Moralia of Plutarch, with Thucydides, Herodotus, 
Aristides, Poly bins, Libanius, Artemidorus, and Callimachus. 
He set a high value on' this work'. As a school-master, he 
devoted some years to the study of Cicero. He edited the 
Tksculan Disputations with notes and various readings on the 
first two hooks, but he soon abandoned Cicero for Demosthenes 
and the other Greek Orators. The first-fruits of his study appeared 
in the form of a vigoroiis German translation of the Speeches of 
Demosthenes and Aeschines, with explanatory notes (1764). He 
began this translation on the day on which the Prussians evacuated 
Leipzig (15 Feb. 1763)'. His edition of the Orators involved ten 
years of arduous labour. For the text of Demosthenes he used a 
MS from Munich, and four from Augsburg ; for that of Aeschines, 
a MS from Helmstadt, obtained with the aid of Lessing; while 
Askew, whom he had met at Leyden in 1 746, sent him materials 
collected by John Taylor'. His work on the Orators extended to 
eight volumes (1770-3), followed by the 'Apparatus Criticus' and 
'Indices' to Demosthenes, in four. The last three of these were 
edited by his widow. 

Before translating Demosthenes, he had prepared a rendering 
of all the Speeches of Thucydides, but had generously kept it 
back for a year, in the. interest of a translation of the whole of 
Thucydides produced in 1760 by his friend, the Gottingen pro- 
fessor, J. D. Heilmann (1727-64). At the request of a publisher, 
he subsequently completed, in the short space of three months, 
a hasty edition of Theocritus, which includes many acute sugges- 

' it. 70. 'Sie sindjfffi ingftiii me'i, wenn man andera meinem in^nk nicht 
pmneBtfiortm absprichl '. 

' ib. 87. ' Cp. Nichols, Lit. Anttd. v 



tions for the improvement of the text (1765-6). Shortly .before 
his death he revised the text of Maximus Tyrius. He lived to 
see the publication of the first two of the six volumes of his 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and the first of the twelve of his 
Plutarch. His important edition of Libanius was published by 
his mdow, who also produced his Dion Chrysostom. ^ 

The slory of his life is unfolded in the pathetic pages of his aulobiogmphy. 
He there tells us of all his weaij struggles and his days of deep depiession, 
and also of his gratitude lo those who had at last enabled him to oblain the 
leisure needed for his farther labours. He says of himself: — 

God has given me gifts, not (he best (perhaps), and yet, not the worst ; He 
has also endued me with the impulse and desire lo use them for His glor; and 
for the common good... Doubt less 1 might have done much more, if the age in 
which I lived had been more favourably disposed towards my line of study, 
and if I had received more help and encouragement from my contemporaries; 
yet I have done more than a thousand others would have done in my position- 
Having made good use of my ' one talent ', I can meet my Lord with a cheerful 
courage, to render an account of my stewardship. 

His devoted wife adds to the autobiography a brief sketch of his character, 
dwelling on his transparent honesty, his enthusiasm in the cause of learning, 
and his generosity even to those who had served him ill. Only those who 
could not (or would not) know him, called him a misanthrope. Apart from 
his wide reading in Greek and T.atin and Arabic, he was familiar with the best 
poets of Germany, France, Italy, and England, and among his favourite works 
were the Sermons of Tillolson and Barrow', 

In the latter part of Reiske's life, and for some years after his 

death, a professorship of Greek and Latin was held at Leipzig 

from 1768 to 1782 by Morus', one of the best of the pupils of 

Ernesti. Morus was succeeded by Friedrich Wolfgang 

Reiz (1733 — 1790). His eminence as a teacher is 

attested by his famous pupil, Hermann*. He concentrated his 

' pp- 146-9- The volume includes (he letters he received from Abresch, 
Askew, Gesner, Heilmann, Klotz, D'Orville, Reimar, and Wesseling, and 

one from Winckelmann. Cp. Moms, De vita Reistii, 1777; S. G. Eclt, in 
Fro1scher'sA'or™(<i»<«{i8i6),i3 — 77; Wyttenbach, Bibl. Crii. iK (i) 34, and 
Opusc. i 413 f; Mtiemesyne, i sj and viii 297 — js' J Mommsen, hscr. Confeed. 
Hib). (1854) p. xii; Haupt, Ofmsc. iii 1371; Jahn, Popaliire Aufsalu, 16; 
L, Mliller, A7- PhUal. in den NUdtrlanden, 76 n.; Bur^an, i 407 — 416; and 
Fiirster in A.D. B.\ Britfe, ed. Forster, 1897 ; Kammel, Ntue fakrb. 190S, 
200f. 'p. i4i«/,-a. 

» Opu!(, viii 453 f. He is also highly praised by F- A. Wolf, KL Sehr. 
ii 1155- 


powers on the thorough exploration of the limited field of 
grammar, metre, and textual criticism. His works include a 
treatise on the Greek and Latin moods and tenses (1786), and 
on accentuation {1791). In the province of metre he was the 
first to introduce into Germany the opinions of Bentley, whom he 
was in the habit of describing as ' the most perfect pattern of a 
critic '. These opinions he set forth in a brief treatise*, and applied 
in an edition of the Rudens'. Specially interested in Aristotle, 
he anonymously contributed to the criticism of the Rhetoric and 
the seventh and eighth books of the Politics, besides publishing 
a text of the treatise on Poetry (1786), He also edited the first 
four books of Herodotus. Finally, he prepared a full description 
of De France's cabinet of antiques at Vienna, and a series of 
lectures on Roman Antiquities, published after his death. His 
greatest glory lies in the fact that he was the preceptor of Hermann 
and that he was highly praised by Wolf. 

' ' Bunnannum de Bentleii doctrina metrorum TeienlLanonim judicare non 
poluisse' {1787). 

' Described by a reviewer as ' the beginning of the true criticism of 
Plantus '. 

* Buisian, i 419—4.11. 





In the eighteenth century the study of Classical Archaeol*^ 
received an important impulse from the teaching of 
Johann Friedrich Christ (1700 — 1756). Born of a 
good family in Coburg, he was a man of many accomplishments 
as an artist, a linguist, and a poet ; he studied law at Jena, and 
professed history and poetry at Leipzig (1734). As a specialist in 
Latin literature, he was a constant student of Plautus, knew 
Horace by heart, had a high admiration for Juvenal, read Tacitus 
through once a year, and keenly appreciated and frequently 
imitated Aulus Gellius, By travelling in Italy he became an 
expert in ancient and modern art ; and he gathered round him a 
large library and a considerable collection of engravings, coins, 
and gems. In a memorable course of lectures he ui^ed his 
audience to become familiar, not only with the literature, the 
inscriptions, and the coins of the ancients, but also with their 
architecture and sculpture, their gems and their vases. These 
lectures, which were published long afterwards, mark the beginning 
of archaeological teaching in Germany'. In studying the monu- 
ments of antiquity from the artistic and aesthetic, and not merely 
from the antiquarian, point of view, he resembled his French con- 
temporary, the Count de Caylus, while, in his appreciation of the 
distinctive style of Greek sculpture, he was a precursor of Winckel- 

' Ed. Zeune, Ahhandlungen Sbir die Litttralur und Kunstw^rkf, vor- 
nthmlith des Allaihums, 1776. 


mann. He made a special study of gems, publishing a catalogue 
of the Kichter collection at Leipzig, and a revised Latin version 
of the descriptive letter-press to the first zooo casts in Lippert's 
Dactyliotheea, a work subsequently completed by Heyne. His 
varied interests are attested in the thirty-two papers on Roman 
law and antiquities, on textual criticism, and on the history of 
literature and of scholarship, collected in his Nodes Academicae 
(1727-9). He also dealt with the monograms of artists, the vasa 
myrrkina of the ancients, and the various representations of the 
Muses. In support of his fantastic opinion that the fables of 
Phaedrus were composed by the Italian humanist, Perotti', he 
himself translated two books of Aesop into Latin verse- On his 
death in 1756 a Latin oration in his memory was delivered by 
Ernesti', who, with the aid of manuscript copies of his prede- 
cessor's lectures, continued the tradition of his teaching. But 
the abiding influence of the original lectures themselves is better 
exemplified by the fact that it was from this source that Lessing 
and Heyne derived their earliest interest in ancient art'. 

While an interest in the artistic side of ancient life had been 
thus awakened by J- F. Christ, the permanent 
recognition of its importance was due to the genius 
of Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717— 1768), The son of a 
cobbler at Stendal (about sixty miles W. of Berlin), he succeeded 
in learning Latin at the local school, and in acquiring a certain 
knowledge of books in his master's library, while the prehistoric 
tombs in the neighbourhood awakened his interest in ancient 
monuments, and led to his even dreaming of a pilgrimage to the 
Pyramids. In 1735 he went to Berlin, to spend a year in learning 
Greek under Damm, who was undoubtedly familiar with the 
vocabulary of Homer*. Three years later he left Stendal to 

' ii 71 iupra. ' Opusc. Oral., l^^—\%■i. 

■ Cp.Jasti's Winckelmttnn,\n^—i%\; Stark, 159 f; "QatSti.y.F.CkrUt, 
stilt Leben u. seim Sehrifiat (i8;8) ; and Bursian, i 404-6.— The year of bis 
death was also thac of the death of Ihe pupil of Chiist and Emesti, Johann 
Angusl Bach (r 71 1-56), who vindicated the character of the Eieusinian Myste- 
ries (174J), discussed the legislation of Trajan, edited Ihe Oetoiumicus of Xeno- 
phon (1747) and wrote an ofl-reprin(ed Iiistocy of Roman Jurisprudence (1754). 
Cp. Bursian i 406 (. 

* P- 'o ^/'■i- 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


complete his schooling at a place still further west, SatzwedeL In 
the same year Fabricius died, and, two years afterwards, when his 
books were to be sold by auction in Hambui^, the young student 
walked all the way, a distance of more than eighty miles, simply to 
purchase a few copies of the Greek and Latin Classics', He soon 
entered the university of Halle, where he attended the lectures of 
J. H. Schulze, a collector of coins, who discoursed on Greek and 
Roman antiquities', and of A. G. Baumgarten, who, a few years 
later, was the first to apply the term ' Aesthetics ' to the science 
of the beautiful'. He continued his studies at Jena, where, with 
a view to the medical profession, he worked at comparative 
anatomy. His early interest in miscellaneous learning was, how- 
ever, soon afterwards merged in a keen admiration for Greek 
literature, and, during five years of hardship as a schoolmaster at 
Seehausen, N. of his native place, he devoted the greater part of 
his nights to the study of Homer and Sophocles, and Herodotus, 
Xenophon, and Plato*. The six years that be subsequently spent 
in the library of the Count von Biinau, near Dresden, enlarged 
his interest in history and politics, and in the literature of France, 
England, and Italy {1748-54). At that time the finest collection 
of works of sculpture and painting in all Germany was to be found 
in Dresden ; and it soon became clear to Winckelmann that the 
study of art was henceforth to be the main purpose of his life. It 
was also clear that he could not continue that study, to any serious 
purpose, without living in Italy, and, as the only means for carrying 
out this design, he finally resolved on joining the Church of 
Rome'. But it was not until a year later that the grant of an 
annual pension from the Elector of Saxony enabled him to start 
for the South. He employed the interval in studying gems and 
other examples of ancient art, and in composir^ his earliest work, 
' Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek works in Painting and 
Sculpture' (1755)- I" words that soon became memorable he 
here describes Greek art as characterised by ' a noble simplicity 
and a calm grandeur". The first two years of his residence in 

' Jiisti, i 41. ' i!/. i 54-6. ' ib. i 7S — So. 

* 1743-81 ib. i 136-160. • II July, 1754. 

* p. II (p. 314 of 'Selected Works', ed. J. Lessing) tine idk EinfaU und 
line stilU Gresie, a phrase probably inspired by Oeser (Justi, i 349, 410). 



Rome were devoted to studying the great galleries of Sculpture 
and describing some of the finest works of ancient art in the 
Vatican Museum. He afterwards spent three months in Naples, 
examining the results of the recent excavation of Herculaneum 
and Pompeii. He also visited the great Greek temples at Paestum 
and Girgenti. In 1760 he produced a descriptive CaOlogae of 
the Stosch Collection of gems in Florence, dedicating his work to 
the Cardinal Albani, who had already received him into his 
house and had made him his librarian and supervisor of his fine 
collection of ancient sculptures. Meanwhile, he had been study- 
ing the descriptions of works of Greek art in Pausanias, and the 
Greek conception of the Beautiful in Plato. All these studies 
culminated in the two quarto volumes of his classic ' History of 
Ancient Art ' (1764), the earliest book in which the developement 
of the art of Egypt, of Phoenicia and Persia, of Etruria, and of 
Greece and Rome, is set forth in connexion with the general 
developement of political life and civilisation. The work was 
received with enthusiasm, and a second edition appeared in 1776. 
Meanwhile, in 1767-8, he had produced the two volumes of his 
Monutfuit/i AtttUhi Jrieiiiti, describing more than two hundred 
works of ancient art, mainly reliefs from Roman sarcophagi, in 
the explanation of which he had shown for the first time that the 
designs were derived, not from the scenes of ordinary life, but 
from the legends of Greek mythology. In the following April, he 
left Rome for the North, The mountains of Tirol, which had 
inspired him with wonder on his journey into Italy, now awoke in 
him a sense of the profoundest melancholy. He was bound for 
Berlin, where he proposed to see through the press a French 
edition of his great History. During his stay in Augsburg, 
Munich and Vienna, he strove in vain to throw off the intense 
depression by which he was haunted ; from Vienna he returned 
alone to Triest, and arranged to cross the water to Venice, While 
he was preparing for his voyage, he lived incognito for several 
days at a hotel, where he became imprudently familiar with an 
Italian adventurer, indiscreetly showed him some of the large gold 
medals he had recently received at Vienna, and was treacherously 
murdered on the 8th of June, 1768. The date of his birth, the 
9th of December, has since been repeatedly commemorated by 



the publication of papers on classical art and archaeolc^ in 
Rome, as well as in Berlin and in many other homes of learning 
in Germany, Of his portraits the best is that painted by Angelica 
KaufTmann'. The bust, once placed by Cardinal Albani beside 
the tomb of Raphael in the Pantheon, has been removed to the 
Capitoline Museum ; a statue has been erected in his memory at 
the village where he was born, and a monument in one of the 
churches of the town where he died. As the votary of all that 
was beautiful in the art of the ancient world, he has been im- 
mortalised by an able and eloquent bi<^rapher, who bids farewell 
to his hero in the impressive words : — Er Ubt in GotI, dem UrqueU 
des Schonen, dessert Abglanz er hier gesucht und geahnt hat*. 

The services rendered by Winckelmann, in bringing the old 
Greek world into connexion with modern life, were 
continued in a still larger measure by Gotthold 
Ephraim Lessing (1729 — 1781). His father was curate of Ka- 
menz, a small- town N.E. of Dresden. At the age of five, when 
it was proposed to paint his portrait with a bird-cage beside him, 
the future scholar vehemently protested :—' you must paint roe 
with a great, great heap of books, or I won't be painted at all'.' At 
thirteen, he was sent to the famous school of St Afra at Meissen, 
N.W. of Dresden. The education there given was mainly classical, 
and the boy's private reading included Anacreon and the Characters 
of Theophrastus, as well as Plautus and Terence, He was only 
seventeen when he entered the university of Leipzig, where 
J. F. Christ was already lecturing on ancient art, and on Plautus 

' Justi, ii (a) 440; ib. Frontispiece, and Konneclte's BiUirallas, ed. 1 
( I post »30- 

' Complete ed, of his works in 11 vols., published al Donaueschingen 
(1835-9) *■"* Pralo (l8so-4). Die Gistkichte der Kunst ila AlUrthums 
764)1 and GedaiiJUn iiber die Naehahmung der griahisehm IVeritlij^s), and 
some minor works, reprinted wilh Life and Introduction by Julius Lessing 
(ed. I, Heidelberg, [881). Cp. Heyne's Leii^Ari/i, and Herder's Denkmal 
(1778, vol. viii 4J! f, ed. Suphan); Goethe's Winekilmann und sein Jakr- 
kundirl, 1805 (vol. Kxiv of ed. in xjix vols.); F A Wolf, laetne Sehrtftm, 
ii 730-743; O. Jahn, Biogr. Aufsdtze, i— 88; Julian Schmidt, 11 113— 131; 
Justi, fVimitlmatiH, sein Leben, selru Werke und sane Zettgmossm, in 
3 vols,, 1866-71; Slark, 193— jo6; and Bursian, 1 416 — 436 

' Picture reproduced in DUntier's Lessings Ltbm, 17, and in Konnetke's 
BiiJerallas, 131, 


and Horace', and Emesti was 'extraordinary professor of 
Eloquence ', while Kastner, the young professor of mathematics, 
was soon to give proof of his special interest in literature, and — in 
Leasing. At Leipzig the young student became convinced that 
' books might make him learned, but could never make him a 
man", and it was there that he produced his earliest play, a satire 
on the conceited self-complacency of a youthful pedant'. The 
author had just become conscbus of his own pedantry, his honzon 
had been widened, and the spirit of modem ' enlightenment ' had 
breathed life into the dry bones of scholarship'. Early in 1749 
he went to Berlin, and, besides making his mark as a dramatic 
critic, produced three plays, one of them founded on the 
Trinummus'. Late in 1751 he left for Wittenberg, where he 
stayed for less than a year, Spending most of his time in the 
university library, every volume of which (he afterwards declared) 
had passed through his hands. At Wittenberg he studied the 
Roman poets, especially Horace and Martial, whose manner is 
reflected in his own terse and epigrammatic style, and especially 
in his Latin and German epigrams'. In his Letters, and in a 
separate treatise, he satirically attacked an inadequate translation 
of Horace, and vindicated the poet's character'. On returning to 
Berlin, he won the friendship of Nicolai and of Moses Mendels- 
sohn, both of whom were interested, like himselt^ in English 
literature ; and he chose England as the scene of his first 
important tragedy, a 'household play', which was part of his 
protest against the servile imitation of antiquity then prevaleht in 
France'. His interest in the drama led to his writing a treatise 
on the life and works of Plautus, a translation and examination of 
the Captivi', and an essay on the tragedies of Seneca'". A still 
more important influence on his career as a critic may be traced 

' Julian Schmidl, i 618. ^ Letter to his mother, it. i 6it>. 

' Dirjunge Gilehrle. * Sherer, ii 49, E. T, 

' Der Schali. ' i 17 — 67 Goring. 

' Briefly in 175J (vi 300, ed. Goring) ; Vademecum.... and Ritluiigm des 
Horax, I7j;4 (xv i [—71). Cp. Sime's Lessiag, \ i.ij. 

' Miss Sara Sampion. ' vi 11—144, 

'" vii 162 — 136. Cp, Dietsch in /'hilologen-Versammlung xxii (Meissen) 
18 f- 



to his study of Aristotle's Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric, and Poetic^, 
and of the masterpieces of Greek tragedy, especially the plays of 
Sophocles'. After nearly three years at Leipzig, he published at 
Berlin his ' Prose Fables ' and his ' Treatises on the Fable ', the 
latter being among the best of his essays in criticism {1759)'. It 
was during his five years at Breslau (1760-5), that he began the 
best known of his critical works, his Laokoon, or, ' on the limits of 
Poetryand Painting', completed and published at Berlin in 1766*. 

Simonidea had vividly descrilied ' Poelry as a. speaking Picture and Painting 
as B silent Poem ', but Plutarch himself, in quoting this epigram, had observed 
Ihal Poetry and Painling 'differ in their matter, and in their means of 
imitation '°. Nevertheless, the limits of the two arts had been left undefined, 
and Luigi Dolce, in his diaic^e on Painting (ijSi), had even maintained 
that a good poet must be a good painter*. Addison, again, in his Dialogues 
on Medals (1701), had illustrated the designs on Roman coins by means of 
passages from the Latin poels, and viee versa \ Spence, in his Polymitis {l^^^), 
had aimed at explaining the poels of Greece and Rome by the aid of monu- 
ments of ancient art ; and, in France, Count Cayius had urged artists to find 
their inspiration in Homer (1757). Thomson's Seaionr had meanwhile 
awakened a passion for word-painting among (he poets of Germany and 
Switzerland. Winckelmann himself saw noreasonwhyPaintingshouldnothave 
as wide boundaries as Poetry', and inferred that 'it ought to be possible for 
the painter to imitate the poet''. He had previously spoken of ' poetic pictures', 
and had described Rubens as a ' sublime poet''. He had also illustrated the . 
' noble simplicity and calm grandeur '* of Greek art by the subdued expression 

' Letter to Nikolai, 1 Apr. 1757, and to Mendelssohn, j Nov. 1768; 
Hamh. Dram. nos. 37—39, 75, 81-3, 89, 90, 101-4 ; cp. Gotschlich, Lessiag't 
Aristotelisehe Studien (Berlin, |8;6). 

" Leben des Soph. (1760), xi 13—96. ' i 194—191. 

'xi — 167; Fragm4nts,\(A — 334, Goring: ed. Blilmner, 1 876 ; Hamann, 
i8j8; E. T., Sir R. J. PhilUmore (1875) and E. C. Beasley (1879 etc.); cp. 
Sherer, ii 65 f; Justi's Winckelmann, i 450— 4J7; Sime, i 147-308; 
Zimmern, 175-194; E. A. Gaidner, Gk Sculpture, ii 468—47"; facsimile 
of p. I in Dllntzer's Lessings Leben, 313. 

* Plutarch, De Gloria AtA. 3, p. 346 f (and 347 a), echoed in Ad Htrenn. 
iv 39, 'poema loquens pictura, pictura taciturn poema debet esse', and in 
Horace, A. P. 361, 'ut pictura pogsb', where the reference is only to the 
external aspects of the two kinds of art (Orelli); cp. Dryden's Parallel of 
Poetry and Painting (1695I. 

* Laokoon, svl p. 337 Blumner. 

' Eriduterung der Gedanten U.1.V1. (1756), p. 347, ed. 1883. 

* Gedanken u.s.w. p. 335. ' p. 13, n. 6 tufra. 



of pain in Ihe sculptured fonn of Laocoon, who. in contrast to the Loocoon of 
Virgil, bravely endures his pain, ' like the Philoctetes of Sophocles '. 

Leasing, however, at (he very outset of his Essay, shows that Philoctetes in 
the play, so far from suppressing his groans, fills the stage with loud laments, 
and, instead of supplying a cortirasi to Vir^l's Laocoon, realty resembles him. 
Winckelmann (he continues) had overlooked the essential difference between 
Sculpture and Poetry. The poet and the artist were equally right, both 
(allowed the prindples of their respective arts. The sculptor did not 'aim at 
expressing a higher moral character in making his Laocoon suppress the cry of 
agony; he only obeyed the highest law of ancient art, — the law of beauly'. 
The artist is limited to a moment of time; Che poet is not. 'The artist 
represents coexisleHce itt spcue, the poel succession in li»ie'. This point is 
illustrated from Homer, and in paiticulai from his vivid story of the making of 
the Shield of Achilles, which is far more life-like, far more truly poetic jhan 
Virgil's dead description of the Shield of Aeneas. In Homer the great work 
grows under our very eyes ; scene after scene starts into life ; while Vii^l toils 
in vain by tediously drawing our attention to a series of coexistent im^es. 
Thus Lessing condemns dead description in poetry, as contrasted with life-like 
action and movement. ...He ends by criticising some minor points in Winckel- 
mann's ' History of Art ', which had meanwhile been published. 

While Winckelmann had a first-hand knowledge of works of ancient 
sculpture, and was also well versed in ancient literature, Lessing had approached 
the subject almost wholly from the literary side; he had read all that had been 
written on his theme; he had, in fact, been partly anticipated by the Abb^ 
Dubos' in France, and by James Harris' in England; but this does not detract 
from the merits of hb (realise as a lucid and masterly piece of convincing 
criticism. It is the most perfect specimen of his terse and transparent style, 
and it owes part of its perspicuity to the avoidance of parenthesis. It was 
bailed on all sides with enthusiasm. Herder read it through three times 
between noon and midnight. Goethe, then a student at Leipzig, afterwards 
said; — ' One must be a youth to realise the effect produced upon us by Lessing's 
LaBitK/n..,T\ie phrase ut pidura poisis, which had so long iieen misunderstood, 
was at once set aside; the difTerence tietween art and poetry was now made 
clear''. When (he work reached Winckelmann in Rome, 'Ks, first impulse 
prompted him to say : — ' Lessing writes as oneself would wish to have written. 
...As it is glorious to be praised by competent persons, so also it may be 
glorious lo be held worthy of their criticism''. Long afterwards, Macaulay 
read the Laokann, 'sometimes dissenting, but always admiring and learning'; 
it was one of the books that filled him 'with wonder and despair'". Lessing's 

' inflexions critiques sur lapeiste et la peinture (1719). 
' On Music, Painting, and Poetry, c. v § 1 (■744). Cp- Blumner on 
Lnokeen, 173 f. 

' Dichtung und Wahrhtit, I c. vili ; cp. Sime, i 304. 

' Josti, ii (1) 134—346; Zimmem, 1(15. ' Life, a 8 (ed. 1878). 

h. i., iiA.OOgIc 


opinions have, however, been correcled, or enlarged, by later authors. It is 
now agreed that the Laocoon-group does nol belong lo the time of Titus, but 
to the beginning uf the rule of Augustus'. Again, in discussing the difference 
between paittling and poetry, Lessing starts by examining a master-piece of 
sculpture, and adds that, * whenever he speaks of painling, he means sculpture 
as well', — B point for which he has justly been criticised by Herder'. Lessing's 
belief, that tbe ' Borghese gladiator ' was a statue of Chabrias, was afterwards 
abandoned at the prompting of Heyne'; and the use of the aorist instead of 
the imperfect in the signatures of Greek sculptors is no longer accepted as an 
indication of a late date*. 

The Laokoon remained a torso. Instead of completing it, the 
author left Berlin for Hamburg, where, as ' critic of the plays and 
actors ', he produced more than a hundred chapters of brilliant 
dramatic criticism (1767-9)'. That criticism is mainly founded 
on Aristotle's treatise on Poetry, a German translation of which 
(with notes and essays) he had himself reviewed in 1753'. He 
repeatedly comments on Aristotle's opinions', finding in Aristotle's 
definition of tragedy, or rather, in his own interpretation of that 
definition, the true essence of the drama'. 

He was at the same time involved in a controversy with C. A. Kloti, a 
professor of Rhetoric and editor of three literary journals at Halle. Lessing 
had expressed his regret that ' a scholar of otherwise just and refined taste ' had 
disapproved of the Homeric episode of Thersites'. Lessing himself had 
declared that there was no great number of pictures for which ancient artists 
were indebted to Homer'", had rejected Pope's suggestion that Homer was 'not 
B stranger to aerial perspective ' ", and had observed that, while modem artists 
had represented Death as a skeleton", the ancients had represented him as 
the twin-brother of Sleep. All these opinions were attacked by Klotz in an 

' Two of the three sculptors were priests of Athena Lindia in B.C- Ji — 1 1 
(Blinkenberg and Kinch, in Danske Vidensiab. Selsk. Forhandl. 1905, 99; cp. 
Michaelis. Arch. Enid. 169; and E. A. Gardner, in The Veal's Wort (19OJ), 

' P- 35 iiifra. ' Ant. Briefe, no. 37 (jiiii 98 Goring). 

• c. xxvii, p. 307 Blumner; cp. Stark, 110. 

. ' HamburgUckt Dramaturgie, vol, xii Goring; E. T. in Prose IVorks 

• xii 31 Goring. ' p. 26 n. [ supra. 

' Lessing attributes to tragedy ' a direct moral purpose ' and also holds that 
'fear is always an ingredient in pity ', E. T. 435 f (see Bernays, Breslau .4i^»i//. 
{1857} inil.. and index to Butcher's ed. of Ar. Poel.). 

• Laokoon, c. xxiv ult. 1* c. xxii. 



'Essay on Gems' (1768), and defended by Lessing in his 'Anliquarian Letters ' 
(1768-9), and in his admirable Essay 'on the Ancient Represenlajions of 
Death'' where he shows thai ihe ancients personified Death, not as a ghastly 
skeleton bul as a beautiful ' Genius ' with an inverted torch. The essay was 
greeted with a transport of delight by the youthful Goethe at Leipiig', and the 
gladness of Goeihe found an echo in Schiller's * Gods of Greece". I( is in (he 
same Essay that we lind the memorable distinction between the mete 'anti- 
quarian ' and the ' archaeolc^st '. ' The former has inherited (he fragments, 
the latter the spirit of anliquily( the former scarcely thinks with his eyes, the 
lattei sees even with his thoughts ; before the former can say thus it vxts, the 
latter already knows whether it could be so''. The extant portraits of Kloti 
give us Ihe impression of his having been a weak and conceited person'. 
Unfonunately hi; life was cut short at the early ^e of thirty-three, and few 
would now remember him, unless he had been embalmed forever in the trans- 
lucent amber of his great opponent's style. 

As librarian at Wolfenbiittel for the last eleven years of his 
life, Lessing published inter alia a few short papters on the 
Epigram, and on some of the principal Epigrammatists', also 
on Paulus Silenliarius and on the arithmetical problems of the 
Greek Anthology', while his abiding interest in the Classics is 
attested by his 'Notes on Ancient Writing", and by his 'Col- 
lectanea". It was during this period that, in 1775, ''^ spent 
nine months in Italy with a prince of Brunswick. On a day in 
Rome he was missed by the prince's attendants, who at last found 
him in the Vatican Museum gazing with rapture on the group of 

Lessing was the most versatile of men, a writer on theology 
and on aesthetics, as well as a poet, a critic, and a scholar. As a 
theological controversialist, and as the author of Nathan der 
Weise, he was a champion of religious toleration, — but we are 

* Vol. xiii Goring (the essay is translated by Miss Zimmem in Stlect Prase 
Works, 1879; cp. ]\et Lift of Lessing, 334 — 151). 

. * Diehtungund fVahrieit,ic.-n«. 

.' Stania 9 of Second Version, Seine Fae-kel senkC ein Genius. 

* E. T. p. 309. 

' DUntier's Lessings Leben, 337, and Konnecke's BiM/ratlas 333. Ruhn- 
ken, writing to Heyne {Epp. ad Div. p. 15), calls him homiium vanissimitni el 
vix mediocriter erudHuni. Cf. Heeren's Heyne, 73, 81 f; Sime's Lessing, a 
63 — 81; Bursian, t 444 — 451, 

' xv 73— IS4 Goring. ' XV 199 f, 136 f. 



here concerned with him as a scholar and a critic alone. By his 
influence on his contemporaries he undoubtedly opened a new era 
in the appreciation of Homer and Sophocles ; he also promoted 
the intelligent study of Aristotle's treatise on Poetry, and threw a 
clearer light on the aims of Plautus and Terence, and on the 
merits of Horace and Martial. His writings have a never-failing 
charm that is mainly due to their clearness and precision, and to 
their classic purity of style. 

Action is, with him, not only the highest theme of poetry; 
it is also the true end of man. He has an eager delight in 
conversarion, a perfect passion for controversy. He prefers the 
unceasing and untiring quest of Truth, even to its immediate 
possession and fruition'. He is an ardent patriot, a resolute 
hater of tyrants ; amid the strain of poverty, he retains his frank 
independence of character, and his cheerful devotion to a hterary 
hfe. He is ever the keenest of critics ; ever the many-sided man 
of letters and of learning, who declines to degenerate into a 

Von Gebler, writing to Nicolai, describes Lessing as 'that 
rare combination, a truly great and amiable scholar". It is also 
said that, in the uniform neatness of his dress, he was distinguished 
from the typical man of letters of his day. In his manner, he was 
firm without arrt^ance ; and every variety of feeling, whether 
radiant gladness, or frank independence, or keen indignation, 
found expression in his deep blue eyes. The best of all his 
portraits' is that painted at the age of thirty-seven,— the age at 
which he wrote his Laokoon*. 

' Daflik, c. 1 adjinem (xviii 41 Goring). 

• Zimmem, Lessing, 311. 

' Konnecke's Bilderatlas, p. 131 f. 

* Works in 13 vols. <A. Lachmann {i8j8 f ) and Malliahn {1853 f) ; also in 
to vols. (Hempel, 1868 f); 8 vols, illustrated (Grote, 1875 f ) ; and 30 voU. ed. 
Goring (Cotta, 1881 f). Lives, in Gennar, by K. G. l-essing, 1793; Daiuel- 
Guhrauer, 1850-4; Stahr, 1859; DUntzer, 1881 ; and Goiing; and, in English, 
by J. Sime, 187; (and in Rnc. Brit.), and H. Zimmeni, 1878. Cp. Julian 
Schmidt, Von Leibrtils bis auf Ltssings Tod, fassim, esp. i 6l7^ia(i, ii 6, 
194 — 306; Justi's iVin^telmann ; Stark, loS — 311; Bursian, i 436 — 454; also 
Sherer, ii 47 — 81 E. T., and the other current histories oC German literature, 
and lastly, Kont's Ltssingit rantiquiti, 1894-9. 




One of Lessing's most important allies in promoting an interest 
in Greek literature in Germany, and in waging 
war against Klotz and his adherents, was Johann 
Gottfried Herder (1744 — 1803). Humbly bom at Mohntngen, 
amid the marshes near Konigsberg, he was grounded in Latin by 
an awe-inspiring master named Grimm. He regarded the Grammar 
of Donatus as a ' book of martyrdom ', and Cornelius Nepos as 
the ' author of torment' ; but he rejoiced in wandering in solitude 
beside the local lake and through the ' Wood of Paradise ', where, 
on a day in autumn, he burst into tears over the lines in which 
Homer compares the passing generations of man to the fading 
and falling leaves of the forest'. A Russian officer helped him to 
enter the university of Konigsberg, where he attended the lectures 
of Kant, and was thereby stimulated to critical inquiry without 
becoming an adherent of that teacher's opinions. As a student 
he was specially interested in Hebrew poetry, and in Pindar and 
Plato, In his maturer years we note three main periods : — first, 
the time at Riga (1765-9) ; next, the tour in France (1769), the 
visit to Slrassbutg (where he made a profound impression on the 
youthfijl Goethe'), and the years spent as court preacher at 
Buckebei^(i77i-6); and lastly, his residence in a similar position 
at Weimar (1776 — 1803). 

It was at Riga that he published his three collections of 
Fragments on modern German literature (1766-7). The first of 
these deals with the developement of language ; the second in- 
cludes a discourse on the study of Greek literature in Germany, 
emphasising the connexion between the taste of each people and 
its material environment in successive ages. In answer to the 
question, 'how far do we undersland the Greeks?', he sketches 
the outline of a future History of Greek Poetry and Philosophy ; 
and, in connexion with the further inquiry, 'how far have we 
imitated the Greeks?', he characterises the several branches of 
Greek poetry, and the foremost poets of Greece, and similarly 
in the case of Roman poetry, with a marked appreciation of 
Lucretius and the Heroides of Ovid. In the third, he touches on 
the German imitations of Latin poets, on the baneful influence of 

• //, vi 146?; tAtia^an, Herdrr and his lima, lof. 
' OUhhtag und iVahrheil, Fart ii, book to. 

h. i., iiA.OOgIc 


the Latin spirit in modern Germany, and on the proper use of 
ancient mythol(^ in modem poetry. The following is the 

purport of a few passages : — 

The history of a language is as ihe history of man from the lisping of child- 
hood, through Ihe passion and music of youth, to Ihe calm wisdom of age.... 
We see Ihe remains of the childhood of man in Ihe poems of Homer. The 
first authors in every nalion are poels, and these poets are inimilable....Wilh 
the inlroduction of writing, and (he growth of political life, prose became 
possible, singing ceased, and poetry became a thing of art; instead of Homer, 
we have Tyrtaeus and the great tragedians, closely followed by the hlslorians; 
lor prose was the living language, till KnaJty it reached its perfection in Plato'. 

How far can the Germans be said really to unJentand the Greeks, whom 
tliey imitate P... Our imitations are merely failures. It is absurd to mention 
Bodmer and Homer in the same breath.... Klopstock, again, is really more 
akin to Vii^l than lo Homer. Still less can we hope to imitate the dithy- 
rambic poets. ...Our Anacreons do not succeed much better. Gessner wifh his 
Idylls falls far below Theocritus. ...Even more absurd is the comparison between 
Sappho and Anna Karschin. We might say to her, as Sappho said to her 
maid; — 'Thou hasi no part in the roses of Pieria', where the Muses and 
Graces have their haunt •. 

Laiin was from Ihe firs! the enemy of German, which might have resisted 
il, had not Charlemagne and the monks let loose upon us the barbarous deluge 
of Latin literature, Latin religion, and Lalin speculation. O that we had been 
an island, like England!.. .Zn^in, being considered an end in itself, is ruining 
our education..,. What would the real florace say, if he were compelled to read 
such poels as Kloti, or the work of any of our Lalin pedants? We sacrifice 
everylhing to that accursed word, ' classical '. We must begin our reform by 
giving up Latin,' — not as a learned language, but as a means of arli^lic ex- 
pression and as a lest of culture^. In Ihe second fragment he urges that Homer 
should be Iranslaltd*, Homer the true poet of Nature, whose song has a very 
different ring from tliat of Virgil and the artificial poets of modem limes'. 

In his second great work he imagines himself roaming through 
the 'woodlands of criticism". He has a high appreciation of 
Lessing's Laokoon, but he does still more justice to Winckelmann'. 

Opposing Lessing's theory as lo the Greek expression of the emotions, he 
s that Philoctetes does not shriek without restraint*, while he demurs 

' Fra^mie, i {ij6S') isi—ii4(=iVerie,i 151— 155 + ii 60— 88 Suphan); 

Vinson, 106. 

' Fri^m. ii (i »8s— 351 S) ; Nevinson, 106. 

■ Fragm. iii {i 362— +14 S) ; Nevinson, 108 f. ♦ i 389 S. 

" Cp. Julian Schmidt, ii 315. ' Krilischi fValdir, 1769. 

' Cp. Herder to Scheffiier, 4 Gel. 1766 ; Julian Schmidt, ii 314, jjj, 

" ICaVfliW, i 8 1 iiii nfS). 



to the dogma (hal all poetry must represent action, a tlt^ma limiting poetry to 
the epic and dramatic, to the exclusion of the lyric and the song'. At a later 
point he critlci^s the Epistelae HomcrUai and other works of Klotz, justilies 
the comic element in epic poetry, discusses the proper method of studying 
Horace, and insists that every work of Art or Poetry must be interpreted in 
the tight of the people and the period, in which it came into being. He par- 
ticularly objects to the Homeric poems being criticised by the standard o( 
modem taste'. 

It was on the deck at night, during his voyage from Riga, that 
he first formed his theory of the genesis of primitive poetry and 
of the gradual evolution of humanity. In France he drew up a 
scheme of educational reform, banning by overthrowing the 
predominance of his old enemy, the Ladn grammar, and in- 
sisting that, in education, variety was absolutely essential. 

As to languages, the mother-longue must be thoroughly studied, French 
must be taught in conversation, Latin should be learnt for the sake of its 
literature, but even Latin is best taught by conversation. Greek and Hebrew 
follow in their turn, and the course is complete'. 

At Strassbui^ in 1770 he wrote the Essay on the Origin of 
Language that was crowned by the Berlin Academy*. The 
Academy had proposed the question: — 'Was man capable of 
inventing language, if left to his own resources, and, if so, by 
what means could he have invented it?' Herder answers the 
first part of this question in the affirmative ; and, in reply to the 
second, lays down four 'natural laws' governing the invention 
and developement of language, and its division into various 
tongues. The essay was written in less than a month, but the 
subject had been long in his mind, and, fortunately (perhaps) for 
himself, he had no books to hamper him. The result has been 
recognised as an important part of the first foundations of Com- 
parative Philology'. 

He was still at Buckeburg when he published 'A New 

' WaUckin, i 3 :6 (iii 133 fS); cp. Nevinson, 113-5, 

' Witldchtn, ii caps, i and iii fvol. iii 133 f, 3«> f, S). 

' Ktisi-jeumal (vol. iv ad fiium, ed. Suphan); Nevinson, 118 f; cp. 
Paulsen, ii 41 — 44, 193-6. 

' Ueber dm Ursprtms dtr Spraeht, \■^^\■, ed. t, 1789; lVerkt,tA. rSoj f, 
Phiiosofkie und Geschkhu, iii — 183 (vol. viwii. ed. Suphan); cp. Goethe, u. J. 

' Benfey's GtschUhU dtr Spnukitdsiaischq/i, 193 f 1 cp. Jalian Schmidt, ii 
493; and Nevinscm, l6i f. 

s- III- ,..,., !,,*_. OOgIc 


Philosophy of History", beginning with a sketch of the prt^ess 
of man from his childhood in the East, through his boyhood in 
Egypt and Phoenicia and his youth in Greece, till in Rome he 
reached man's estate, and attained his still maturer years in the 
Middle Ages and in modem times. 

Here, as elsewhere, he touches on the question of the originality of 
Greece; — 'That Greece received from some other quarter the seeds o( 
civilisation, languafie, arts and sciences, is, to my mind, undeniable, and 
it can be clearly proved in the case of some of ihem, — Sculpture, Architecture, 
Mythology, and Literature. Bui that the Greeks, practically, did not receive 
all this; that, on the contrary, they gave it an entirely new nature, that, in each 
kind, Ihe Beautiful, in the proper sense of thai term, is certainly their work ; — 
ihis, I think, is obvious'. 

Similar opinions recur in his 'Thoi^hts on the Philosophy 
of the History of Mankind' (1784-91), a vast work, only partially 
completed during his latest days at Weimar. Near the middle 
he dwells on the 'Education of the Human Race", and, in the 
latter half, surveys the growth of civilisation in ancient times and 
in the Middle Ages, devoting two most suggestive books* to 
Greece and Italy. ' Wifk Greece the morning breaks',— ^\xc\\ are 
the opening words of the enthusiastic passage on Greek life and 
history that was specially admired by Heyne and Goethe". In 
other works connected with classical antiquity' he shows an 
interest in the historical treatment of the growth of Greek civilisa- 
tion and especially of Greek poetry and art, regarding both of 
them as a ' School of Humanity '. 

He is peculiarly interested in Homer. He was in fact one of 
the first to elucidate the general character of the Homeric poems. 
He finds in them the fullest illustration of the idiosyncrasy of 
national poetry'. 

' Au€h line FhiUsephie der Ges€kickte, (J74 (v 475 fS). ^ 

' V 498 fS ; cp. Nevinson, 211-S- ' Idem, hooks viii — \n (vol. xiii S). 

* xiii and xiv (Bursian, i 461 f), reserved for vol. xiv S. 

" Ideea, book xiii init. ; Nevinson, 366. 

" Ursachm des getmtkenat Gisckmaiks, 177s (v 595 S); Ucber die Wirkung 
iler Dichlkumt, lySr (viii 334 f ) ; Briefen %ar Befdrderuiig der Humaniiitl, 
series 3—8, 1794-6 (vols, ivii, xviii); cp. Bursian, i 463. 

' Ueber Ossian und dii Liider alter Volker, 1773 (v 321). His later 
writings include Homer ein Giinstling der Zeil, 1795 (xviii 4J0), and Homer 
vnd das EpBs, 1803 (xxiv 129, cp. 233) ; cp. Bursian, i 464 f. 




Homer is unique. When Homer had suug, we could expecl no second 
Homer in his particular type of poetry; he had plucked Ihe (tower of the epic 
crown, and his successors were fain to rest content with the leaves alone. 
Hence the tragic poets took another line; they ate, indeed, as Aeschylus says, 
from the table of Homer, but they also prepared for the age, in which ibey 
lived, another kind of banquet'. 

In the context he contrasts Epic poetry with History, and 
with Tragedy', and elsewhere he enters on a full discussion of 
Aristotle's definition of the latter'. He produced metrical render- 
ings of nine of the Olympian Odes of Pindar', and wrote an 
enthusiastic description of his characteristics as a poet'. He also 
discriminated between the several periods and types of Greek 
lyric poetry in his Essay on 'Alcaeus and Sappho". He is 
specially interested in Horace'. In his essay on the critical efforts 
of the past century, he duly recognises the importance of Bentley', 
and even notices the lesser lights, William Baxter and Thomas 

His interest in ancient art is specially displayed in two 
treatises. In his work on Sculpture" he observes with surprise 
that Lessing had not cared to distinguish between Sculpture and 
Painting. Herder accordingly endeavours to establish the laws 
of this distinction. His short treatise 'on the Representation 
of Death by the Ancients'" su^ests that the 'Genius with the 
inverted torch ' on Greek tombs is not (as Lessing held) Death, 
the brother of Sleep, but Sleep, the brother of Death, or possibly 
a mourning Cupid. This last thought finds an echo in Herder's 
pathetic poem on the death of Lessing". Finally, he insists on 
the importance, and indeed the necessity, of the study of ancient 
Art for the study of classical literature". 

' xxiv 144 Suphan. > xxiv 141 f, 144 f, S. 

' Dai Drama, xxiii 346—369 S. * xxvi 188 f S. 

' Pindar an Beit der Oilier, xxiv 335 S. ' xxvii 181— 19S S. 

'xxvi3i3fS. «xxivi83fS. 

° xxiv 198 f, tJ3 f, S; also Samuel Qarke, ib. iti f. 

'" Plastii; 17J8 (vol. viii Suphan); Nevinson, 310-4. 

" Zerslreute Blattir, i;86 (iv 656 f S), IJ96'. 

" Dtr Tod, $'m Gcsprdth an Ussings Grabe, in Zerslnute Blaller, i (1785, 
1791'), xxviii 1358. 

" XX 183 r Suphan. — First edition of Herder's Pfarks in 45 vols, in three 
series, Tubingen, 1805-101 best ed. in 31 vols. ed. Suphan, 1877-99 — ■ CP' 



In the latter part of a long literary career. Christian Martin Wieland 
Wieland ('Ui—'^'i) did much for the diffusion of an interest in the 

old classical world, although the influeuce of French literature 
is apparent in his classical romances, the best known of which is Agath/m, 
while the modem element is also prominent in his poem, Musarion. He had 
a far higher appreciation of Euripides than of Aristophanes, and one of his 
fovourlle authors was Xenophon. He produced a rather free translation of 
nearly the whole of Lucian, with notes on points of texluaJ, historical, or 
aesthetic criticism (1788-9). He had already translated the £/«//« and i'H/iViM 
of Horace (1781-6), and, in his 7ith year, he began a rendering of Cicero's 
Letttrs in chronological order, a work completed by Grater (1808-11). The 
Atlischa Museum, which he founded, and edited in 1796 — iBii, included 
translations of Attic writers of the ages of Pericles and Alexander'. Among 

Wieland's pupils at Erfurt was Wil helm Heinse (1746— 1803), 

the translator of Petronius, and the author of the romance of 
Ardinghelh (ii%-3), the scene of which is laid in Italy in the sixteenth century. 
Like his Lelltrs, it gives abundant proof of the familiarity with ancient and 
modem art, whichjie had acquired during a residence of three years in that 
classic land'. 

Among professional scholars, Christian Gottlob Heyne (1729 — 
1812) has been justly praised for the new interest 

in ancient literature and ancient art, which he 
awakened both by his teaching and by his published works. He 
was the eldest son of a poor weaver in Upper Saxony, and, as a 
boy at school, when he first heard of a tyrannicide, he burned to 
be a Brutus and thus to avenge the wrongs inflicted on his parents 
by the tyranny of middle-men. Having no text^books of his own, 
he was compelled to borrow those of his school-fellows, and to 

Julian Schmidt, ii 316—316, 35*-5 ; 4'5— 4^3; 446—450; 463-8; 49°-4. 
596—601; 686—690; H. Nevinson's Herder and his Times, 1884, and the 
earlier literature there quoted ; later Lives in German by Haym (t88o-5), 
Kuehnemann (1895) and Bueikner (1904), alsoSuphan in Goedeke's Grundrisz, 
IV i 174 — lit, with bibliography, ib. 182 — 199 (1891'); cp. Herder's .:4nj«-A/«i 
des tl. AHertkums, ed. Danz, 1805-6; G. A. Scholl, Herder's Verdienst urn 
Wurdigang dtr Aatike and der bildeiiden KunsI, and A. G. Gemhard, Herder 
als Humaitist, pp, 193 f and 155 f of Weimarisches Herder- Album (Jena, 
1845) ; L. Keller, Herder und die KuUgtsellschaficn des Humanismus (Berlin, 
1904^ ; and Bursian, i 454 — 469. Portrait in Nevinson, and several in 
Konneclte, 248 f. 

' Bursian, i 470-5. Portraits in Kiinnecke, 24) f. Cp. Goethe's ferce 
Gutter, Helden und Wieland. 

* Bursian, i 475 f; portrait in Kiinnecke, 256; Ziegler in Baumeister's 
Handbuch, i (1) 157. 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 


From C. G. Geyser's engraving of Ihe eaily portrait by Tischbein. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


copy out the portion required for each lesson. He complains 
that (like others since his time) he was compelled to make Latin 
verses before he had read any authors, or acquired any store of 
words. His master himself had only 'an Owen", 'a Fabricius", 
a couple of 'Collections of Epigrams', and a few sacred poets, 
from whose pages he used to dictate verses for his pupils to 
paraphrase ^ To learn Greek he had to borrow Weller's Grammar, 
and his god-father's copy of 'Pasor". In his last year at school 
a new master came, by whom he was happily introduced to the 
Ajax of Sophocles. At the age of nineteen he went to Leipz^, 
there to endure all the miseries of a poor student's life. But 
he succeeded in gaining admission to the lectures of Ernesti, and 
it was thus that he first learnt what was meant by 'the inter- 
pretation' of the Classics*. Professor Christ, whose lectures were 
'a tissue of endless digressions', took some interest in him, and 
recommended the poor youth, who was almost destitute of books, 
to follow the example of Scaliger and read all the Classics in 
chronological order. Heyne had to borrow the necessary books, 
and for half-a-year slept for only two nights in each week, and 
consequently fell into a fever. At the end of four years he 
graduated, and in the following year some Latin verses of his 
attracted the attention of Count Brubl, who made him an under- 
clerk in his library at Dresden, where Heyne shared a garret with 
a youi^ divine, and was content to sleep on the floor, with a few 
folios for his pillow. In the library he made the acquaintance 
of Winckelmann, who was then preparing for his journey to 
Italy". During this period Heyne produced an edition of Ti- 
bullus and of Epicletus (1755-6). In the latter year Dresden 
was attacked by Frederic the Great, and BriihI's library was 
destroyed'. Heyne thereupon promptly obtained a tutorship in 
the Schijnberg family, where he met his future wife ; accompanied 
young Schonberg to Wittenberg, where he continued his own 

' John Owen, Epigratnmaia, 1614 etc. 

' Georg von Goldschmied (ai*Z\x.n\mlz), El/gaiiliae Poelicae, 1554, Poeniata 
Sacra, 1560, Dc re paetka, 1565 elc. 

' Heeten, /Tft'"', ij- 

' Geoig Pasor, Maniiale graecarum veeiim N. T. 1640 (Leipiig, 1735); 
Gramm. gr. sacra N. T. 1655- 

* Heeren, 30. ' Heeren, 44. ' Heeren, 61. 

h. i., iiA.OOt^lC 


Studies tilt he was driven out by the Prussian artillery ; and 
returned to Dresden, only to be expelled by another bombard- 
ment, in which all his books and papers were burnt (1760)'. 
His future wife had already suffered a similar fate, but they 
were happily united in the following year. On the death of 
Gesner at Gottingen, Ernesti at Leipzig was consulted as to the 
choice of a successor. Ernesti (as we have seen)' suggested 
Ruhnken, and Ruhnken suggested Heyne, who had shown how 
much he knew of Latin literature by his Tibullus ; of Greek, by 
his Epictetus. Ruhnken added that Hemsterhuys agreed that 
Heyne was the only one who could replace Gesner, and ended 
with the assurance that such was Heyne's genius and learning, 
that ere long all Europe would ring with his praise^. In June, 
1763, Heyne settled at Gottingen, where he lived for forty-nine 
years, loyally devoting himself to his duties as professor of 
Eloquence, as director of the philological Seminar, as university 
librarian, as secretary of the local Academy, as editor of the local 
Review, and as an active administrator in business affairs con- 
nected with the University and with education in general. 

He had a weak voice, an unimpressive presence, and a certain 
lack of form and method, but his lectures were largely attended. 
They owed their main attraction to the lecturer's undoubted 
learning and to his lively interest in his subject. They ranged 
over a wide field, including the exposition of Greek and I^tin 
authors, especially the poets, the history of Greek and Latin 
literature and antiquities, and the technology of ancient art 
During a brief journey to Hanover, he perused Lessing's Laokoon 
(which had just been published), admiring the author's taste, which 
he considered superior even to that of Winckelmann, and agreeing 
with Lessing in his depreciation of Virgil in comparison with 
Homer'. The immediate influence of Winckelmann and Lessing 
is manifest in the fact that, in the very next year, Heyne announced 
for the first time a course of lectures on archaeology (1767)". 

' Heeren, 61, 87. . , ^ p, n supra, 

• Ep. 18 Oct. 1,761 (Heeren, 74). 

* LeUetofK July 1766 (Heeren, 154 f). 

' Heeren, gi. Heyne afterwards published a syllabus of this course 
(Elnltilung, 1771), expanded by J. P, Siebenkees (1758-96), ed. i799f. 
Heyne's laler lectures of 1791 were published in 1811 (Bursian, J 478 n). 

h. !■, ii,l^.OOglc 


Much of his reputation rested on the excellent manner in which 
he trained the future school-masters of Geimany in his small and 
select Seminar. 

Heyne was not an original genius. He was a many-sided 
scholar, who studied and expounded ancient life in all its 
successive phases, and became the founder of that branch of 
classical teaching that deals with the study of Reatitn, the science 
of ' things ' as contrasted with that of ' words ', archaeology (in its 
widest sense) as contrasted with language and literature'. He 
was 'the first who with any decisiveness attempted '...'to read in 
the writings of the Ancients, not their language atone, or even 
their detached opinions and records, but their spirit and character, 
their way of life and thought". 

The criticism and exposition of ancient poetry is represented 
in his editions of TibuUus', Virgil', Pindar', and the Iliad*. 
Like Gesner, he is comparatively weak in textual criticism ; his 
choice among different readings is guided more by personal 
preference than by an impartial weighing of the evidence. In 
his explanatory notes he assigns a subordinate place to points of 
grammar and metre. The preparation of the metrical part of his 
Pindar was entirely entrusted to Hermann, then twenty-five years 
of age. Heyne's own interest lay, not in the metre, but in the 
subject-matter of the Odes, flis commentary supplied all that 
was immediately necessary for the understanding of the text, 
everything else being reserved for an Excursus. In his ex- 
planations (as in his textual criticism) there is a certain lack of 
decision. He has the merit, however, of being interested in the 
aesthetic interpretation of his author. Of the above editions the 
most important, as a whole, is the Virgil, the least successful part 
being the treatment of the subject-matter of the Georgits. His 
edition of the Iliad, which cost him fifteen years of labour, has 
far less permanent value. His interest in the subject was mainly 

' Herbst, Voss' Lebtn, i 70 ; Paulsen, ii 35'. 

' Carlyle, Heyat, in Misc. Essays, ii iii (ed. 1869). Cp. Ziegler in 
Baumeister's HoHdbuck, \ (1) 155 f; Paulsen, i 603-5', " 36 — 4'°- 

* '755i ed. 3, 1798. 

* 1767-75. The best ed. is the German Prachtausgabe ot 1800. 

* s vols., 1798 i cp. Heeren, 163-6. * 8 vols., i. 



aroused by the publication of Robert Wood's Essay on the 
original Genius of Homer (1769)'. The treatment of grammatical 
questions, in the course of the fifty-three appendices, is full, 
without being sufficiently exhaustive, or sufficiently precise. The 
work, as a whole, was practically a compilation, and the date of 
its appearance (1803) inevitably suggested a comparison with 
Wolfs Prolegomena (1795), a comparison which was bound to be 
to the disadvantage of Heyne. 

Heyne failed (o appreciate the importance of the Cadix Vemtus A, and the 
accompanying ic^o/tii, published by Villaison ■□ 178S. He found himself uiuble 
to break loose from the (exl of Samuel Clarke and Ernesti. The questions as 
to the origin of the Homeric poems, which Wolf had handled in a masterly 
and methodical inajiuec, were discussed in an uncertain and tenlatire way by 
Heyne, first in a paper presented to the Gottingen Academy later in the same 
year*, and subsequently in two excursuses (o the likst book of the lliad^. 
Heyne emphasises the fact that we have no trustworthy historical tradition, 
either as to Homer's personality, or as lo the origin atid the early fortunes of 
the Homeric poems. We must therefore rest content with conjectures, which 
cannot go beyond the bounds of mere probabittly. Such are the suggestions 
that Hoiner is not a historic person, that his name may be derived from the 
collecting of his poems, that certain parts of the Iliad were composed at 
different times by diflereDt poets, thai these parts were recited separately for a 
long period of lime by various rhapsodes, and were, at a comparatively lale 
dale, collected into a comprehensive whole {possibly by Peisistratus and his 
sons), and made generally known by being reduced lo writing. These sug- 
gestiotis are practically those of Wolf, and it is deemed impossible lo determine 
how far Ihis identity of opinions Was independently attained by Heyne. Yet 
some points are clear. In 177; Heyne had no doubt as to the historic person- 
ality of Homer'- In 1790 he wrote toZo^a:— ' As to theageoflhe Homeric 
poems, how could il occur lo me lo go beyond the existing data? All the rest 
is a dream. To myself it t^tvaf. probable that at first there were separate songs, 
which were subsequently combined. This, however, is on\y 3. fossibUily...". 

' Heeren. no f; cp. vol. ii, p. 4J1 supra. 

* I Aug. 1795, De anliqua Homeri Uilione indagamla, dtjadicaftda el 
reililuenda, in Cammentaliana Si}eielalis...ColliHgtnsis, xlii 159 — iSi. 

' De Iliade universe et dt eius partibus rhapiodiarumqui eompagi, and De 
Hotnere Hiadis auclere. 

* De arigitu et eaassU fabularum Homerkarum in Nmii Cemmentarii Sac. 
GolHng. viii 3+— jS. 

' Welcker, Zoega's Lehen, ii 60 f (Bursian, i 48] n.). On ihe controversy 
raised by Heyne'a statement that he had held these views for 30 years, and had 
expressed them orally, and in writing, cp. Wolf, Briefe an Heyni, 179J, and 
(in Heyne's favour) Bibl. der red. Kunste, vols, iv, v, and Heeren's Heyne, 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 


But, after Ihe publication of Wolf's Prolegomena, Heyne's references to the 
points in controversy become more full and more definite. Some of the 
questions had doubtless been in (he air, ever since the publication of Wood's 
Eiiay in 1769. Wolf staled all these questions with greater precision and 
established Ihem on a scientilic basis. As his work on Homer begins a new 
era, its further consideration is reserved for the next chapter. 

The only writers of Greek prose edited by Heyne were Epictetus 
and ApoUodorus. His edition of the latter is a repertory of the 
mythol(^cat literature of the ancients, followed by genealc^cal 
tables and an index of all the authors cited. 

Heyne is the founder of the scientific treatment of Greek 
mythology. He regards the old Greek myths as the summing up 
of the stories and the opinions of a primitive people prior to the 
introduction of writing, and he emphasises the difference between 
the religious conceptions of that early age and those prevailii^ in 
later times'. He also wrote much on ancient history. Among 
the most important of his numerous historical dissertations are 
those" on Castor's chronology of the successive epochs of sea- 
power, on the Greek colonies, on the institutions of Sparta, on the 
treaties between Rome and Carthage, on the civilisation of the 
Ptolemies, and on the authorities followed by Diodorus. 

In the domain of art he followed the lines laid down by 
Winckelmann. He had neither the enthusiasm and the artistic 
penetration of Winckelmann, nor the critical and philosophical 
acumen of Lessing ; but he surpassed both, in a full and accurate 
knowledge of antiquarian details, and in a trained aptitude for 
methodical historical investigation. In points of chronolc^y and 
history he is able to correct Winckelmann'. He discusses many 
of the ancient masterpieces, from the Chest of Cypselus' down to 
the group of Laocoon', and discourses on the Philostrati and 
Callistratus, and on the ideal types of Greek divinities. He edits 
excerpts on ancient art from the elder Pliny'. He also gives 
proof of his knowledge of numismatics and welcomes the new 
impulse given to that study in his own life-time'. 

As inspector of the school at Ilfeld, be used his influence in 1 770 in favour 
of the revival of a liberal education. The school had fallen into decay, but all, 

' Bursian, i 484—490. ' Opusc. v 338—391. 

' Vorlesung, 1770- * Anliqiuirische Atifsalzt, 1778-9, ii i. 

' 1790, 181 1 ; cp. AnI. Aufi. i 3, ii 3—5. ' Bursian, 1493-6. 



he felt sure, would be well, if a little Greek were introduced ; he would then 
feel no anxiety about Latin and all the other subjects known as humaniera, 
while, wherever Greek was neglected, everything else would remain ' mere 
patch-work and perpetual botching''. His report of 1780 also proves him to 
have been an enlightened proniolei of the New Humanism'. 

In 1803, during the French war, his intercession with Napoleon 
led to the university of Gottingen being protected from peril, and 
to the surrounding district being exempt from hostile invasion. 
In 1809 his 8ath birthday was celebrated with a procession of 
professors and students, and with gifts of garlands of flowers. 
He delighted in roses, and always kept a bunch of them in water 
on his desk. His house was embowered among rose-bushes, and 
he was fond of the fields and skies, and could lie for hours on the 
grass reading a book^ His son-in-law and bi<^rapher supplies 
us with a detailed time-table of his well-spent day from five in the 
morning to eleven or twelve at night*. His shortness of sight led 
to his sometimes making odd mistakes about strangers from a 
distance who came to pay him their respects. It also disqualified 
him from being a good judge of the larger varieties of ancient 
sculpture. In 1798 he was much interested in helping to prepare 
the illustrations to Homer collected by Tischbein, who more than 
once painted his portrait^ His reputation spread to other lands, 
and he was once surprised to find in an English newspaper 'an 
extract of a letter from a Gentleman at Gottingen to his friend in 
Cambridge': — 'A Mr Hevne, to whom I was lately introduced, 
ought to be mentioned as the first genius of Gottingen". On 
the eve of his eightieth year, his second wife showed him a 
pass^e in which Gibbon had referred to Heyne's 'usual good 

■ /fur Sliickmerk and ewig Stiimpirei. ' Paulsen, ii 38" f. 
> Heeren, 411 f; Carlyle, 109, uj. ' Heeren, 315-8. 

■ Heeren, frontispiece, and p. 411. The earlier portrait has been engraved 
by C. G. Geyser {p. 37 suprii) \ the later, by Riepenhausen. 'ITiere is also an 
engraving by F. Mltller. 

• Morning PosI, 10 April, 1775 (Heeren, 331 f). 

' Heeren, 333. In iv 419. 509 Bory, Gibbon calls Heyne ' the encellent 
editor of Vii^l ', and 'the best of his editors'. In 1770 Heyne ' the last and 
best editor of Virgil ' had called thi; unknown author of Gibbon's anonyraons 
Observ^ons on the Sixth Aeneid a dociMS..M ehqutnHsHmus Britannus 
(AiUob. 85). 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


'On the whole' (says Carlyle), 'the Germans have some reason to be 
proud of Hejme: who shall deny that Ihey have here once more produced 
a scholar of the right old stock ; a man to be tanked, for honest; of study and 
of life, with (he Scaligets, the Bentleys, and old itlustrious men, who. ..fought 
like gianb...for the good cause?' Pointing lo the example of the 'son of 
the Chemnitz weaver', he adds: — 'Let no lonely unfriended son of genius 

While the study of coins was one of the many departments of 
learning that attracted the notice of Heyne, it was 
the life-work of his contemporary, Joseph Eckhel 
(1737— 1798), the founder of the scientific study of Numismatics, 
Early in life he had begun that study as a teacher at various 
schools in Vienna, Toextend his knowledge, he left in 1772 for 
Italy, where he was invited to rearrange the collection of coins 
belonging to Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, the second son 
of the Empress Maria Theresa. On his return, the Empress 
appointed him professor of Antiquities in the university of Vienna, 
and director of the Imperial Cabinet of Coins and Antiques 
(1775-6). He arranged the coins according to his own system 
and published in two folio volumes a complete catalogue, which 
is a model of its kind (1779)- In his system (which had been 
only partially anticipated by the French numismatist, Joseph 
Pellerin) ancient coins were divided into two great classes. The 
first of these consists mainly of Greek coins of States, Peoples 
and Kings, together with colonial and imperial coins, all arranged 
in geographical order, passing from the West to the East of 
Europe, and, after traversing Asia, coming round again to the 
West through Egypt and North Africa. The second class was 
reserved for Roman coins alone, beginning with the consular and 
gentile coins in the alphabetical order of the gentes, and ending 
with the Roman imperial coins in chronological order. This 

' Afiic. Essays, ii 113. On Heyne, see (he 'biographical portrait' by 
Heeien (511 pp., Gottingen, 1813), and its 'miniature copy' in Carlyle's 
Miscellaneous Essays, ii 75— 114, ed. 1869. Cp. Paulsen, i 601-s, ii 34—41'; 
Stark, 113-5; and esp. Bursian, i 476— 496, with the literature quoted by him, 
477 n., and by Stark, 115, who considers Hettner {Lit. Gach. des xviii Jahrh. 
iii 3, 1. p. 339 f) fairer to Heyne than Justi, who calls Heyne a typical German 
Univeriilais-philisler (Winckelmann.ii (1) 130-1). See also F. Leo, in Gottingen 
Feslschri/l {fitAvti, 1901), ijS — 134. 


system was applied to all the extant ancient coins in the eight 
volumes of his classic work, the Docttina Numorum Veternm^- 
The general Introduction deals with the history of Greek coinage, 
the technique, weight, value and size of coins, the right of mintage, 
the officials of the mint, inscriptions, types of coins, etc., etc 
The fourth volume closes with general observations. The re- 
maining four begin similarly with an Introduction and end with 
general observations on Roman coinage'. A modern expert, who 
dedicates his work to the memory of Eckhel, characterises the 
Historia Numorum Veterum as 'a marvellous compendium of 
wide research and profound erudition, a work which can never 
be altogether superseded'. But he also points out that its author 
was imperfectly acquainted with the history of Greek art and with 
metrolc^y, both of which fields of study have been thoroughly 
explored in later times, and that the absence of extant specimens 
of certain coins (such as the electrum staters of Cyzicus, now 
represented by as many as 150 varieties) led him to doubt the 
literary evidence for their existence'. It may be added that a 
comprehensive lexicon of ancient coinage was pro- 
duced by J. C. Rasche (1733 — 1805), who was bom 
near Eisenach and was the pastor of a place near Meiningen. 
His lexicon extended to fourteen volumes (1785—1805). It was 
begun before the beginning but not finished until after the com- 
pletion of Eckhel's Historia*. 

Our survey of the eighteenth century in Germany must close 
with the name of Christian Gottfried Schutz, who 
lived far into the nineteenth {1747 — 1832). He was 
professor at Jena for the twenty-five years that elapsed between 
the six years of his first and the twenty-eight of his second tenure 
of office at Halle, where he died at the great age of 85. A man 
of wide attainments, and remarkable freshness and force of in- 
tellect, he is well known as an editor of Aeschylus". In the text 
of that author many passages are arbitrarily altered, but we find 

' Vienna, 1791-8; also Addenda and portrail, t8i6; ed. 4, T84t. 

' F. Kenner, Ktir/m^ (Wien, rSjOl Stark, iii f ; Bursian, i 496-9. 

' B. V. Head, Doclrina Numorum, (887, Preface. 

* Bursian, i 499 f. 

' 1781-94; ed. I, 1799—1807; ed. 3, 1809—1811. 



frequent proof of critical acumen and of poetic taste'. He had 
already edited the Phoenissae and the Clouds ; he afterwards 
began a more extensive edition of Aristophanes, but the first 
three plays alone were published. He is perhaps best known as 
an editor of Cicero. After commenting on the Rhetorical works', 
and on all the Letters in chronological order', he produced \ 
complete edition in twenty volumes, ending with a lexicon and 
with various indices^ The substance of the twenty-four programs 
of his time at Jena was pubUshed in 1830 ; and he is remembered 
as the founder, and for nearSy fifty years the editor, of the 
Allgemeine Liiteraturzeitvng^ which, for the first twenty years of 
its existence, was the foremost critical Review in Germany, and, 
for the next forty, found a rival in the Review started at Jena in 
1S04 under the influence of Goethe°, whose relation to the 
Classics will engage our attention for a brief portion of the 
following chapter. 

Early in the eighteenlh century the whole range of Greek and Lalin litera- 
ture was traversed by the erudite Fabricius. The Latin scholars, Gesner 
(1731) and Emesti (1773), promoted the study of the Greek Classics in the 
schools of Germany, Reislte taught himself Greek at Halle ^.\^i^,\ while, in 
1743 and [770, Ruhnken and Wyttenbach learnt their Greek aX Leyden. But, 
between those dates, the land which they deserted was awakened by Winekel- 
mann to a new sense of the beauty of Greek art {1755), and learnt from 
I-essing the principles of literary and artistic criticism (i?*^)- Winckelmann 
and Lessing had an immediate influence on Heyne's teaching al Gottiogen 
(1767). Germany was next impelled by Herder to appreciate Homer as the 
national poet of a primitive people (1773! i Ihe popular ear was won for Homer 
by the poetic version of Voss (i 781-93} ; and ihe close of the century saw the 
triumph of the New Humanism with Homer for its hero. In and afier 1790 
we find its foremost representatives in the literary circle of Weimar and Jena, 
in Herder, in Goethe and Schiller, and in Wilhelm von Humboldt. The last 
of these was the earliest link between that circle and F. A. Wolf, who, in the 
time of transition from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, was destined, 
by his published work and by his professorial teaching al Halle, to do two 
eventful things :— to raise the Homeric question by the publication of his 
Prolegomena (1795), and lo map out the vast province of classical learning, and 
find in a perfect knowledge of Ihe many-sided life of the ancient Greeks and 
Romans the final goal of the modern study of the ancient world. 

' e.g. in Eum. i68 f (Wecklein), icTii-ofpout relciji is corrected into i.vTittna'' 
&n Tl/rgi, and Ufa S' /kii, tIs into i<l'ti Si tet tu. 

' 1804-8. ' 1809-13. » i8r4-li. ■ Buisian, i 514-6- 




Aiie bisherigen Anskhttn iaufen zu diesem vortuhmsten Zielt 
wU zu einem Mitlelpunkte zusammen. Es ist aber dieses Ziel ktin 
anderes als die Kenniniss der alterthiimlichen Menschheii selbsi, 
wekhe Kennlniss aus der durch das Studium der alien Ueberreste 
bedinglen BeobacMung einer organisch enlwickelten bedeutungsvoUen 
National- BiMung kervorgeht. Kein niedrigerer Standpunkt als 
dieser kann allgemeim und wiuenschaflltche F^rschungen iiber das 
Alterthutn begriinden. 

F, A. Wolf, Darstellung der Alterthums-Wissensche^, 
p. 124, 1807. 

Excolere animum et mentem dodrina, rerum utilium observa- 
tione et cogniiione ingenii dotes omms acuere, inUlUgendi facultatem 
in dies augere, Vetera nosse et cognita emendare et amplijieare, nova 
excogitando reperire, inquirere in rerum causas, perscrutari rerum 
originem et progressum, ex veleribus praesentia expiicare, obscura et 
intricata expedire, ubique vera a falsis discemere, prava et vitiosa 
corrigere,futilia et absurda confutare, labefactare, tollere, el, ut uno 
verba absoh'am, verum videre, hoc demum est humane ingenio ac 
ratione dignum, hoc pabulum est animi, hoc demum est vivere. 

C. G. CoBET, Protrepticiis ad Studla Humanilatis, 
p- 6, 1854. 

The humanistic studies ha^e, during this century, become wider 
and more real. They have gradually been drawn out of a scholastic 
isolation, and have been brought more and more into the general 
current of intellectual and literary interests. So far from losing 
strength or efficacy by ceasing to hold that more exclusive position 
which they occupied two or three generations ago, they have acquired 
a fresh vigour, a larger sphere of genuine activity, and a place in 
the higher education which is more secure, because the acceptance on 
which it rests is more intelligent. 

R. C. Jebb, Humanism in Education, p. 34, 1899. 

h. i., iiA.OOgIc 

History of Scholarship in the Nineteenth Century. 
Gennanr, Austrui*, and Gaman Switzeiiuidt. 




aiMk (cnid. 




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History of Scholarship in the Nineteenth Century centd. 


Fibum ccntd. 





A. FabrSir 










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Bool iBi I— 1001 
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F. A. Wolf. 

From Wagner's engraving of the portrait by Jo. Wolff (1823). Fiontisfuece 
oS. F, W. HoSmaan's ed. oi WoM's AlletiAHmi-IVisstHicAa/l, 1833. 




A NEW eta begins with the name of Friedrich August Wolf 
(1759 — 1824). His father was the schoolmaster 
and organist of the little village of Hainrode near 
Nordhausen, south of the Harz, and it was to his mother that he 
owed the awakening of his intellectual life. Before he had attained 
the age of two, he knew a large number of Latin words, and, be- 
fore he was eight, had acquired the rudiments of Greek and French, 
and could read an easy Latin author. His memory was as 
■ remarkable as that of Porson, who was bom in the same year. 
His parents soon removed to Nordhausen, where, by the age of 
twelve, he had learned all that his instructors could teach him. 
At his new home, the first of his three head-masters was Johann 
Andreas Fabricius (1696 — 1769), the author of a History of 
Learning^. Towards the end of his school-days he became his 
own teacher. Starting once more with the declensions, he 'read 
with new eyes the Latin and Greek Classics, some carefully, 
others more cursorily; learnt by heart several books of Homer, 
and large portions of the Tragedians and Cicero, and went 
through Scapula's Lexicon and Faber's Thesaurus'. During 
this time of strenuous study, 'he would sit up the whole night in a 
room without a stove, his feet in a pan of cold water, and one of 
his eyes bound up to rest the other". Happily this severe ordeal 
ended with his removal to the university of Gottingen, 

On the 8th of April, 1777, he entered his name in the 
matriculation-book as Studiosus Philoiogiae. The Pro-Rector, a 
professor of Medicine, protested : — " Philology was not one of 

' Abriss eintr ailgemtinm Historic der Gdehrsamkdt, 3 vols., 1752-4. 
' W. Korle, i 11 f; Patlison's Essays, i 341 f. 

h. |.4M-rt.OO'^lc 


the four Facullies; if he wanted to become a school-master, he 
ought to enter himself as a 'student of Theoiogy'". Wolf insisted 
that he proposed to study, not Theology, but Philology. He 
carried his point, and was the first student who was so entered in 
that university'. The date of his matriculation has been deemed 
an epoch in the History of German Education, and also in the 
History of Scholarship. He next waited on the Rector, Heyne, 
to whom he had presented a letter of introduction a year before. 
Hastily glancing at this letter, Heyne had then asked him, who 
had been stupid enough to advise him to study ' what he called 
philology ', Wolf replied that he preferred ' the greater intellectual 
freedom' of that study. Heyne assured him that 'freedom' 
could nowhere be found, that the study of the Classics was ' the 
straight road to starvation ', and that there were hardly six good 
chairs of philology in all Germany, Wolf modestly suggested 
that he aspired to fill one of the six; Heyne could only laugh and 
bid farewell to the future ' professor of philology ', adding that, 
when he entered at Gottingen, he would be welcome to attend 
Heyne's lectures gratis. When he actually entered, Heyne, who 
was a busy man, treated him with a strange indifference. How- 
ever, Wolf put down his name for Heyne's private course on 
the Iliad, noted all the books cited in the introductory lecture, 
gathered all these books around him, and carefully prepared the 
subject of each lecture, but was so disappointed with the vague 
and superficial treatment of the subject, that, as soon as the 
professor had finished the first book, he ceased to attend. In the 
next semester, he found himself excluded from the course on 
Pindar. However, he went on working by himself; to save time, 
he spent only three minutes in dressing, and cut off every form of 
recreation. At the end of the first year, he had nearly killed 
himself, and, after a brief change of air, resolved never to work 
beyond midnight. By the end of the second, he had begun to 
give lectures on his own account, and, half a year later, was 
appointed, on Heyne's recommendation, to a mastership at Ilfeld. 
There he remained for two years and a half, married, and, for 
little more than a year, was head-master of Osterode. At both 
' There had been iaolaled entries of phiMogicu stuiUoU ax Erlangen in 
1745-7+ {Gudeman's Grundriss, 193). 

h. i., iiA.OOt^lC 


places he made his mark. At Ilfeld he began to brood over the 
Homeric question, and also to work at Plato. In 1782 he pro- 
duced an edition of the Symposium, in which he followed a recent 
innovation by writing the notes in German. His aim throughout 
was to interest young students in the study of Plato. In the 
preface he introduced an adroit reference to Frederick the Great, 
-the philosopher on the throne', and to his 'enlightened minister', 
von Zedlitz, to whom Frederick had addressed his memorable 
letter on education only three years before"; he also paid a 
compliment to Gedike, who then had great influence with the 
minister". This preface, and the proof of his success as a school- 
master, led to his being invited by the minister to fill a chair of 
' Philosophy and Padagogtk ' at the university of Halle. The 
stipend was only ^£4$ a year, with no house, but the offer was 
accepted, and thus Wolf, at the age of twenty-four, found himself 
in a position rich in ample opportunities. He had been com- 
missioned to remove from Halle the only reproach to which it 
was then open, — that of not being a 'school of philolt^y'. In a 
few years he entirely changed the spirit of the university, and, 
'through it, of all the higher education in Germany, waking in 
schools and universities an enthusiasm for ancient literature 
second only to that of the Revival in the sixteenth century'". 
One of the means whereby he raised the level of classical studies 
was the institution in 17S6 of a philological Sdminarium for the 
training of classical teachers'. The other was his work as a 
public lecturer. During his twenty-three years at Halle, lecturing 
on the average for rather more than two hours a day, he gave at 
least fifty courses on classical authors. 

His lectures on (he lUad, begun in 1 785, were resumed in alternate years ; 
he lectured thrice on the Odyssty, while his other courses dealt with the 
Homeric Hymns, Hesiod, Pindar, Theognis, the Dramatists, ind Callimachus, 
and, in prose, Herodotus, Demosthenes, Aeschines, Plato, Xenophon, Lucian, 
Aristotle's treatise on Poetry, and 'Longinus', as well as the usual Latin 
authors, together with the elder Pliny's outline of the history of ancient art. 
He also gave fifteen courses of original lectures, including an introduction to 

' Paulsen, ii 71'. 

' PP- '33 f of reprint in Kleint Schrifttit, i 131—157 ; abstract of Sym- 
posium, ii. ii 593. 

' Fattison, i 359 f. ' Details in Pattison, i 367-9. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 

GERMANY. [cent. XVIII f 

Homer and Plato, Latin Compo^tion, Histoiy of Greek and L^iin Uteiatare, 
Greek and Roman Antiquities, Ancient Geography, Principles of History and 
Survey or Ancient History, Ancient Paiating and Numismatics, History of 
Philology, and, as a general introduction, a course on the 'Encyclopaedia, of 
Philology''. This last course, which was first announced in 178;, assumed 
its final form when it was printed ai Berlin in 1S07 as a. survey of the whole 
field of clauical learning and a conspectus of all ils component pacts*. 

His lectures were fully prepared beforehand, but were delivered 
with the aid of only a few notes. Goethe, who, in 1805, more 
than once prevailed on one of the professor's daughters to conceal 
him behind a curtain in the lecture- room, tells us that the language 
impressed him as 'the spontaneous utterance of a full mind, a 
revelation springing from thorough knowledge, and diffusing itself 
over the audience". His aim was, not to communicate know- 
ledge, but to stimulate and suggest. The spirit of critical inquiry 
that breathed through all his lectures was symbolised by the fact 
that the sole ornament of his lecture-room was a bust of Lessing. 

When Wolf went to Halle, the 'philanthropists' serving under 
the banner of Basedow in the school of Dessau* had, for the 
first time since the Revival of Learning, succeeded in discrediting 
the study of the ancient languages in North Germany. Wolf 
'represents the reaction against the new realism'', and his conflict 
with the modern school of useful knowledge brought into clear 
relief his ideal of a culture founded on Greek traditions. In 
1807 he defines this ideal as a 'purely human education', an 
'elevation of all the powers of the mind and soul to a beautiful 
harmony of the inner and outer man". 

Everything that he wrote arose out of his public teaching. 
Early in his career he had produced an edition of Hesiod's 
Theogonia {17S3), of all the Homeric poems (1784-5), and of 
four Greek plays (1787)', His reading of Demosthenes in con- 
nexion with Attic Law bore fruit in his edition of the Lepttnes 

' Cp. Kiitte. 11 114-S; Arnoldt, i 119 f; Bursian, i 511. 

* Xleitu Schrifltn, il 808 — 895, Dariittlung dtr Alterlhumt- WittenichafU 
' Tag- und Jahra-Hijie i8os. xxx 155 Colta's Jubil. ed. (xiiv 195 ed. 

DUnUer); Paitison, 1371. 

« Paulsen, ii 51'. ' Pattison, i 373. 

• Patlison, i 374. 

' Aesch. Ag., Soph. O.T., Eur. Pheen., Arist. Eccl. 

h, i.MM,Googlc 


(1789), which was intended for advanced students, and not for 
schools. It was welcomed by scholars, not excluding Heyne ; 
and the way in which Greek Antiquities were treated in the 
Prol^mena inspired one of Wolf's greatest pupils, Boeckh, with 
the design of writing his 'Public Economy of Athens'. The 
corrected edition, announced twenty-seven years later, never 
appeared; of his 'Select Dialogues of Lucian', only one volume 
was published (1786); and his Herodian (1792) remained un- 
revised. He was fond of lecturing on the Tusculan Disputations, 
and printed a text for the use of his class ; for the purport of his 
own exposition, which has been described as 'rich in keen remark 
on the force of words and phrases', we have to turn to the end of 
Orelli's edition of 1829'. 

Even his famous Prolegomena to Homer (1795) had a purely 
casual origin. His text of 1784-5 being out of print, he was 
asked to prepare a new edition, and, as there were to be no 
notes whatsoever, he proposed to write a pre&ce explaining the 
principles on which he had dealt with the text. He did far more 
than this, for he roused into life the great controversy known as 
the Homeric question. Some of the points connected with the 
earlier stages of this controversy may here be noticed. 

Josephus*, writing about 90 A.D., had held that Ihe ait of writing 'couM 
not have been known to the Greeks of ihe Tiojan war', and 'thejr saj' (he 
added) 'Ihat even Homer did not leave his poelty in writing, but that it was 
transmitted by memory, and afterwards put ti^ether from the separate songs ; 
hence the number of discrepancies'. This passage had been noticed in 1 58J 
by Casaubon', who remarked that 'we could hardly hope for a sound lenl of 
Homer, however old our mss might be'. Bentley, in IJ13, had supposed that 
a poel named Homer lived about 1050 B.C. and '■airoli a scffuel of songs and 
rhapsodies... These loose songs were not collected together in the form of an 
epic poem till Pi^tratus' time, above 500 years after'*. In 1730, the Italian 
scholar. Vico, had muntained that 'Homer' was a collective name for the 
work of many successive poets; but Vico'a views were at Ihis lime unknown 
to Wolf. He was, however, familiar with Robert Wood's Essay an the 
Origi?utl Genius af Homer {1769)'. Only seven copies had then been prinled, 
but one of them had been sent to Goltingen, and was reviewed by Heyne', It 
was soon translated into German'. In the course of some pages on the leambg 

' Pattison, i 377. ' Centra Afiisnem, i a. 

* On DIog. Laert. ix it. * Vol. ii 408 supra. 

° Vol. ii 43a supra. ' Gatt. Get. Anz. 1770, 31. 

' ByJ. D. Michaelisof Gottineen(i773; 1778^); and English ed. 1775. 


5$ GERMANY, fCENT. XViri f 

of Homer, Wopd had argued that the art of writing was unknown lo the poet. 
Wolfreters to this passage, and builds his theory upon it*. The icholia of the 
cedei Vmelus of the Iliad, published by Villoison in 1788, supplied evidence 
AS to divci^encies between the ancient lexis. Wolf mainlained that these 
divei^encies were due to the Homeric poems having long been transmitted by 
memory alone. He contended that it was impossible to arrive at the original 
text, and that an editor could aim at nothing more than a reconstruction of the 
text of the Alexandrian age. 

The PtQlrggmena, written in great haste, formed a narrow octavo volume of 
iSo.pages. The author begins by discussing thedefectsin the existing editions, 
due to an imperfect use of Eustalhius and the ickolia. He next reviews the 
history of the poems from about 950 lo 550 B.C., and endeavours lo prove the 
four following points:^ 

'(1) The Homeric poems were composed without the aid of writing, which 
in 950 B.C. was either wholly unknown to the Greeks, or not yet employed 
by ibem for literary purposes. The poems were handed down by oral recita- 
tion, and in the course of that process suffered many alterations, deliberate or 
accidental, by the rhapsodes. (2) . After the poems had been written down 
Hrca 5JO s.c, they suffered still further changes. These were deliberately 
made by 'revisers' (iuioitewiffTflf), or by learned critics who aimed at polishing 
the work, and bringing it into harmony with certain forms of idiom or canons 
of art. (S) The Iliiui has artistic unity ; so, in a still higher degree, has the 
Odyssey. But this unity is not mainly due to the original poems ; rather it has 
been superinduced by their artificial treatment in a later age. (4) The original 
poems, from which our Iliad and our Odytiiy have been put tc^ether, were , 
not all by the same author''. 

In the Prokgemena Wolf supposes that Homer 'began the weaving of the 
web' and 'carried it down to a certain point'^, and, further, that Homer wrote 
;the greater part of the songs afterwards united in the Iliad and Odyssey. In 
the preface to the text, dated March 1795, he adds, 'it is certain that, alike in 
.the Iliad and in the Odyssey, the web was begun, and the threads were carried 
to a certain point, by the poet who h^d firsi taken up the theme... Perhaps it 
.will never be possible to show, even with probability, the precise points at 
.which new filaments or dependencies of the texture begin ; but... we must assign 
.to Homer only Ike greater fart of the songs, and the remainder to the Homer- 
idae, who were following out the lines traced by him". 

' He has himself told us, in memorable words, how he felt on turning from 
his own theory to a renewed perusal of the poems. As he steeps himself in that 
stream of epic story which glides like a cl^ai river, his own aiguments vanish 
(totri his mind ; the pervading harmony and consistency of the poems assert 

> Freleg. c. n, n. 8. 

' Jebb's Homer, 108 f; cp. Volkmann's GeschichU utsdXrllikdcr IVol/scHea 
Frolegomena, 1874, 48 — 67 ; and Bursian, i 516 f.. 
" c,.i8 adjinem, and c- 31. 
< Praefat.^. xxviii (Jebbj.iog), A'/. Sehr.iii f. 


CHAP. XXVin.] F. A. WOLF. 

The book was dedicated to Ruhnken". In the foliowing year, 
on Ruhnken's proposal, Wolf was invited to fill a professorship 
then vacant at Leyden ; the invitation was declined, but Wolf 
visited Holland, and thus made the personal acquaintance of 
Ruhnken and Wyttenbach. For the present, not a single autho- 
ritative voice was raised in favour of Wolfs views in Holland, 
England, or France. The publication of the Prolegomena was 
r^arded as a 'literary impiety' by Villoison, who regretted that 
his edition of the scholia had helped to forge the weapons of the 
German critic'. A favourable review in a French periodical* 
aroused Sainte-Croix to attempt the refutation of the literary 
paradox', Fauriel in France, and Elmsley in England, were only 
twenty-two when the Prolegomena appeared; the former 'trans- 
planted the Wolfian idea fo French soil ' at a later date*; the 
latter showed little interest in the question in his review of 
Heyne's Homer''. In Germany Wolfs views were welcomed by 
Wilhelm von Humboldt, and by the brothers SchlegeP; but they 
were disapproved by the poets, by Klopstock and Schiller and 
Wieland, and by Voss, the translator of Homer'. Goethe was at 
first in favour of Wolf"*, but, writing to Schiller in 1798, he was 
more than ever convinced of the unity of the Iliad". Mean- 
while, Herder had published an anonymous paper headed 'Homer, 
Time's Favourite'", in the course of which he incidentally 
remarked that the rhapsodic origin of the Homeric poems had 
long been known to himself; that as a boy he had discovered 
the distinct authorship of the Iliad and Odyssey, and that the 

' .*. xxir(Jebb, 110). 

' Vol. ii 460 sufra ; on Wolf and Ruhnken, see S, Reiter in Neut Jahrb. 
f. kl. AH. xviii (1906) 1 — 16. 83—101. 

" Vol. ii 398 sufra. ' Caillard in Millin's Magatin Encycl. \\\ 10. 

• RifulatUnifun paradexe HUhairt de M. Wolf ^,l^•^)\ Volkmann, 106 f. 

• PaUison, ■ 383. 

^ Editi. Rev. July, 1803. In 1804 Flaxman, wriling as an artisi, said: 
'ihe Prolegomena sironglj enforces' Ihe Inith, 'thai human excellence in ail 
and sdence is the accumulaled labour of ages' (Korte, ii 1*4 f). 

' Volkmann, 74, 77 f. ' Bursian, i 519. 

» Korte, i 577 f. " Korte, i 180 i Volkmann, 75 f, 

" Htrett, Sept. 1795 ; xviii 490 — 446, ed. Suphati. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


suspicions of his boyhood had been confirmed by the newly- 
published Venetian scholia, which he had seen during his recent 
visit to Italy'. Wolf, who regarded Herder's article as a kind of 
plagiarism, wrote to Heyne complainit^ of Herder's behaviour, 
and begging Heyne to review the Frekgomena. Heyne had 
already written his review, and had treated the work as ' the first- 
fruits of the unexampled labours of Villoison ', adding that he 
had always held the same views himself, and even intimating that 
Wolf had originally derived them from Heyne's lectures*. Wolf 
reminded Heyne of the Essay on Homer which he had sent him 
in 1779; Heyne replied that he had foi^otten the Essay, but 
remembered conversing with Herder on Homer as early as 1770. 
Heyne's chaise of plagiarism was not repeated, but it was not 
withdrawn'. In 1797 Wolf replied by publishing, in the form of 
a pamphlet, his 'Letters to Heyne". Heyne's Homer appeared 
in i8oi, and was reviewed in an exceedingly bitter spirit by Voss 
and Eichstadt, who were aided by WolP, It was not until the 
next generation that the Prolegomena bore fruit in the continued 
study of the Homeric question. Meanwhile, the author's only 
subsequent Homeric publication was the singularly beautiful and 
correct edition of the text printed by Gbschen at Leipzig, with 
Flaxman's illustrations (r8o4-7). 

Wolf was still at Halle when he edited Cicero's four orations 
fitfsl redi/um (iSoi). Their spuriousness had been suspected by 
Markland (1745)'; their genuineness had been maintained by 
Gesner (1753)'. Markland's suspicions were approved by Wolf, 
who in the following year even denied the genuineness of the 
pro Marcello*. Not a few of the faults criticised by Wolf have 
since been removed with the aid of better Mss. Wolf's opinion 
was approved at the time by Boissonade in France, but the in- 

' Pattison, i 386 f ; Volkmann, 79 — 83 ; Bursian, i 464 f. 

> Gotl. Gel. Anz. 11 Nov. (and 19 Dec.J 1795. 

> Heyne's letter of 38 Feb. 1796 (Pallison, i 388). 

* Reprinted al Ihe end of Peppmliller's ed. oflhe ProUgomtna (1884). 
"Jena l.Uteraluneiiung, Mai iSo], in 16 of Ihe numbers 113 — 141; 

Bursian, i 531 \ Volkmann, 116— 119. 

* Vol. ii 413 supra. ' Ccmm. Gelt, iii 113 — 184, Cicero rfsU/ufus. 

* Kl. Schr., i 369—389; Korte, i 3JI-8. 
» KI. Schr. i 389—409; Korte, i 318 f. 


CHAP, xxvrir.] f. a. wolf. 59 

vestigations have been characterised by Madvig as 'superficial 
and misleading". Wolf produced a comprehensive edition of 
Suetonius in 1S02, while his interest in the best modem Latin led 
him to reprint Ruhnken's eulogy of Hemsterhuys, with Emesti's 
oration on Gesner". 

The twenty-three years of WolFs memorable career at Halle 
were brought to a sudden end in 1806 by the catastrophe of 
Jena. On the 17th of October the French troops took possession 
of Halle, and, three days later, the French general closed the 
university and sent the students to their homes. Under the 
advice of Goethe, Wolf spent part of his enforced leisure in 
revising his survey of the domain of classical learning, which was 
to be the opening article of the ' Museum ' of Alterthums- 
Wissenscha/t founded by Wolf and his pupil Buttmann in 1807. 
From the spring of that year he lived at Berlin for the remaining 
seventeen years of his life, but it proved impossible for the State 
to utilise his abilities either at the Board of Education or in the 
newly-founded University (1810). Thenceforth he produced little, 
and that little not of the best quality. In 1816 he published his 
Anakcta, in which he gave proof of his interest in the careers of 
the leading scholars of England'. 

At Halle, Wolf had invited his pupil Heindorf to join him in 
preparing a complete edition of Plato. As Wolf's plan made no 
progress, Heindorf, who had meanwhile left for Berlin, produced 
in i8oi the first of the four volumes of his twelve select dialogues 
(1802-10). It was dedicated to Wolf, but Wolf was dissatisfied, 
and, with the aid of Bekker, produced in 181 z a text of three 
dial(^ues', in the preface of which he announced his intention to 
publish the whole. In April, 1816, Wolf, in the preface to his 
' Analecta, referred to Heindorf in ungenerous terms', which aroused 
a protest ascribed to the joint authorship of some of the foremost 
scholars of the day'. Heindorf died at Halle two months later, 
and, not long afterwards. Wolf's health b^an to fail. He pro- 

' MadvLg's pref. to Nutzhorn's ed. (1869); Opusc. Acad. (1841), ii 339, and 
Adv. Crif. (iSjj), ii 211. 

' 1788; c^. Jena Lilt. Ztitung, 1791. ' Kl. Sekr.n 1030— II16. 

* Euthyphro, Apol., Crito; Praef. in Kl. Schr. i 418 f. 

* Kl. Sckr. {i 1011. 

* Buttmann, Schleiemutcher, Schneider, Niebuhr, Boeckh (Kiirte, ii 106 f). 


duced nothing after 1820, A serious illness in 1822 was followed 
two years later by his being ordered to Nice ; on his way, he died 
at Marseilles, where a Latin epitaph marks the approximate site 
of his grave. A bust, copied by Heidel from that of Tleck, 
commemorates him amid the scenes of his greatest success as a 
teacher, in the aula of the university of Halle, A portrait, painted 
by an artist bearing the same surname as himself, represents him 
in the year before his death'. ' In personal appearance Wolf had 
an imposing, dignified, somewhat imperious air. He was slightly 
above the middle size, broad-shouldered, deep-chested ; hands and 
feet well-proportioned. A capacious forehead, prominent eye- 
brow, searching blue eye, combined to express keenness and 
force of mind '^. His greatest work is to be found, not in the 
books that he produced but in the pupils that he stimulated to be 
the future leaders of classical learning in Germany during the first 
half of the nineteenth century. He himself claimed to be a 
teacher rather than a writer, and his published works were only 
parerga'. But in the broad survey of the whole range of classical 
learning, which formed part of his teaching, he was the first to 
present a systematic description of the vast fabric that he called 
by the name of Alterthums- Wissensckafi, to arrange and review 
its component parts, and to point to a perfect knowledge of the 
many-sided life of the ancient Greeks and Romans as the final 
goal of the modem study of the ancient world. He raised that 
study to the rank of a single comprehensive and independent 
science, and thus deserved to be reverently regarded by posterity 
as the eponymous hero of all the long line of later scholars'. 
Like Bentley, to whom he was drawn by the admiring sympathy 
of a kindred genius, he was one of the founders of a right method 
in the historic criticism of ancient literature. Like Herder, he 
regarded the Iliad and the Odyssey as part of the popular poetry of 
a primitive age, but it was not until the next generation that his 
theory as to the origin of those poems was widely discussed by 

' Reproduced on p. 50. 

' Pallison, i 411. " Kl. Sehr. ii :oi9. 

* Cp. Niebahr, Kl. Schr. n 117 (ip. Bursian, i 548). 

' Prolt^muna ad Hontirum, 1795 (1859'; cuiii Bikkeri noHs, 1871); 
h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 

CHAP, xxvrii.] . VOSS, 6l 

While Wolf, with his views as to the divided authorship of the 
songs composing the Homeric poems, appealed to 
scholars alone, and received little recognition even 
from scholars in his own age, the ear of Che German people had 
happily been won for Homer by a poet, who doubtless found a new 
reason for resisting the Wolfian theories in the fact that he had 
himself succeeded in preserving in his German version ' that 
uniform tone of simplicity and nature, which distinguishes the 
Homeric poetry from all artificial writing". The famous trans- 
lator of Homer, Johann Heinrich Voss (1751 — 1826), was born 
at Sommersdorf in the district of Mecklenburg in North Germany. 
Entering the university of Gottingen in 1772, he b^an by 
attending Heyne's lectures on Homer, but was soon estranged by 
the influence of some of the youthful poets of the day'. He was 
mainly self-taught. Homer was the centra of his early studies, 
and, before leaving Gottingen, he had begun to translate parts of 
the Homeric poems into German hexameters. He published the 
first specimens of these translations in 1776, in his rendering of 
■ Blackweli's Enquiries into the lift and writings of Homer. He 
soon afterwards formed the design of translating the whole of the 

Brie/ean Hryttt, 179;; both reprinted by PeppmUller, 1884. Kliini Sckriften, 
130O pp., ed. Bemhardj', 1 vols., 1869, including Wolfs Darsteltuag der 
Alterikunis-Wissenschafi. Eaeyclefaidie der Philoiogie. ed. Slockmann, 1831, 
'8«5 ; VorUstiMgin iibir die Ene. dtr Alterthamsviisanschaft, ed. GUrtter and 
Hoffmann, 5 vols. 1831-5; Vorlttut^n iibtr dU erstm mtr Gadngt der Iliai, 
ed. Usteri, 1830-1- Bibliography la Goedeke's Gruttdriss, vil' 807-11. 

Life by his son-in-law, W. Korte, 3 vols. (1833), and by Amoldt in pari i of 
F. A. W. in seinem Verhdllrtisse num SchuheeieH (1861-3); cp. A. Baunislarlt, 
F. A. W. and die Gelehrlenschule (1864). Patlison's Fisayi, i 337 — 414; 
Bursian, i J17 — 548; Paulsen, ii 108 — 117'; W. Schrader, Gesch. der Univ. 
Halle, i (1894) 434—462 ; A. Harnack, Gesch. der preuis. Akad. ii 565 f, 660 f; 
M, Becnays, Goethe! Brieft an W. 186H ; S. Reiter, Wolfi Briefe an Goethe, in 
Goethe-yahrb.xx^\\(i<tafi) 3—96; on Wolf, id. \a Ntue Jahrb. f. kl. All. xiii 
(1904) 89 — Ml, and on Wolf and Ruhnken, id. p. 57, note 1 lufra. 

1 Pattison, i 384 f. 

" Herbsl, i 67. Voss' notes of Heyne's lectures, apparently copied from 
those of a (ellow-sludent, show that Heyne drew special attention to the works 
of Blackwell (1736) and Robert Wood (1769), and that he held that the Iliad 
and Odyssey could not have been reduced to writing, while he expressed no 
doubt as to the personality of the author or the unity of each of the two poems. 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


Odyssey. He began by attacking the episode of Polyphemus and 
the eight lines on Sisyphus', brooding over the latter during his 
lonely walks for a whole fortnight. His earliest rendering of this 
passage, approved by Klopstock in 1777, was subsequently sub- 
mitted to no less than four successive revisions. In the final 
version the toilsome effort to heave the stone up to the crest of 
the hili is effectively rendered : — Eiius Afarmors Sehwere mil 
grosser Geivall fortheben ; and the swift rebound to the valley is 
no less effective : — Hurlig mil Donnergepolter entrolUe der tikk- 
isehe Marmor'. Meanwhile, Voss had settled near Hamburg 
(i77S-8z), being for the last four of those years master of the 
school at Ottendorf on the estuary of the Elbe. His Odyssey 
(J781) surpassed all previous attempts to render the original in 
German veise'. In the same year he translated into Latin the 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter*, and his abiding interest in that poem 
is attested by the improved text, translated into German verse and 
accompanied with a comprehensive commentary, which was post- 
humously published in 1S26. His Odyssey was followed twelve 
years later by his Iliad (1793), and by a closer rendering of the 
Odyssey, which, in the opinion of competent critics, is not an 
improvement on his earlier version". He applied the same prin- 
ciples of rigidly literal translation to his subsequent renderii^ of 
the whole of Virgil, and the Metamorphoses of Ovid, as well as 
Tibullus, Propertius, and Aristophanes; but his method had by 
that time become unduly mechanical, and he failed to represent 
either the variety of Aristophanes or the charm of Ovid. As 
master of the school at Eu tin, amid the lakes of Holstein {1781 — 
i8oz), he began his work on Virgil with an edition of the Georgics 
including a translation in German verse, and a German com- 
mentary, mainly on the subject' matter (17S9). Its publication 
led to a feud with Heyne, who, in his own edition, had neglected 
that part of the commentator's duty'. Eight years afterwards, 

' xi 593 ^- " Herbst, i 30, 303. 

• Herbsl, 11(1)78 f. * <*. i 138. 

» So Wieland, A. W. Schlegel, Goethe, Herder, SchUler. W. v. Humboldi, 
and Hermann (n^. ii (i) 107, jij) ; cp. M, Bernays, Intred. to reprint (1881) of 
first ed. of Odyssey. 

' BuiKln, i 553 n. 




Voss published a similar edition of the Eclogues (1797)^- On 
resigning his mastership, he lived for three years at Jena (1802-5), 
and, for the last twenty-one years of his life, enjoyed the status 
and stipend of a professor at Heidelberg {i8o5--z6). It was there 
that he produced his translation of Tibullus, in the preface to 
which he showed, on chronological grounds, that the third book of 
the Elegies was the work of another poet. He added a critical 
edition of the text. He also translated and expounded Aratus 
{1824). To the Vast review of Heyne's Iliad, already mentioned', 
he contributed by far the lai^est share*. His own commentary 
on the first Iliad and on part of the second was posthumously 
published'. Of his prolix exposition of the Odyssey only two 
specimens were printed, an essay on the Ocean of the Ancients', 
and a paper on the site of Ortygia'. While he was rash and 
injudicious as a textual critic, he was too cautiously conservative 
to appreciate the value either of Wolf's Prolegomena', or of 
K. O. Miiller's investigation of the old Greek legends. Apart 
firom his translation of Homer, his best work was in the field of 
ancient Get^aphy', a work continued by his pupil, F. A. Ukert 
{1780 — 1851)'. In his mythological studies there were two 
periods, marked by his opposition (i) to Heyne and his school, 
and (2) to Creuzer. The evidence for the former is contained in 
his Mythologische Briefe (1794); that for the latter, in his Antt- 
SymboUk (1824-6)'". 

The Homeric Hymns, with the Batrachomyomachia and its later 
imitations, were edited in 1796 by Karl Ilgen (1763 — 
1834), who inspired his private pupil, Hermann, 
with his earliest interest in the Classics (1784-6), and when the 

' Ed. and Georg. republished in four vols., 1800, wilh a plate in iii 100 
giving 17 illnsl rations of Virgil's 'plough', 1, 1, 3 derived from the Virgil 
published by Knaplon and Sandby (London. 1750). 

' p. jS, n. s supra. ' Reprinted in his KritUche Bldltcr, i 1 — 168. 

* (S. i i6g — IS4. ' Antisyrnbclii, ii (45 — 15J. 

= Boie's Deulsches Museum (1 780), 301 f. 

' Volkmann, on Wolf, 71 f, and Wosi' Brief i, ii 113—254 (Buisian, i 639"). 

' KrilUcke Btatter,\\ 12J — 4J1. 

' Gtographie dtr Griichenund Rimer, 1816-46. 

" Bursian, i 559^5^'- O" Voss in general, see Ihe admirable work of 
W. Herbsl, 1873-6 ; and Bnraian, i 548—561 ; 583 f. 



important position of head-master of Schulpforta was declined by 
Hermann, was appointed at Hermann's instance to an office 
whicb he long continued to fill with the highest distinction 


The Greek Anthology is permanently associated with the name 
of Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs (1764 — 
1847), who was born and bred at Gotha, studied 
at Jena and Gottingen, and, with the exception of a few years at 
Munich (1807-10), spent the rest of his life in his native place, 
first as a master in the local school, and afterwards as Librarian 
and Director of the Cabinet of Coins and the Museum of Art In 
connexion with the Anlkology, he produced (l) an edition in 
thirteen volumes (1794 — 1814), in which the text of the epigrams 
in Brunck's Anakda is followed by a learned and judicious com- 
mentary'; (2) a text in three volumes (1813-7), printed from a 
transcript of the Palatine ms made by Spaletti, the Secretary of 
the Vatican Library; (3) a selection for the use of schools (1826); 
and (4) a translation of 700 epigrams In German verse (1803-23)'. 
He published the first complete edition of the Antekomerica, 
Homerica, z.x\A Posthomerica of Tzetzes (1793). He also edited 
Achilles Tatius (1821), the Philostrati and Callistratus, with notes 
by Welcker (1825), and Aelian's Historia Animalium (1S32), and 
produced Animadversions on Athenaeus (1809) and on Stobaeus*. 
He contributed to the emendation of the text of Euripides' and 
the Bucolic poets' ; executed an admirable rendering of the 
Philippics and De Corona of Demosthenes, and discussed the 
text of Horace' and the Dirae of Valerius Cato". He also wrote 
many papers on the history of Greek literature and civilisation', 
besides promoting the improvement of elementary text-books by 
his Greek and latin Readers (1805-9). He showed a special 

■ Kikhljr's Hermann, 4, 18, 114, 118 ; Bursjan, ii 666. 

* Vols. 1—4 (text), 5 (indices), 6—13 (animadversiones). 

'On Jacobs' friend, I. G. Hvischlte (ij6i — 1S18), author <^ Analala 
Crilica, anil Lileraria, cp. Bursian, i 641 f. 

' Lationti Subemes, 1817. ' Animadv. 1790. 

■ ExerHtationa Crilieae, 1 796. 

T Vermhchlt Sckriften (in nine vols., 1813-61), v 1— 404. 
> ib. 637 f. 

* ii. iii I f, 37s f, 4»5 f; i" '57—554! v 517 f; viu 71 f. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


aptitude for conjectural criticism, a sound judgement, and a wide 
knowledge of classical literature, while, in personal character, he 
was one of the most attractive and amiable of men. Among his 
literary interests was the higher education of women. His portrait 
represents him in a smoking-cap, seated at his desk and busily 
engaged in writing, while his left hand rests on a large open 

The circle of scholars at Gotha included F. WiUielm Dorii^ 
(175^ — 1^37)1 fo' forty-seven years head of the 
local school, who, in his editions of Latin Classics, 
such as Catullus {1788-92), and Horace (1803-24), and in his con- 
tinuation (1816-24) of Stroth's Livy (1780-4), is as apt as Heyne 
to be vague in his textual criticism and evasive in his exegesis*. 
It also included Valentin Christian Friedrich Rost 
(1790 — 1862), best known in coiuiexion with his 
Greek Grammar (1816, 1856'), his German-Greek and Greek- 
German Lexicons (1818-zo), his improved edition of Damm's 
lexicon to Homer and Kndar, and his contributions to the Greek 
Lexicon of Passow'. It was at Gotha also that Ernst Friedrich 
Wustemann(i799 — 1856) edited Theocritus, revised 
Heindorf's Satires of Horace and Monk's Akestis, ^' ^^J^^"**" 
besides writing on the Gardens of the Ancients, and 
publishing in a tasteful form a well-arranged collection of select 
sentences from the Latin Classics*. 

Mythology and Neo-Platonism were the main interests of 
Georg Friedrich Creuzer( 1 77 1 — 1858), who studied 
at his native place, Marburg, and at Jena, and, after 
holding a professorship for four years at the former university, 
spent the remaining fifty-four years of his life at Heidelberg, with 
the exception of a single semester at Leyden. His earliest work 
dealt with Herodotus and Thucydides, in connexion with Lucian's 
treatise on the proper method of writing History ; he also dis- 

' Frontispiece of Persettalttn, ed. 1840. On his life and works, see ib. 
Verm. ScAr. vii; E. F. Wueatemann'a laudaHo (184S); and Bursiati, i 

* Jacobs, ii. vii 591 f ; Eckstein in A. D. B. \ Buman, i 640 f. 

* Barsian, i 636 f. 

* Promfluaritim Stnlmtiarum (1356, 1864); Bursian, i 640. 

S- "I- I,. l-MM,COOglC 


cussed the historical works of Xenophon, and the origin and 
developement of the historical art of the Greeks. This early 
interest in History was continued at Heidelberg, where he formed 
a plan for collecting all the fragments of the Greek Historians, — a 
plan that was only partially executed. He began an edition of 
Herodotus but lefl its completion to his industrious pupil, 
Christian Felix Bahr (1798 — 1872), who produced an eradite 
work in four volumes*. While Creuzer was still at Marbui^, he 
had been stimulated to the study of ancient Law by his colleague, 
Savigny (1779 — 1861), afterwards eminent as a jurist in Berlin. 
Creuzer's continued interest in that study was represented by an 
Outhne of Roman Antiquities, a treatise on Slavery in Ancient 
Rome, and editions of Cicero, De Legibus, De Republka, and the 
second of the Verrine Orations'. He also edited the De Natura 
Deorum, De Divinatume, and De Faio, in conjunction with his 
pupil Georg Heinrich Moser(i78o — 1858), who himself produced 
editions of the Tusculan Disputations and the Paradoxes, and of 
six books of Nonnus. 

Creuzer's main interest, however, lay in Mythol<^. In his 
autobiography he confesses to an iimate vein of mysticism *, which 
was further developed by his attending the highly imaginative 
lectures on Philosophy and Mythology delivered at Heidelbei^ in 
1801-8 by Joseph Gorres. He was specially attracted to the 
study of the indications of Egyptian and Oriental influence on 
the Greek legends of Dionysus'. This study culminated in the 
four volumes of his Symbolik^. 

He here aims at representing the religious life of the ancient world, not 
only in its outward aspects, its various cutts, and the poetic versions of its 
mythology, but also in its inner essence, beginning with the origin of religious 

■ 1830-5 ; new ed. 1855-7. ^It ^'so edited some of Plutarch's Hvts, 
and produced several useful books of reference,— a History of Roman Litera- 
ture {i8a8, etc.), with supplementary volumes on the Christian PoeU and 
Historians (1836) and Theolt^ans (1837), and on the Latin Literature of the 
Age of Charles the Great (1840). 

' Act. ii. Or. i. In all these edd. he was assodated with Moser. 

» DeuUcke Schriften, v (i) ra. 

* Siudim, ii aa4— 3»4 (1806); Dimysm (1808). 

' 1810-2; new ed. 1819-11 ; ed. 3, 1837-43; P'cnch transl. by Gaigniant 
in 10 vols., 1815-41. 




ideas aitd ending wi(h the downfall of paganism. The work is in fact a natural 
history of Gentile religions, especially those of ihe Greek and the Ilalian 
world '. It assigns a large space to the Eleusinian Mysteries. 
Creuzer's mystical views on Greek mythology were attacked, with 
pleasantry' and with learning', byLobeck; with perfect courtesy 
and good-temper, by Hermann*, and, in a violent and polemical 
spirit, by Voss'. 

The death of that persistent critic permitted Creuz«r to spend 
the evening of his days in the undisturbed study of Neo-Platonism 
and Archaeology. He had ah'cady published a critical and ex- 
planatory edition of Plotinus, De Pukhritudine (1814), with 
contributions from Wyttenbach. It was at the suggestion of the 
latter that Creuzer was asked by the Clarendon Press to prepare a 
complete edition, published in three quarto volumes in 1835'. 
Creuzer's interest in Classical Archaeology is represented by 
papers on the Greek vases in the collection at Carlsruhe (1839), 
and on Varro's book of portraits (1843). One of his latest works 
was a sketch of the History of Classical Philology (1854)', 

One of the allies of Voss in bis controversy with Creuier was Wilheln 
Adolf Becker' (1796 — 1846), who had already produced an ,„ . j^ ^ 
edition of some of the minor works of Aristotle*, and was after- 
wards to present Roman and Greek life in a popular form in his Callus and 
Charidts, to write on Roman topography, and to begin (in 18+3) the publication 
of a well known hand-l>ook of Roman Antiquities, which was continued by 
Marquardt and Mommsen. 

Among the contemporaries of Wolf there were several men of 
mark, who, without being professional scholars, had, in different 

' Bursian, i 570-* ; cp. Otto Gruppe, Gr. Culle u. Mylhm, i (1887) 34 — 43. 

* Jena LiUtratur-Zei/ung, 1810, 137 f. 

* Aglaophamtis, sivt de Iheehgiae mystieae Craeeorum eausi's, 1 vols., (8j(j. 

* Brie/e iiier Hemcr u. Hesiodus, 1818 j cp. Ofauc. ii 167—116 ; also his 
Brie/of 1819. 

' lena Lilt. Zeilung, May, rSii, and Anti-Symbdik, 1814-6. 

' Moser helped in lliis work, and in the new ed. of the BntitaiUt (Didot, 

' Dculuke Sckrifleit, v vol. ii, Zur Gtsekichte da- cl. PAileiogie, ij8 pp. 
Autobiography in Deutsche Schriflen, V vol. i (1848), with portrait, and 
iii (1858); cp. L. VTeAtxva Halle Jahrbucker.K (rSjS) n. ror— 6, and R Stark 
in Vortriige etc. (iSSo) 3go — 408, 480—507, and in Handbuck, 161 f; and 
Bursian, i 561—587. 

» DerSymbolik Triumph, Zerbst, 1815. » De semno ale, 1813. 

h. iSrr^^.OOglc 


degrees, a close connexion with the scholarship of that age 
Wolf had a loyal friend in Wilhelm von Humboldt 
^ bowt"" (1767^1835), then a leading Prussian statesman, 
the elder brother of Alexander, the celebrated 
naturalist and traveller. At the age of 19, he wrote an essay on 
the opinions of Socrates and Plato on the Godhead and on 
Providence and Immortality', A pupil of Heyne at Gottingen in 
1788, he produced a poetic version of several odes of Pindar 
(1792 f), and, in the same year, the friendship formed with Wolf 
in Halle led to his studying the Greek Classics as an essential 
element in a completely humane education. His correspondence 
with Wolf has left some interesting traces in that scholar's survey 
of classical learning'. During the year and a half (1809-10), in 
which Humboldt was at the head of the educational section of the 
Prussian Home Office, the university of Berlin was founded {1810), 
and the general system of education received the direction which 
it followed (with slight exceptions) throughout the whole century'. 
In i8r6 he produced a highly finished rendering oit)KAgamemium. 
A visit to Spain, in 1799 f, during the four years of his residence 
in Paris, had meanwhile led to his taking an interest in the general 
history of language. In this connexion he studied Basque, as well 
as the languages of North America, of Malacca and of Polynesia, 
together with Sanskrit and Chinese. The results of these studies 
appeared from time to time in the lyansactions of the Berlin 
Academy. His greatest work in this department, that on the 
ancient Kawi language of Java, posthumously published in 1836-9, 
begins with a remarkable introduction on ' Diversity of Language, 
and its Influence on the Intellectual Developement of Mankind'. 
The latter, which was criticised by Steinthal, and edited and 
defended by Pott (1S76), has lieen described as 'the text-book of 
the philosophy of speech '. It may be added that, after all his 
linguistic studies, he came to the conclusion that the Greek 
language and the old Greek culture still remained the finest 
product of the human intellect'. 

1 Gesammelti Schrifttn, i (1903) 1—44. 

» Nolea ia Kl. Sehr. ii 884-6, 888—890. 

• Paulsen, u' *oo f. 148 f, j8o f. 

' Letters te Wikker, ed. Haym, roi, 134. On W. v. Humholl in general, 

. „.,,„, ^.oogic 


As a student at Leipzig, Goeflie (1749 — iSj^) had been profoundly ii 
pressed by Lessing's Laokoon, and by the writings of Winckel- 
mann ; at Strassburg, he had been prompted by Herder 10 
study Homer'. In r77i he Iranslaled Pindar's Fifth Olympian^ and in 1780 
produced a free imitation of the first part of the Birds of Aristophanes'. In 
his 'first period' he also wrote his Prcmelheus. During his tour in Italy 
(1786-8), he rejoiced in living amid the memories of the old classical world ; 
it was on the Bay of Naples and in Sicily that he first realised the beauty of 
the scenery of the Odyssey. At Palermo he translated the description of the 
Gardens of Alcinoiis, but did not commit his rendering to writing until mai^y 
years later (c. 1795)'. Under the influence of the Homeric translations of 
Voss, he meditated the composition of an Arhillds ; and, at the suggestion of 
Wilhelm von Humboldt, studied Wolf's Proltgomma, and once more read the 
Iliaii^. 'The theory of a colltcHvi Homer' (he writes) 'is favourable to my 
present scheme, as lending a modem bard a title to claim for himself a place 
among the Hemeridcu'*. In the spring of 1796, he thanks Wolf for thai 
theory'; in December, he 'drinks to the health' of the scholar, 'who at last 
has boldly freed us from the name of Homer, and is even bidding us enter on 
a broader road''; and he writes in the same spirit on sending Wolf a copy of 
Wilhelm Meisler*. Bui, after abandoning his proposed Achillas, he returns 
to the old faith, and sings his palinode in Samtr viieder Homer"'. He had 
already translated the Hymn to the Drlian Apollo", and, in later years, he 
endeavoured to restore the plot of the Phaelhon of Euripides" with the aid of 
the fragments published by Hermann. The Eumenidrs of Aeschylus has left 

cp. Gis. Schriflen, in 1 1 vols., 1 903-4 ; Benfey, Sfrachwissemckaft in Denlsch- 
land, 515 f; EinUitutig to Pott's ed. of the treatise Uiber die Verschiedenheit 
dis menschlichin Sprathbaues, 1876; Seeks. ..Aufsiitu, ed. Leilzmann, 1896; 
Delbruck's EinUitung in das Sprachstudium, c. ii p. 16 f, ed. 1893; Bursian, 
i 587 — 591 ; and Sayce, in Enc. Brit. 

' Herder etc., Briefean Merck, 43 f, ed. K. Waller. 

' BriefeanF. A. Wo/f, ed. M. Bemays (Berlin, 1868), 111 f. 

' Werke, vii 379 / (Cotla's Jubilee ed.). 

* Published by Suphan in Geelhe-fahriuch, 1901. 

* G. Lolholi, Das Vtrhaltnis Wolfs und W. v. Numboltits m Goethe und 
Schiller, 1863. 

* Paltison, i 385. ^ Briefe U.S., 16 f. 
' Elegit, Hermann und Dorothea, 1. 17 f. 

' »6 Dec. 1796 (Kiirte, i 178). 

'° ii 181, 339, c. 1811 ; cp. Letter lo Schiller, t6 May 1798, no. 463, Ich 
bin rnehr all Jtmalsvon der Einheil umt Untheilbarkeit des GedicAts (sc. der /Has) 
uberteugi u.s.w. (Korte, i j8o; Volkmann, 75; cp. Briefe, 81 f; xxix 557 f 
Hempel ; Patlison, i 385) 1 F. Thalmayr, Goethe unJ das classische Alterthum, 

" Schiller's Horm (1795), ix 30. " xxix joo — 516 Hempel. 

h. i.MiA.OOgIc 


its impress on the second pari of Faitit', and on some fine passages in the 

Iphigenii auf Taurit\ 

Goethe's familiarity with the scientific literature of the ancients is apparent 
in the first part of his FarbtnUhre. Late in life he is prompted by a program 
of Hermann's to examine Ihe tragic tetralogies of the Greeks'; he discusses 
the meaning oi katharsii in Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry*; he reviews the 
similes of the Iliad^, and introduces a classical Walpurgimarhl into the second 
part of Faust. 

His interest in ancient art, first awakened in the gallery at Mannheim in 
1771, had been enhanced by his lour in Italy and his residence in Rome. It 
was in Rome that he first met Ihe Swiss painter, Heinrich Meyer (1710 — 1831), 
a diligent student of Ihe writings of Winckelmann and an admirer of the Roman 
masterpieces of ancient sculpture and modern painting. At Goethe's sugges- 
tion, Meyer was appointed instructor, and afterwards director, of the Academy 
of Art at Weimar. Meyer was the first link between Goethe and Schiller. 
Under (he inspiration of Winckelmann, Goethe contributed papers on ancient 
art to the pages of Schiller's /^ar™', and wrote on the group of the Laocoon' 
and on other themes of ancient art, in the shorl-lived PrBfylam, besides 
discussing Ihe paintings of Pol ygnotus in the Lisrhe aX Delphi^ In 'Winckel- 
mann and bis Century ', while Wotf leviews Ihe early studies of the future 
historian of ancient art, Goethe himself poitrays the man and the author, and 
uiges the publication of a complete edition of his works. Goethe's friend, 
Meyer, joined Bottiger in preparing a monograph on Ihe celebrated painling 
in the Vatican, known as the ' Aldobrandini marriage' (1810}, and himself 
produced, as his latest and maturest work, a history of Greek Art (1814-6). 

Goethe was also under the influence of the accomplished architect, Aloys 
Hirt (1J59— 1837), according to whom it was the 'characteristic' and Ihe 'indi- 
vidual', and not the 'beautiful' (as held by Winckelmann), that was Ihe true 
aim of the best Greek sculpture. Hirt elucidated his views in his BiltUrbiuk 
(t8oi|~t6), in his important works on Ancient Architecture*, and in his History 
of Ancient Art (183,1), which, however, could hardly compete with the excel- 
lent Handbook recently published by K. O. Miiller {1S30). In iSiG Goethe 

' ii 3, 8647-96. 

' 1051-70; 1119-38; 1341^64 (Breul in Camb. Rev. 6 Dec. 1906). Cp. 
Otto Jahn, Pafuldre Aufsiilte, 353—401; F. ThUmen, Iphigtnimsage, 1895'. 

' xxix 493 f, Ilerapel. 

' xxix 490 f, Hempel; Autgldchung, aussohnendi Abrundtoig; cp. Lettei 
to Schiller, J8 April, 1797, no. 304. 

' Ufber Ktatst und AHerthum, iii (1) i f and (3) i f. 

' i (1) 19— SO, '795- 

' Atifsatie mr Kvnst, (1798) xxxiii 114 f, Colta. 

' ib. 131 f, 861 f, Hempel. 

• DU Baukunst nach dm Grundsdtztn dir AUtn (1809); Die Geschickte der 
Baukunsl bet den Allen (1 Hi 1-7). 



fbunded a review, in which he published hi9 paper on 'Myron's Cow*', while 
he also allempled to reconstruct for artistic reproduction the supposed originals 
of the pictures described by (he Philostrati'. 

Schiller (17S9— 1805) had been well grounded in Latin, but, in the study 
of the Greek nuslerpieces, he had to rely on translations; 
even his own poetic rendering oS the Iphigentia at Aulii and 
the Phoeniisae was founded on the Latin version by Joshua Barnes. The first 
period of his poems opens with the 'Parting of Hector', while the second 
comprises 'Troy', and 'Dido', and the two versions of his memorable 'Gods 
of Greece'; and the third, the 'Lament of Ceres', the 'Festival of Eleusis', the 
'Ring of Polycrates', 'Hero and Leander', 'Cassandra', and the 'Cranes of 
Ibycus'. This last was not published until it had been examined and approved 
by Bdttiger*. It includes a free rendering of the song of the Furies which 
Schiller had studied in Wilhelm von Humboldt's fine translation of the 
Eumaiides, and the influence of that play is also apparent in his 'Bride of 
Messina", which was directly inspired by the Otdipus Tyrannus, and is pre- 
faced by a suggestive Essay on the Chorus in Greek Tragedy. His interest 
in Greek literature is no less manifest in his paper on the Tragic Art'. His 
conception of the old classical world and of the diflference between the ancient 
■nd the modem spirit had a great effect on his countrymen. In his Essay ' On 
naive and sentimental poetry' he is peculiarly felicitous in comparing the merits 
of several of the ancient poets*. 

It was under the influence of Schiller that the characteristics 
of the ancient drama were fruitfully studied by 

A. W. von Schlegel (1767 — 1845), who had at- 

tended Heyne's lectures at Gottingen, and in 1796 
was appointed professor at Jena, where he made the acquaintance 
of Goethe and Schiller, and began the excellent translation of 
Shakespeare, which he continued after his appointment as pro- 
fessor in Berlin (1801). In 1805 he accompanied Madame de 
Stael, the fiiture author of Corinne, on a tour in Italy, France, 

' Aufsatie iur Kutul, xxxv 145, Cotta. 

' »*. 69 — 139. On Goethe and the CUssics, cp. J. Classen in Philnhgen- 
Vtrsammtung kx (Frankfurt) 13 — j6 (1863); Urlichs, Goethe und dit Aritiki 
in ' Goethe- Jahrbuch' ii (1881) 3 — 16; Bursian, i 592 — 607; Carl Olbrich, 
Goethe's Spracht und die Antike (1891); F. Thalmayr, GoeShe und das 
tiasiische AUerthum, 1897; and Otto Kem, Goelht, Bikilin, Mommsen, 19—53 
(1906). On Goethe and ancient Art, cp. Stark's Handbuch, 113 — 130. 

■ K. A. Bijltiger, Eitit biagr. Skiiie von Dr K. W. BSItiger {1837), 136. 

* i986f. • iv 517 f, ed. 1874; p. 1019 ed. 1869. 

' i* 6ii f; p. T070. Cp. L. Hiizel, Ueber Sthiller't Baiehvngtn aum 
AUertkumi (Aarau, 1871 ; 1906'), and Bursian, i 607 — tti ; also £, Wiliscb, 
ia'Jfeui fakrb.f. U. Alt. xiii (1904), 39 — Jl. 





Gennany, and Sweden; in 1813 he became Secretary to Bema- 
dotte, the future kii^ of Sweden, and, having studied Sanskrit 
in Paris, first under the Indian civilian, Alexander Hamilton 
(1762^1824)', and next under Bopp, he became professor at 
Bonn in 1818 and held that position for the remaining twenty- 
seven years of his life. 

As the fruit of his Sanskrit studies, he published at Bonn his 
Indische Bibliothek (1820-6), and established a press for the 
printing of the Udm&yana (1825) and the Bhagavad-Gtta (1829). 

Schlegel, who was specially skilful in his translations from 
Greek poets, and wrote a drama on the same theme as the Ion 
(1803), is best known as the author of the ' Lectures on Dranriatic 
Art and Literature,' delivered in 1808 before a brilliant audience 
in Vienna'. Nearly half of the thirty Lectures deal with the 
Ancient Drama, and of these few, if any, are more familiar than 
the Lecture comparing Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides in 
their treatment of the theme of Electra. Schlegel, who here 
censures the Electra of Euripides, had not succeeded in im- 
proving upon the Ion, but he shares with Goethe the honour 
of having been among the first of modem critics to appreciate 
the Bacchae". 

While the Greek Drama was reviewed in a critical spirit by 
A. W. von Schlegel, the Epic poetry of Greece 
von"scbieeei attracted the attention of his younger brother, 
Friedrich (1772 — 1829), who studied law in Got- 
tingen and Leipzig and, after living in Dresden, Jena, Berlin, 
Paris and Vienna, was appointed Austrian counsellor of legation 
at the Germanic Diet (1814-8). He afterwards returned to 
Vienna, resumed his literary work, and died at Dresden in r829. 
Early in life, in 1797, he had produced the first volume of his 

^ Helmioa von Chezf, Vnvtrgessenes^ i 150, j68 {Benfey, Guch. der 
Sfraihwisstnickajt, 358, 379-81). 

" Ed. 1 (1817), reviewed by K. W. F. Solger (1780— 1819), the author of 
an excellent tianslation of Sophocles (tSoS). This review, reprinled in 
Solger's Works, ii 493 — 618, and regarded by Siivetn as the profoundesl work 
that had ever been written on the subject of Tragedy, represents Irony as the 
very centre of the Dramatic Art and also deals with the conception of Fate 
and the significance of the Chorus (Butsian, i 614 f). 

' p. Ixxxvi, ed, Sandys. 




historical and critical inquiries on the Greeks and Romans, 
including an extensive treatise on the study of Greek poetry. 
Instead of completing the work, he began another, on the History 
of Greek and Roman Poetry'. Among his later works the most 
important is the short treatise 'On the Language and Wisdom 
of the Indians' (1808)", the fruit of his study of Sanskrit under 
Alexander Hamihon'. An important impulse was thus given 
to the comparative study of language in Europe. The elder 
brother's example, as a lecturer in Vienna, was ably followed 
by Friedrich in 1812, in a course of Lectures on the History 
of Literature, Ancient and Modem (iSig)'. 

The Greek Drama was critically studied by Johann Wilhelm 
Siivem (1775—1829), who, after residing at Jena 
and Halle, prepared himself for an educational 
career in Berlin, and, after seven years' experience as Director 
of the Schools at Thorn and Elbing, and two years' tenure of 
a professorship at Konigsberg, passed the remaining twenty years 
of his life as a prominent official in the Educational Department 
in Berlin". While he was still at Halle, he was prompted by 
C. G. Schtitz to study the Greek Tragic poets, and Aeschylus 
in particular. His earliest work was a German translation of the 
Septem (1799), followed by an essay on Schiller's Wallenslein 
in relation to Greek Tragedy (1800). Later in life, he wrote 
on the tragic element in the historical works of Tacitus*, and on 
the historical character of the Greek Drama^ He also discussed 
the date and aim of the Oedipus Coloneus% and the historic 
purpose of the Clouds and the Birds oi Aristophanes*. 

' Vol. 1, part i, 1J98. 

* Trans, by Miltinglon (1849) \n Aestielic and MiicMatteaus Works CBoYta), 
415 — 465 ! MiK MilUer's Z«(««j, i 181'; Benfey, 357-69. 

' 1803-7. Cp. p. 71 supra. 

* Trans, in Bohn's Standard Library; Lectures i — iv on Greek and 
Roman Liletature. 

* Ueber den Kumkharactcr da Tacitus, Berlin Acad. 1811-3 ('815), 73 f. 
' .■*. i8is(i8j8), 75f. 

« ib. f8»8(i83r), if. 

' 1816-7. Translaled by W. R. Hamilton (l8,ls-6). On SUvem, cp. 
Fassow (Thorn, i860), and Bursian, i 617 — 613. 



The same department of study is represented by the early 
Rfibich "°^^ °^ ^' ^" ^'''s^''*''' (1803— 1871X the author 

of ' Aristophanes and his Age' (1827), a work de- 
fending the poet's treatment of Socrates, and representing that 
philosopher as the enemy of the Greek world of his own day. 
A similar view was afterwards held by Forchhammer (1837) ; but 
both of these writers were reviewed and refuted by Zeller'. 

The literary and artistic circle of Weimar and Jena included 
.. . Karl August Bottiger (1760 — 1835), who was edu- 

cated at Schulpforta and Leipzig, and, under the 
influence of Herder, held for thirteen years a head- mastership at 
Weimar (1790 — 1804). For the remaining thirty-one years of his 
life, he resided at Dresden as Director of the Museum of Antiques, 
and was singularly active as a journalist and a public lecturer. 
As a schoolmaster, he had published a considerable number of 
pedagt^c and philological programs'. His archaeotc^cal works, 
mainly produced at Dresden, fall into three groups; (i) Private 
Antiquities, (2) the Greek Theatre, and (3) Ancient Art and 
Mythology, (i) is best represented by his ' Sabina, or morning- 
scenes in the dressing-room of a wealthy Roman lady ', which 
was promptly translated into French and served as a model for 
Becker's Gallus and Charicks. It was continued in the fragment 
called ' Sabina on the Bay of Naples ". (2) His interest in the 
theatre dated from the time when he was a dramatic critic at 
Weimar ; his unfavourable critique on A. W. von Schlegel's Ion was 
withdrawn at the request of Goethe. It was mainly as a school- 
master at Weimar that he wrote his papers on the distribution of 
the parts, on the masks and dresses, and on the machinery of the 
ancient stage*, as well as a dissertation on the masks of the 
Furies (1801)'. (3) His work in the province of ancient art* 
and mythology" was popular and superficial. It may be added 

1 c. X of Socrates and Iht Socralu ScAnols, E.T.— Bursian, i G23 f. 
" Opascula, ed. Sillig, 1837 ; bibli<^raphy in KlHni Schrifien, ed. Sillig, 
» Kt. Schr. iii 143 f. 

* Opuscula, 210—734, »8s— 398. 

* Kl. Schr. i 189— 3;6. ' KL.Sckr. a. 3—341- 

' Kl. Schr. i 3—180, and (his latest independent work) Idem €ur JCunst- 
Mythelogie (a (erm invented by Botti^r). 

CHAP, xxvirr.] bOttiger. sillig. a. matthiae. 75 

that he supplied the descriptive letter-press to the German edition 
(1 797 f ) of Tischbein's reproductions from Sir William Hamilton's 
second collection of Greek vases, and thus introduced the study 
of Greek vase-painting into Germany. He published lectures on 
the History of Ancient Sculpture (1806) and Painting (181 r), 
and edited the three volumes of an archaeological periodical 
entitled Amalihea (1820-5), including contributions from the 
best of the classical archaeologists of the day'. 

Bbttiger's example was followed by his pupil, Karl Julius Sillig 
(1801 — 1855), who edited many of his master's 
works. Bom at Dresden, he studied at Leipzig 
and Gottingen, and was a schoolmaster at Dresden for the last 
thirty years of his life. His Caialogus Artificum (1827) was a 
useful work in its time. His edition of Catullus is far less 
important than his edition of the elder Pliny*. As an editor he 
is too much given to the accumulation of de'tails, and is deficient 
in judgement and in critical method'. 

Among the pupils of Heyne at Gottingen was August Matthiae 
(1769 — 1835), a son of the custos of the University 
Library, who had adopted the Latinised name of 
Matthiae instead of the German name of Matthiesen. After 
leaving the university, the son spent four years as a private tutor 
at Amsterdam, and, for the last thirty-three years of his life, was 
Director of the gymnasium at Altenburg. The most important 
of his works was his larger Greek Grammar'. He also published 
an extensive edition of Euripides in nine volumes, with the 
Fragments and the scholia (1813-29); a tenth volume includes 
addenda io^e scholia, s.nA Indices by Kampmann (1837). Lastly, 
he collected the Fragments of Alcaeus, and published 'animad- 
versions ' on the Homeric Hymns, as well as scholastic works on 
Greek and Roman Literature, and on Latin Prose Composition'. 

' Biegrafhiiehe Skitu, by K. W. Bbltiger (i8.i7)( Eichslaedt, Oputi. Oral. 
665-~67» ; Stark, 52, 71 ; Buisian, i 618—634. 

* i8ji-6 in 5 vols ; la^er ed. io 6 vols., with two toIs. of Indices by Otto 

' Bursian, i 634. * 1807; ed. 3, 1835. 

° Lire by his soo Konstantin (184;), including an account of August's 
elder brother Friediich Christian (1763 — 1811), editor of Aratus, etc. (1817) ; 
Butsian, i 641 f. 

h. i.MiA.OOt^lC 

From Sichling's engraving of the portrait by F. Schnorr von Carotsfeld. 



The study of History was well represented at Gottingen by 
Heyne's pupil, son-in-law, and bic^rapher, Arnold 
Hermann Ludwig Heeren (1760 — 1842), After 
writing on the Chorus in Greek Tragedy, and editing the rheto- 
rician Menander's treatise on Encomia^ he went abroad for nearly 
two years to collate the Mss of the Eclogue of Stobaeus, his 
publication of which extended over a considerable period (1792 — 
1801), Meanwhile, he had already begun to devote himself to 
those historical studies with which his name is mainly associated. 
He produced, in 1793, the first volume of his well-known work 
on the Politics and Trade of the foremost peoples of the ancient 
world'; and, in 1799, his Handbook of the History of Ancient 
States, with special reference to their constitution, their commerce, 
and their colonies'. He also wrote several monographs on the 
commerce of Palmyra and India. The criticism of the authorities 
for Ancient History, a field of research first opened out by Heyne, 
was the theme of several papers by his pupil'. Heeren published, 
in 1797 — 1801, a History of the Study of Classical Literature 
from the Revival of Learning, with an Introduction on the 
History of the works of the Classical authors in the Middle 
Ages. In the second edition of 1822 this work Is entitled a 
History of Classical Literature in the Middle Ages, the first part 
going down to the end of the fourteenth century, and the second 
including the Humanists of the fifteenth*. 

A shorter life was the lot of another historian, the historian of 
ancient Rome, Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776 — 
1 831). His father had been famous as a traveller 
in Arabia and Persia. Born at Copenhagen, and educated at 
Meldorf and at Hamburg he studied at Kiel and Edinburgh. 
After holding civil appointments at Copenhagen, he entered the 
service of Prussia, and in 1810 was appointed professor in the 

' Ed. 4 in 6 vols.; vols. :o—ts of ' Hislorical Works', 1814-6: E.T. 1833. 

> Ed. 5, i8)8; E.T. 1811). 

* Trogus Pompeius, Plutarch's Lives, Slrabo, and Ptolemy are discussed in 
fols. i, iii, iv, V, kv, of the Committtatiorus of the Royal Society of Gottingen. 

' Characlerised by Bursian {p. 5) 3$ ' superficial and sketchy ' ; it deserves 
credit, however, for its lucid arrangement, and its breadth of view. On 
Heeren's life, cp. his ' Hisl. Works ', i xi f : Karl Hoeck's Gidiichinissnde in 
'Neuer Nekrolog der Deulschen', xi 117 f; and Bursian, i 645-7. 

h. !■, ii,l^.OOglc 


newly-founded university of Berlin. His lectures on Roman 
history were attended by a distinguished audience, and thence- 
forth he regarded the history of Rome as the main interest of 
his life. He completed the first two volumes of his History in 
i8i2. He was Prussian ambassador at Rome in 1S16-23, but 
was discontented with Rome and with Italy, and made little 
progress with his literary work. For the rest of his life he settled 
at Bonn, where he delivered lectures on ancient history, ethno- 
graphy and geography, and on the French Revolution. The 
revolution of July, r83o, filled him with apprehensions for the 
future of Europe. In the following winter he caught a chill 
during his return from a news-room, where he had heen eagerly 
studying the account of the trial of the ministers of Charles X ; 
and early in i83r he died, 

Voss, the translator of Homer, was a frequent visitor in the 
house of Niebuhr's childhood, and the German Odyssey was 
the deUght of the future historian's early years'. At the age 
of fourteen he was absorbed in the study of a MS of Varro, which 
his father had borrowed from the library at Copenhagen. The 
boy discovered for himself that the difficulty of many passages 
was really due to lacunae, which had not been indicated in the 
printed editions". During a visit to Scotland he acquired a new 
appreciation of the beauties of nature, and he afterwards admitted 
that his 'early residence in England* gave him 'one important 
key to Roman history ' : — ' it is necessary to know civil life by 
personal observation in order to understand such States as those 
of antiquity ; I never could have understood a number of things 
in the history of Rome without having observed England'*. 
In Berlin, his friends were Spalding, Savigny, Buttmann, and 
Heindorf. He stood in no such relation to Wolf*. In his 
History of Rome he describes 'the poems, out of which' (in 
his view) 'the history of the Roman kings was resolved into 
a prose narrative", as 'knowing nothing of the unity which 
characterises the most perfect of Greek poems'\ thus ignoring the 

Herbst. Vois, i 117. 

' ii. ii [36. 

Enc. Brit. 

EadofTnf.toJ/iil.<i/Xi>i?u,ed. i. 

• iisBf, E.T„ed. 1837. 

h. !■, ii,l^.OO^IC 

CHAP. XXVIir.] ■ NIEBUHR. "^^^ 

results of Wolf's Prolegomena. But the critical spirit, which 
inspired Wol^ was in the air, and its influence affected Niebuhr. 
His theory that the early l^ends of Rome had been transmitted 
from generation to generation in the form of poetic lays was not 
new. It had been anticipated by the Dutch scholar, Peri- 
zonius', but Niebuhr was not aware of this fact until a later 
date'. Similarly, a French scholar, Louis de Beaufort, had 
published in Holland (1738-50) a work on the uncertainty 
of the first five centuries of Roman history, but this was purely 
negative in its results. Niebuhr's work marks an epoch in the 
study of the subject. His main results, ' such as his views of 
the ancient population of Rome, the origin of the piebs, the 
relation between the patricians and the plebeians, the real nature 
of the ager publicus, and many other points of interest, have been 
acknowledged by all his successors ", He was the first to deal 
with the history of Rome in a critical and scientific spirit*. His 
History of Rome grew out of his lectures at BerUn. The same 
theme was predominant in certain courses of lectures delivered at 
Bonn, which were not published until after his death'. 

Niebuhr's work as a scholar was far from being confined to 
the domain of History. The two volumes of his 'minor historical 
and philological writings' (1828-43) include much that is con- 
nected with the history of classical literature and the criticism 
of classical texts. In i8r6, with the aid of Buttmann and 
Heindorf, he published in Berlin an improved edition of the 
remains of Fronto (which had been printed for the first time 
in the previous year from the Bobbio ms found by Angelo Mai 
at Milan). Late in the summer of 1816, on his way to Rome, 

* A»imadvirHotiti HiiloHcac (1685), c 6; vol. ii 331 supra. 

* i IS* E.T., and Pnf. vii. His discovery led him to propose Perizonius 
as the theme for a prize-essay ; the result was Gustav Kramer's £iy(um (1818). 

' Schniitz, quoted in Enc. Brit. 

* RStniscke Giickuhte, vot. i, 1811 (ed. t, 1817, ed. 3, 1818); vol. ii, 
iSii {ed. I, 1830); vol. iii, ed. Classen, 1831. Complete ed. in one vol. 
1853 ; new ed. 1873-4. Engt. Transl. 1818-41, by Thirlwall and Julius Haie ; 
lasted. 1847-51- 

' Lectures on Ethnography, 1851 ; on Ancient History, 1847-51; on Roman 
History, from the earliest times to the fall of the Weatern Empire, 1846-8 
(E.T. 1B53); and on Roman Antiquities, 1858 { — Hist, und philol. Vortragr 
lot der Univ. Bonn gehalttn, ed. Islei and M. Niebuhr, Berlin, 1846-58). 



he discovered, in a palimpsest of the Capitular Library at Verona, 
the 'Institutions' of the Roman jurist. Gains; he immediately 
informed Savigny, and an edition of the work was accordingly 
published by the Berlin Academy'. In Rome he discovered in a 
Vatican ms certain fragments of Cicero's Speeches pro M. Fontew 
and pro C. Haiirio'. In the course of his edition of Fronto, 
he had criticised Mai's arrangement of the fragments of Cicero, 
pro Stauro, and his own arrangement had been confirmed by 
a MS discovered by Peyron at Milan'. Mai, on his appointment 
as librarian of the Vatican, was somewhat jealous of Niebuhr's 
acumen as an editor, and Niebuhr was not disposed, as the 
representative of Prussia, to ask the Vatican for favours which 
he might readily have sought as an ordinary scholar. , However, 
he generously contributed to Mai's edition of the Vatican palim- 
psest of Cicero, De Republica, several learned notes, together with 
a historical and a verbal index (1822). Niebuhr was the first 
to make use of Lagomarsini's vast collection of various readings 
preserved in the CoUegio Romano; he also identified the mss 
collated by that scholar*. 

In 1812 he addressed, to a young friend, a memorable letter, 
in which he sets forth a high ideal of a scholar's life. The 
authors specially recommended for study are Homer, Aeschylus, 
Sophocles and Pindar, with Herodotus, Thucydides, Demosthenes 
and Plutarch, and Cicero, Livy, Caesar, Sallust and Tacitus'. 
All these were to be read with reverence, not with a view to 
making them the themes of aesthetic criticism, but with a resolve 
to assimilate their spirit. This (he declares) is the true 'Philology' 
that brings health to the soul, while learned invest^ations (in the 
case of such as attain to them) belong to a lower level'. 

' Ed. Goschen and Bethmann'Hollweg, iSii; ed. 1, 1S34; cp- K. G. 

Jacob's Abhandlang, 6i f. 

^ Ed. iSio, wilh a fragment of livy, xci, and fragments of Seneca. 

' K. G. Jacob, %-i f. * K. G. Jacob, 89. 

" Horace's Satires are recommended (less strongly Ihan his Odes), with 
only a few of Juvenal's. No other poets are named. Vii^l and Horace aje 
depreciated in his Lectures on Roman History, no. 107, iii 135—142 E.T. 

' Brief an einen jangen Philolagen, printed in Lebenmaehrichten, ii )oof ; 
and by K. G. Jacob, p. n^ ; translated by Julius Hare, On a Young MiaCs 
Stadia, in (he Edticational Magazine, 1B40. 




Niebuhr also wrote a historical outline, and several topo- 
graphical articles, for the Description of the City of Rome 
undertaken by the artist, Ernst Platner, who had resided in 
Rome since 1800, and by Bunsen, who arrived in 1818, as 
Niebuhr's Secretary of Embassy. At Naples Niebuhr collated 
a MS of the Dialogus de Oratoribus, and a ms of Charisius 
(formerly at Bobbio), and afterwards handed over these collations 
to Bekker and Lindemann. On his way back to Germany in 
1813, his attention was drawn in the library of St Gallen to 
a palimpsest including considerable fragments of poems, and a 
panegyrical oration, which he identified as the work of the 
Spanish poet and rhetorician, Merobaudes. He immediately 
produced an edition at St Gallen, followed by an improved 
edition after his arrival at Bonn. 

At Bonn he organised a plan for publishing a series of critical 
texts of the, Byzantine historians, with Latin introductions, trans- 
lations and notes. His principal contribution to the Corpus 
Scriptorum Hhtoriae Byzantinae was an edition of Agathias 
(1829). After his death, the series was continued under the 
auspices of the Berlin Academy, and, hy the end of 1855, forty- 
eight volumes had been published. He must also be remembered 
as Che founder (in 1827) of the Rheinisches Museum, in which he 
was associated with Brandis and Boeckh. 

His early connexion with Denmark did not prevent his being 
perfectly loyal to Prussia, but neither in England nor in Italy 
did he succeed in assimilating himself to his surroundings. It 
is said that a certain excitability of temper kept him from feeling 
at perfect ease either in public or in private life; but he was 
undoubtedly inspired with the loftiest aims, and had a warm 
heart, and a magnanimous and noble spirit. The main interest 
of his greatest work, the History of Rome, has been found in 
its 'freshness, its elation of real or supposed discovery, the 
impression it conveys of actual contact with a great body of 
new and unsuspected truths". He may perhaps have been 
justified in saying:^' the discovery of no ancient historian could 
have taught the world so much as my work ' ; but his prediction, 
that new discoveries would 'only tend to confirm or develope' 
' Garaelt in Etu. Bril. 



his principles, has not been entirely fulfilled. His theory of the 
derivation of ancient Roman history from popular lays was refuted 
by Sir George Comewall Lewis, in his Essay on the Credibility 
of Early Roman History; and archaeological discoveries have 
corrected his attitude of general scepticism as to early traditions' ; 
but 'the main pillars of his grand structure are still unshaken". 
Among Niebuhr's friends at Berlin was Georg Ludwig Spalding 
(1762 — 1811), a scholar of Pomeranian birth, who 
had been educated in Berlin, and who, after studying 
at Gottingen and Halle, became in 1787 a professor at a gym- 
nasium in Berlin. Besides writing on the Megarian School of 
Philosophers, and preparing an edition of the Speech of Demos- 
thenes against Meidias, he produced in 1798 f the first three 
volumes of a memorable edition of the Institutio Oratoria of 
Quintilian'. On his visit to Rome in quest of materials for his 
Quintilian, he unfortunately gave W, von Humboldt the im- 
pression of being a trifler and a pedant*. 

The popularisation of Plato was an important part of the work 
of Schleiermacher (1768 — 1834). His translation (1804-10) in- 
cluded all the dialogues except the Laws, Eptnomis, TYmaeus 

' Niebuhr himself 'repeatedlj expresses the conviction that the various 
vicis^tudes by which learning has been promoled are under the conlrol of an 
overruling Piovidence : and he has more than once spoken of the recent dis- 
coveries, by which so many remains of Antiquity have tieen brought to lighl. 
as Providential dispensations for the increase of our knowledge of God's works, 
and of Hia creatures'. Julius Hare, in Guesst! at Truth, 61 f, ed. r8(56. 

' Dr Schmiti, Prefme to first ed. of the Engl, transt. of Mommsen's 
Histury, quoted by R. Gamett in Enc. Brit. ed. 9. The chief authority for 
his Life is the Ltbensnackrichttn, consisting mainly of letters, linked by a 
brief biographical narrative by his friend, Frau Hensler (3 vols., 1838 f). The 
letters are reduced and the biography expanded (with selections from the 
Kltine Schriften) in Miss Winkworth's ed. (185]'). Cp. Julius Hare's Vindi- 
catiott of Nitbuhr, 1S39; Francis Lieber's ^<ininiif«»fM (igjj) ; introduction 
to K. G. Jacob's reprint of the Brie/ aa linen jimgiit Phiiolageii (1839); 
Classen's Giddchlmsschrifi (r8j6) ; Eyssenhardl's Biographiscker Vtrsuck 
(1886) ; Bursian, i 647—654 ; and R. Gamett in Enc. Brit. ; also A. Harnack, 
Gesch. der prtass. Akad. i 614 f, 670 f, ii 379—409. 

» Vol. iv was seen through the press by Buttmann ; and new materials for 
the criticism of the text were supplied in voL v by K. G. Zumpt (1819). 
Vol. vi contained an admirable Lexicon Qaintilianeum by Bonnet (1834). 

* Vamhagen, Verm. Sthrifua, ii 141*, in Eyssenhardt's Nitbuhr, 48. 


and Critias. As a professor, and- as a university-preacher at 
Halle in 1804, he had been familiar with Wolf, and 
had been stimulated by that scholar in his Platonic „^i^'"^" 
studies. When Halle became part of the new 
Napoleonic kingdom of Westphalia, both of them fled to Berlin, 
where their friendship was, for a time, unimpaired. Schleier- 
macher's translation was the earliest successful attempt to render 
a great writer of Greek prose in German of an artistic and literary 
type. His Introduction presented a complete survey of Plato's 
works in their relation to one another. The dialt^ues were 
there divided into three groups: — (i) preparatory or elementary 
dialogues ; (z) dialogues of indirect investigation ; (3) expository 
or constructive diali^^ues, — a division taking inadequate account 
of chronolc^cal sequence'. Schleiennacher also broke new 
ground in his researches on some of Plato's precursors. Among 
the most important of these was his treatise on Heraclitus' and 
his paper on Socrates'. 

Julius Hare describes him as 'gifted with the keenest wit', and as 'the 
greatest master of irony since Plato'. 'Vet... the basis of his character, thekejf- 
iiote of his whole being, was. ..a love which deiighted in pouring out the 
boundless riches of his spirit for the edifying of such as came near him, and 
strove with unweariable zeal to make ihem partakers of all that he had. 
Heteby was his heart kept fresh through the unceasing and often turbulent 
activity of his life, so that lh« subtilty of his understanding had no power to 
corrode it ; but when he died, he was still, as one of his friends said of him, 
tin fiinfundiahzigjahrigir JUti^ing'*, 

The circle of scholars at Berlin included Ludwig Friedrich 
Heindorf (1774 — 1816). Bom in Berlin, he was an 
eager and enthusiastic pupil of Wolf at Halle. After 
teaching for a time in the dty of his birth, he was appointed to a 
professorship at Breslau (1811-6), and died soon after his accept- 
ance of a call to Halle. Heindorf, who was ignobly disowned by 
his master, Wolf, is well known in connexion with the edition of 
twelve dialogues of Plato (iSoz-io), which (as we have seen) led 

' Zeller's Plato, etc E.T, loo; Grote's Plata, i 171. 

' Siimmt. Wirkt, in, ii if. 

* ib. ii 147 f. Cp., in genera], Schleiermacher's Ltben in Brie/en, 1858- 
63; Zeller's Vorirdge, 1865; Lives by Dillhey (1867) and Schenkl (1868); 
Bursian, i 663 f. 

* Gutsses at Truth, IJ4, ed. 1866. 

h. I ■.iMa.oo'^lc 

84 GERMANY. [cent. XVIII f 

to a breach between himself and his master'. His editions of 
Cicero, De Natura Deorum, and of the Satires of Horace, both 
published in 1815, are specially useful for their explanatory 

Berlin was the scene of the active life of the distinguished 
grammarian, Philipp Karl Buttmann (1764^1829), 
a member of a family of French Protestant refugees, 
whose original name was Bouderaont. Born at Frankfurt and 
educated at the local school and under Heyne at Gottingen, after- 
spending eight months with Schweighauser at Strassburg, he 
became a master for eight years at ngymnasium in Berlin (1800-8). 
In 1806 he was elected a member of the Academy and, in 1811, 
keeper of the Royal Library. Without belonging to the cor- 
poration of the newly-founded university, he took part in the 
superintendence of the ' philological seminary '. His best-known 
work was his Greek Grammar, first published as a brief outline in 
1792, and constantly expanded and rearranged and improved in 
many subsequent editions. In its expanded form, it was known 
as the 'intermediate Grammar", to distinguish it from the new 
School Grammar of 1812 ; and from the 'Complete Grammar' of 
1819-27, to which additions were made by Lobeck. The success 
of his ' Intermediate Grammar ' was due to its remarkable clearness. 
The rules deduced from ihe observation of grammatical facts are 
here laid down in a lucid form, but without any attempt to trace 
the linguistic laws on which those rules depend. The introduction 
of this Grammar led to a marked improvement in the Greek 
scholarship of the schools of Germany*. 

In his Lexilogus'' he proves himself an acute investigator of 
the meanings of Homeric words, and displays a keen sense of the 
historic developement of language, but is obviously unconscious of 
the importance of the principles of comparative philology*. We 
can hardly, however, be surprised at his ignoring Bopp's work on 

' P- 59 supra. ' Bursian, i 544, 654. 

» E. T. 184O! ed. 3, 1848. 

' Bursian, i 655 f; Eckstein, Lat. und Gr. Unlerricht, 394 f; Wilamowiti 
in Riform dts . . Sckultaatni, ed. Lexis, 1901, 164. 
> 18TS-15: ed. 4, 1S65; b1so£.T. 
« G. Oinms, PHtuipUs of Ci Elym., i 17 E.T. 

h. i.,-iM,Googlc 


the Conjugations (1816) and Jacob Grimm's German Grammar 
(iSig f). when we remember that even Hermann and Lobeck 
regarded the new science with suspicion. Buttmann's editions of 
Greek Classics have no claim to being considered as independent 
works. His edition of four Platonic dialogues is founded on that 
of Biester ; that of the Meidias, on Spalding ; that of the Phiio- 
deles, on Gedike, and his scholia to the Odyssey, on Mai. He also 
edited Aratus. His study of Latin literature is represented by a 
few papers on Horace, one of which was the precursor of many 
less judicious attempts to discover interpolations in the pages of 
that poet'. But his main strength lay in Greek Grammar and 
Homeric Lexicography. His keen interest in Homer even led to 
his giving his children the Homeric names of Helen and Hector, 
Achilles and Alexander'. 

The textual criticism of the Greek Classics was ably represented 
by Immanuel Bekker (1785 — 1871), who was born 
and died in Berlin. Educated under Spalding, he 
studied at Halle under Wolf, who made him inspector of his 
' philological seminary '. He gave early proof of his familiarity 
with the Homeric poems in his reviews of Heyne's Iliad and of 
Wolf's Homer'', On the foundation of the university of Berlin, he 
was appointed to an extraordinary, and, in the following year, to 
an ordinary, professorship, — a position which he held for sixty-one 
years without making any considerable mark as an academic 
teacher. The few courses of lectures that he announced on the 
speeches of Thucydides, or on selections from Isocrates and 
Aeschines, were either not delivered at all, or were attended by a 
very small audience, before whom he scattered a few of the golden 
grains of his learning with every appearance of a certain reluctance 
in parting with his treasures. On the other hand, he set a brilliant 
example to all the younger generations of scholars by the industry 
and the ability that he lavished on the collation of mss and the 
preparation of improved texts of important authors. The number 
of MSS that he collated, either in whole or in part, exceeded four 
hundred. In 1810-12 he was sent by the Berlin Academy to 

' Horax und Nicht- fiorat, appendix to his Mylkalogus (1818-9). 

' D. Boileau in E.T, of Gi Gr. p. xiii. Cp., in general, Barsian, i 655-8. 

• ffopuriicht Bldiltr, 19 f. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


work in the Paris Library. The firetfniits of his labours in France 
appeared in the editw princeps of Apollonius Dyscolus, On the 
Pronoun (1811). In 1815 he transcribed (for discussion in the 
future Corpus) the Greek inscriptions collected by the Abb^ 
Fourmont in 1728-30'. In 1817-19 he was collating the mss of 
Aristotle in the libraries of Italy. On his return he revisited 
Paris. Part of 1820 was spent in Oxford, and, after a few further 
visits to England, he returned to Italy in 1 839. With the ex- 
ception of the lyric and the tragic poets, there is hardly any class 
of Greek authors whose text has not been definitely improved by 
his labours. He produced two editions of Homer ; the first, pub- 
lished in Berlin in 1843, was founded on the principles of Wolf, 
and aimed at restoring (so far as practicable) the recension of 
Aristarchus; the second, published at Bonn in 1858, was an 
attempt to attain an earlier text than that of the Alexandrian 
critics. The principles, on which this edition was founded, were 
mainly set forth in a series of papers, which were presented to the 
Berlin Academy and afterwards published in a collected form ', 
He also produced an edition of the scholia to the Iliad{\%2^-2i), 
which, without being exhaustive, or perfect in all points of detail, 
has the advantage of presenting the scholia of the Codex Vtnetus 
in their proper order and in a trustworthy form'. Of the later 
epic poets, he edited Aratus, Coluthus and Tzetzes, and the 
' Helen and Alexander ' of Demetrius Moschus. For his editions 
of Theognis, he was the first to use the important ms at Modena. 
For the two volumes of the text of Aristophanes, published in 
London with the ancient scholia in 1828, he collated afresh the 
Venice ms, and the Ravenna MS, the importance of which had, 
after 250 years of neglect, been brought to light by the Roman 
lawyer, Invernizi (1794). On the basis of a careful collation of 
MSS, Bekker edited Thucydides with the scholia, as well as 
Pausanias and Herodian. He also prepared new editions of 
Herodotus, Polybius, Dion Cassius, Diodorus, Appian, Josephus, 
and the Lives of Plutarch, as well as the ' Bibliotheca ' of Apollo- 
dorus, together with Heliodonis and Lucian. There is less 

' Cp. R. C. Christie's Sekctid Eiiays, 86 ; p. 99 infra. 

* Homtrische Blatter, 1863-73. 

> Cp.lAR<Kite,Texe,ZacAtiiuruiSciaiienda..C«iiexyautui[iS6i),i'jf. 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


originality in his work on the twenty-five volumes which he con- 
tributed to the Corpus of the Byzantine Historians. A marked 
advance is, however, shown in his editions of the whole of Plato 
(with the scholia and a full critical commentary)', and the whole of 
Aristotle'. He prepared a new recension of Sextus Empiricus. 
His edition of all the Attic Orators was published first at Oxford 
(1822), and in the following year at Berlin. New materials for 
the history of Greek Grammar and Rhetoric were provided in the 
three volumes of his Anecdota Graem, and new texts of gram- 
matical works in his editions of the Syntax of ApoUonius, the 
Bibliotkeca of Photius, the lexicons of Harpocration and Moeris 
and Suidas, the Homeric lexicon of ApoUonius, and the Ono- 
masfuon of Pollux. As a contribution to Greek lexicography, he 
produced a new edition of the small Greek lexicon of Niz, in 
which the words are arranged according to their etymology. The 
only Latin texts which he edited (apart from a few items In the 
Byzantine series) were Livy, with short notes by Raschig, and 
Tacitus, with the commentaries of earlier scholars. His extra- 
ordinary activity as an editor seems to have left him little energy 
for anything else ; he was held in the highest esteem by scholars, 
but he did not shine in ordinary conversation. It was said of the 
editor of some sixty volumes of Greek texts, and the collator of 
more than four hundred mss, that he could be silent in seven 

' 8 vols., 1816-23. ' 4 vols., 1831-36. 

* E. J. Bekker, Zur Brinnerung an laeitun Voter in Prtuss. fahrb. (187a), 
""i* 553 ft 6+1 f; H. Sauppe, Gotlingen, 1871; Haupt, O^te. iii 118 f; 
Halm, in A.D.B. ; and Buisian, i 658—663 ; also M. Hertz, in Dattukt 
Rundschau, Nov. (885 (on Boeckh and Beltker) ; Leutsch, in Philol. Aat. 
xvi 114 f; Ilamack, Gesch. da- prmss. Akad. i 857 f; and Gildeisleeve, in 
^.y./-. xxviii(i907)'i3- 




From Weger's engraving of the portrait by C. Vogel (1841); fronlispiece to 
Kochly's Get^ied Hermann (1874). 

h. i."iM,Googlc 



In the generation next to that of Wolf, the two great scholars, 
Gottfried Hermann and August Boeckh, were conspicuous as the 
heads of two rival schools of classical learning. The first was 
the grammafieal and critical school, which made the text of the 
Oassics, with questions of grammar and metre and style, the main 
object of study. The second (already represented by Niebuhr) 
was the historical and antiquarian school, which investigated all 
the manifestations of the spirit of the old classical world. The 
precursors of the first school were to be mainly found among the 
scholars of England and Holland; those of the second, among 
the scholars of France. The first was concerned with words, the 
second with things ; the first with language and literature ; the 
second with institutions, and with art and archaeology. The 
adherents of the first were twitted by their opponents with a 
narrow devotion to notes on classical texts ; those of the second 
were denounced as dilettanti. It is now, however, generally agreed 
that, while, in theory, the comprehensive conception of the wide 
field of classical learning formed by Boeckh is undoubtedly correct, 
in practice a thorough knowledge of the languages is the indispen- 
sable foundation for the superstructure. That knowledge is in 
fact (to change the metaphor) the master-key to all the departments 
of the intellectual life of the ancient classical world'. 

Hermann (1772 — 1848) was bom at Leipzig, where his father 
was the senior member of the local court of Sheriffs ; 
his mother, a very vivacious and interesting person, Hemlnn'' 
of French descent, retained her marvellous memory 

' Bursian, ii 665 f. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 


to the age of ninety. A boy of delicate frame, high spirits, and 
unruly temper, the young Hermann was fortunate in being en- 
trusted, at the age of twelve, to the strict discipline and the 
stimulating teaching of Ilgen, the future Rector of Schulpforta', 
Matriculating at Leipzig at the early age of fourteen, he attended 
the lectures of F. W. Reiz, who pointed out the importance of the 
study of metre, and set before him the example of Bentley. From 
Reiz, whom he always remembered with gratitude, he learnt three 
things in particular, (i) never to study more than one writer, or 
one subject, at a time, (2) never to take any statement on trust, 
and (3) always to be able to give a good reason for holding any 
opinion which he deemed to be true'. He joined the university 
of Jena for a single semester, with a view to attending Reinhold's 
lectures on Kant (1793-4), which were not without their influence 
on the logical precision which subsequently marked his own 
teaching of metre and grammar'. Passing rapidly through the 
preliminary stages at Leipzig, he became professor of Eloquence 
in 1803 and of Poetry in 1809. His mastery of Latin prose was 
manifest in all the speeches and letters that he composed on be- 
half of the university, while a long line of enthusiastic pupils first 
learnt from his eloquent lips the true meaning of the old Greek 
poets. As a teacher, he had a singularly attractive and eng^^ing 
personality, combined with a primitive simplicity of character and 
an unswerving love of truth. His lectures, which were usually 
delivered in latin, were simple and clear in style, and free from 
all striving for rhetorical effect; but they were inspired with a keen 
enthusiasm for the old classical world. His talent as a teacher 
was most conspicuous in his lectures on the Greek tragic poets, 
and on Pindar and Homer ; but he also lectured on Hesiod and 
Theocritus, on Thucydides, and on Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry, 
and on Plautus and Terence. Of his other courses the most 
important were those on metre and grammar, and on criticism 
and hermeneutics, while he occasionally lectured on Greek litera- 
ture, on the Greek festivals, and on the antiquities of the Greek 

' Otto Jahn, Siogr. Au/sdtu, 91 f; p. 63 suj>ra. 

* Opusc. viii 453 f; Jahn, 96 f; Kochly's Hermann, sf, ii5f. 

' Jahn, 99, Cp. p. 91, n. 8 infra. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


theatre*. But his main interest was in the study of the ancient 
languages', and he always insisted on the supreme importance of 
a first-hand acquaintance with the writings of the ancients'. In 
an early work he urged that a strictly logical and rational method 
should be applied to the study of Greek Grammar (i8oi)*, and in 
the following year dealt with a number of points of Syntax in his 
additions to the German version of Viger's work on Greek idioms". 
Of his later discussions on Syntax the most notable were his papers 
on 'Ellipse and Pleonasm", his dissertation on ovm', and his 
'four books on the particle av'^. He was opposed to the com- 
parative philologists of his day^ 

In his writings on ancient metre he had no important modern 
precursors except Bentley and Porson. Bentley's only separate 
treatise on the subject was his brief Schediasma on the metres of 
Terence, while Porson had been led by a careful observation of 
facts to formulate rules for the ordinary iambic and trochaic metres 
of the Greek drama. Brunck and Reisig had also paid some 
attention to the subject Hermann's work, however, was more 
systematic; he began by studying the ancient authorities, above 
all Hephaestion, expounding and correcting them by the light of 
his own study of the Greek poets'*. He elucidated the rhythms 
of Greek poetry by the effective recitation of passages from the 
poets, and for this purpose he abandoned the customary Reuch- 

■ Cp. Thiersch, Ueber gelihrli SckuUn, 'u 115 (Bnisian, ii 66911.), 
' Jahn, 104, 108 f. ' Opusc. vii 98 f. 

* Dt imeadanda ratioru Graicae Gramniaticae, pars prima. 

* Di fratcipms Greucae dictionis idiotismis (1617), ed. iSoi elc, and, 
finally, 183+. Cp. Jahn, 106 f. 

* Opusc. i 148 — 144. 
^ ib. i 308—341. 

' a. iv I — 304. Cp. Koecbly, 30 f. For protests against the melaphysical 
treatment of Syntan by Hermann and others, see Gildersleeve, in A.y.F.n 
480; and W. G. Hale, in Canull Studies, i {Cum-Constrwrlions, 1887-9) 
7, 98, 147, and in^ Cenlitry of Mdaphysical Syntax (Free, Si Louis Congress, 
1904, vol. iii). 

° Pref. to Acta Sec. Graecae, xii, quoted in vol. i n n. 5 supra. 

'* His earliest treatise, Dc Melris Foetantm Graceerum tt Romatiorum 
{1791), is enlai^ed in his German 'Handbook of Melrik' (1799), and is further 
developed in his EUmenta Docirinae Mttricai (1S16) with the conesponding 
Epitame (\%\%). Goethe was much interested in his 'Haadbaolc'(KoecbIj, 17), 


linian method of pronunciation for one which was closely akin to 
that of Erasmus '. 

In textual criticism his conjectures rest on a Ane sense of 
Greek idiom. When the text is clearly corrupt, he relies mainly 
on his own sense of what the original author ought to have written. 
But he does not resort to conjecture for its own sake ; his aim is 
strictly to make his author say what he really meant to say*. 
Textual criticism, he maintained, must go hand in hand with 
exegesis. The exponent of the Classics must explain the individual 
words, elucidate the historical references, set forth the author's 
aim, and the general scheme of his work, with its merits and its 
defects*. But he must always be conscious of the limits to our 
knowledge of the ancient world : — est quaedam etiam msciendi ars 
el sdentia*. 

Among his published works a foremost place must be assigned 
to his editions of the Greek tragic poets. As a specimen of his 
Aeschylus, he put forth the Eumenides in 1799, but more than 
fifty years elapsed before the appearance of his posthumous edition 
of the whole (1852)°. His work on Sophocles was connected with 
that of his pupil, Etfurdt (1780— 1813), who had produced in 
i8oa-i I a critical edition, which was completed by the publication 
of the Oedipus Co/onetis by Heller and Doederlein in 1825, while 
Erfurdt's proposed lexicon was ultimately produced by EUendt 
(1834). Erfurdt had also begun a smaller edition for the use of 
students; his Antigone appeared in 1809, and the series was 
completed by Hermann in 1811-25. Between 1810 and 1841 
Hermann produced separate editions of thirteen plays of Euri- 
pides'. In place of an edition of the Medea, we have his notes 
on that of Elmsley^. The only play of Aristophanes that he 
edited was the Clouds. 

The different kinds of interpolations in the Homeric Hymns 

' Koechly, 24. ' Jahn, 116. 

* Dt officio inlerpretisyK-aOpascsv. 1)1 i. 

* Ofmsc. ii a88. Cp. vol. ii 319 d. 3 supra. 

* Here, liio, Suppl. 1S11, Bacchae (mainly supplementary lo Elmslef's ed.) 
1813; Ion, axAAlc. {with notes from Monk), 1817 j /&„ Ifk. AtiL, Ipk.T., 
Hel., Andr., CycL, Phoen., Or. {1831-41). 

■ .' 0/<«£. iii 143— 161- 

h, i.MiA.OOt^lC 


and in Hesiod's Theogonia are distinguished in the Letter to Ilgen 
prefixed to Hermann's early edition of the former {1806). His 
mature opinions on the Homeric question are presented in his 
papers of 1831-2'. 

He here defends the hjrpothesis of Wolf against the opinion of ihe most 
important and most scholarly of its opponents, Nitisch, who held that Homer 
composed the Iliad with (be aid of older poems, and that he probably also 
composed the Odyssey, in which he was more original and l«ss indebted to his 
predecessors. Wolf had held that the weaving of the Homeric web had been 
earritddmon to a certain foint by the first and chief author of the poem, and 
had been continued by Others. Hermann, improving on this opinion, su^ested 
lha( the original sketch of our Iliad and our Odyssey had been produced by the 
first poet, and that the later poets did not carry on ike lexlure, but completed 
the design wilhin (he outline that was already drawn', 

Hermann made many valuable contributions to the criticism 
and exposition of Hesiod'. His edition of the Orphica {1805) 
supplies a much improved text, with an appendix showing, on 
metrical and linguistic grounds, that the date of these poems lies 
between that of Quintus Smyrnaeus and Nonnus'. It is of this 
appendix that Lehrs remarked that nothing, had appeared in 
modern times more worthy of the genius of Bentley'. 

Pindar was the theme of his hfe-long study. As early as 1798 
he had contributed to Heyne's Pindar a treatise on the poet's 
metres. In a later paper he showed that Ihe language of the 
different odes had an Aeolic or a Doric colouring which varied 
with the rhythm in which they were composed'. His text of Bion 
and Moschus was published in 1849. 

His work was mainly limited to the Greek poets, the only 

' Opuse. vsi-77(i833),vi(i)7of (183.), and viiirif (1840). He had 
printed a Tauchniti text of Homer in 1835 (Praef. in Opun. iii 74—81). 

' Opase. VI (r) 86 f ; Jahn, 109 ; Koechly, 36 — 40 ; Jebb's Homer, 119 f. 
In connexion with the method of reciting the Homeric poems enjomed by 
Solon, Hermann opposed the views of Boeckh in two papers on the meaning 
of the term bropoMi {Opusc. v 300, vii 65) ; cp. vol. i 19 n. sufra. 

* Review of Goetding's ed. 1831 in Opusc. vi (i) 141 f. In vii 47 he 
suggests that the Theogonia originally consisted of 156 stanzas of ; lines each. 

' Cp. Q^^. iii-i7(i8ir). 

' Lehrs, Quaesliones Bpicae, 155 ; Koechly, 37, 169, 

• Opiise. i I4S f; see also iii 11 f (on Nim. vii), v 181 f (df^vt), n (l) 3 f 
Ireview ofDissen); also emendations etc. in vii jip f, viii 68 — 118 ; cp. 
Jahn, III f. 

. D„:,|.,"lh;COOglC 


Greek prose text' which he edited being Aristotle's Poetic (1802) 
with a dissertation on tragic and epic poetry*. The early interest 
in Plautus, which he owed to Reisig, bore fruit in editions of the 
Trinummus", and the Bacckides, the former of which was highly 
praised by Ritschl'. His attention was drawn to Greek Mytho- 
logy by Creuzer, whose views he elaborately examined in 1819. 
In his papers on Greek Inscriptions (mainly on those in metre), 
he severely criticises the way in which they had been handled by 
archaeologists such as Boeckh and Welcker', 

His lectures, no less than his dissertations, gave proof of his 
command of an excellent style in Latin prose. For 23 years he 
hardly ever failed to send on New Year's Eve a set of Latin verses 
in remembrance of the birthday of his friend Carl Einert', and in 
1817 he celebrated the tercentenary of the Reformation in no 
lines of Latin Elegiacs. He exemplified the difference between 
the stately style of Greek tragedy, and the spasmodic movement 
of modern drama, by some thoroughly idiomatic renderings from 
Schiller's Walknstein, which he executed amid the distractions of 
his drawing-room'. His life-long practice in riding lends a special 
value to his brief papers on the various phrases used in Greek to 
denote the different paces of a horse'. An officer of dragoons was 
so struck by the excellence of his horsemanship that he asked the 
professor whether he had ever served in the cavalry; and a scholar, 
who had learnt much from one of his reviews, described him, in 
the words of Horace, as grammaticorum equitum docttssimus*. 
Even at his professorial lectures he was wont to appear in his blue 
riding-coat, and in high boots and spurs'°, and his pupils were 

' Except his text of Photius {1808). 

* Koechly, 31, 151. 
' iSoo; ed. 1, 1853. 

* Kl. Philoi.Schr. ii 190. Cp. Jahn ii6f: Koechly, 46 f, 185—191. 

' Ufber Herm Profissor Boeckk's Behandlung der griuhiscAen ImchriJUn 
(1816); also Opusc. iv 303—332, v 164—181, vii 17+— 189. 
« KoecUy, 61 f, 165—386. 
' 0/«if. V3SS— 361; Koechly, 197 f, 
" On Xen, De St Eq. c. 7, in Opuse. \ 63 f. 

■ Goltling's //■«/«/, Ptol^. xxjdi ; Koechly, 393; p. iiT^-iinfra. 
" Koechly, 7, 70, 313 f; Jahn, 101 ; Donaldson, Schidankip and Ltaming, 



vividly impressed by the brightness of his eyes and the breadth of 
his lofty brow, by the singular transparency of his character, and 
by the simple eloquence of his language. The Greek Society, 
which he founded at Leipzig, numbered nearly 200 members 
during the half-century of its existence. It is these who in a 
special sense founded the school of Hermann, and they included 
scholars of such note as Passow, I'hiersch, Meineke, K. F. 
Hermann, Trendelenburg, Spengel, Classen, Ritschl, Sauppe, 
Haupt, Bergk, Koechly, Bonitz, and Arnold Schaefer'. 

While Hermann, the representative of pure scholarship, con- 
centrated his attention on the language, and especially on the 
poetry, of the old Greek Classics, it was the historic interest that 
predominated in the case of his great contemporary, 
August Boeckh {1785 — 1867). At the school of 
his birth-place, Carlsruhe, he attained that proficiency in mathe- 
matics which lends distinction to several of his maturer works. 
At Halle he studied theology, philosophy, and philology, with a 
view to a clerical or a scholastic career; but the influence of Wolf 
led to his concentrating himself on the Greek Classics, while the 
lectures of Schlelermacher guided him to the special study of 
Plato. His earliest work dealt with the pseudo-Platonic Minos 
(i8o6). He next spent a year in Bellermann's Seminar at Berlin, 
where he enjoyed the friendship of Heindorf and Buttmann. In 
1807 he returned to his native land of Baden, and became a full 
professor at Heidelberg only two years later. His lectures at that 
university covered a wide range of authors and of subjects'. His 
continued interest in Plato was proved by his four papers on the 
TYmaeus', and by his edition of six pseudo-Platonic dialogues 
(rSio)*. At the same time, his study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, 

' Koechly, S9, t$J. Cp. in general Olto Jahn's Giddchtnissrede 41849), 
reprinted in Biogr. Aufsatzr, 91 — 135, ed. 1866; K. F. Ameis, G. Htrmann'i 
pUdagB^uher Etnfiust (1850); H. Kiicllly, G. Hermann (1874), 350 pp.; 
Paulsen, ii 404-8'; Urlicha, 115-8'; Bursian, ii 666—687, and in A. D. B.\ 
Wilamowiti, £Mr. /fe". i 135-9'. Opuscula in eight vols., i^vii (1817-39), 
viii (1876). 

* Bursian, ii 688 n. 1. 

' Kl, Sthr. iii 109 f, 181 f, iig f. 166 f. 

* Bratnscheck, A. Betckk ah Plalpniker, in Bergmann's Philes. Mtmats- 
hiflen, i 371 f. 



From the frontispiece to Max Hoffinann's August Boakk (1901). 

h. !■, ii,l^.OOglc 


and Euripides boTe fruit in a treatise on those poets, in which 
verbal criticism is very subordinate to questions of wider literary 
interest, such as the extent of the chaises early introduced into 
the original texts by actors, etc' This treatise was dedicated in 
eulogistic terms to his future critic, Hermann, to whom he was 
then unknown. At Heidelberg he also gave early proof of his 
study of Pindar in three papers, the longest of which deals with 
the poet's metres, proving that words must never be broken in two 
at the end of the lines '. The greater part of his Pindar must have 
been practically finished while he was still at Heidelberg, at a 
time when he was more interested in the literary than the historical 
and antiquarian aspects of classical learning. The first volume 
was published in 1811, and it was completed in iSsi with the aid 
of his friend, Ludolph Dissen, who wrote the commentary on the 
Nemean and Isthmian Odes. In this edition the text is founded 
on the collation of numerous Mss, and the exegesis on a renewed 
study of the scholia printed in the first part of the second volume. 
It is still more important for the light that it throws on the poefs 
metres, and on the principles of his composition. 

In the spring of i8ir he left Heidelberg for the position of 
professor of Eloquence and of Classical Literature in the newly- 
founded university of Berlin, and for 56 years he continued to be 
one of the chief ornaments of that seat of learning. The wide 
range of his earlier lectures was gradually narrowed into a course 
extending over two years, and including a general survey of 
classical learning, with special courses on Metrik, Greek Antiqui- 
ties and Greek Literature, and lectures on Pindar, on a play of 
Euripides or Sophocles (generally the Antigone), a dialogue of 
Plato (usually the Republic), and a speech of Demosthenes. His 
delivery was not so animated as that of Wolf or Hermann, but his 
maturer students could not fail to appreciate the depth and solidity 
of his attainments and his perfect mastery of his subject. In 
Berlin the publication of his Pindar was delayed for several years 
by the Napoleonic war, but some important papers on that poet 

J GroKoe tragMdicu frindfum... num... geniiinB omnia sirtt... {1808). 

" This had been assetted (without proof) by C. W. Ahlwardt (1760—1830), 
in I798f, and had been noticed, as an almost invariable rule, by J. H. Voss in 
his Zeitmessung, 343 {Herbst, ii (1) 164, 310 0- 




were laid before the Berlin Academy'. His papers on the Antigone 
(1824) were printed in his edition of the text together with a free 
translation, the publication of which, in 1845, was prompted by 
the first performance of the play with Mendelssohn's music in 
Berlin in 1841*. The date of the Oedipus Coionais was discussed 
in 1825-6', and the distribution of the first choral ode among the 
members of the chorus in 1843*. A paper on a corrupt passage 
of Euripides supplies an exceptional example of his success as a 
conjectural critic'. Meanwhile, his continued interest in Plato 
had led to his writing a valuable paper on Philolaus (1819). 

In the historical and antiquarian province of classical learning 
Boeckh is represented by two important works, which have laid 
the foundation for all later research in the departments with which 
they are concerned. The first of these is the Public Economy of 
Athens, originally published in two volumes' with an Appendix of 
Inscriptions on the Athenian Navy (1840). The second is the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. The former was partly inspired 
by WolPs Prolegomena to the 'Leptines', and it is dedicated to 
Niebuhr. It supplies us with a full and systematic statement 
of the economic side of the Athenian constitution in its actual 
working. The treatise on the Silver Mines of Laurium arises out 
of the same subject and is included in the English translation 
of 1838'. 

The second and third German editions have an appendix of 
inscriptions relating to the finances of Athens. In the course of 
the preparation of the original work, the author formed a plan for 
a complete collection of such documents. The proposal was 
supported by Buttmann and Niebuhr, and accepted by the Berlin 
Academy. The first two folio volumes of the Corpus (1825-43) 
were edited by Boeckh, the third (1845-53) by Franz, the fourth 
was begun by Ernst Curtius and continued by Kirchhoff, and the 
whole was completed when Roehl's Indices were published in 1877, 

' KI. Schr. V 148, vii 369. 

' Cp. Jebb's ed. xli ; Max Hoffmann's Boeckh, 96 f. 

» Kl. Schr. iv ai8. * ib. 517. 

' iph. Aal. 188, om Ka.Ta.T(vSi \iay (for KanvrH \tav a') tyii. 

« i8r; jE. T. 1818 and 184J); ed. 3, 1851 (E. T. Boston, 1857); 
ed. 3, 1886. 

' Ed. 1, [843. 




more than fifty years after the work had been begun by Boeckh. 
The first part of the first volume was severely reviewed by Her- 
mann in 1825', and this severity was largely justified. Boeckh, 
who had had no experience in examining or copying inscriptions 
in situ, had not recognised the fact that an exact facsimile was a 
necessary preliminary to the successful restoration of the text. He 
had generally accepted the transcripts on trust, and his restorations 
had often done violence, either to the evidence of those transcripts, 
or to the laws of the Greek language. On the other hand, he had 
shown great judgement in deciding questions as to the genuineness 
of these documents. The twenty-six inscriptions, which the French 
traveller, Michel Fourmont, had professed to have found among 
the ruins of Amyclae, had been already suspected in England by 
Payne Knight and in France by Boissonade, and were conclusively 
proved by Boeckh to be forgeries*. In the scientific handling of 
inscriptions, he had no precursors worthy of the name, except 
Corsini and Chandler; so that he is practically the founder of this 
branch of learning. The first systematic work on the subject, 
that of Franz', is based entirely on Boeckh's labours^. In editing 
the inscriptions of Greece, Boeckh applied his mathematical and 
astronomical knowledge to the investigation of important points of 
chronology', in which he was aided by Ideler (1766 — 1846)'. 
His mathematical skill is also shown in his examination of the 
weights, the coinage-standards, and the measures of the ancients 

1 p. 94 sufira. Itie best accouni of the long controversy between Hermann 
anil Boeckh, a,nd their final reconciliation, is [n Max Hoflhiann's Life of Boeckh 
(1901), 48— 65. 

" C. I. G. i p. 61 f. While all the inscriptions published, or left ready for 
publication, by Foarmont were forgeries, there were hundreds of genuine 
inscriptions, transcribed by himself, which he never published. Cp. R. C 
Christie's SiUcied Essays, 86-9; p. 86 supra. 

* EUmmta Epigraphiees Graaae, 184O. Cp. Ctaben, £pigraphit S'''^9'"< 

* The inscriplions of Attica have since been edited anew, with large 
additions, in the foor volumes of the Cerput Mscr. AUicarum {1873-95), 
Mlowed by the earhest Greek inscriptions (1S81), and by those of Sicily and 
Italy (1890), N. Greece (1891), and the Greek Islands (1895). 

' On the lunar cycles of the Greeks, A?. Sckr. vi 339 f ; on Manetho and 
die Dog-star period, 1*. iii 343. 

* Author of the ^BfxiiftM-A (1835 f) and the Zi^Ar^wi-^ (1831) of Chronology, 
and of many papers on the history of ancient Astronomy. 

h. i., i7-x^oot^lc 


(1S38), a work that gave the first impulse to all subsequent in- 
vestigations. His wide and comprehensive view of the various 
branches of classical learning was attested in the course of lectures 
repeatedly given by him at Berlin and since published by one of 
his pupils'. His systematic account of the field of learning, as a 
whole, is practically founded on that of Wolf, the details of whose 
system he criticises with some severity. Boeckh's system, how- 
ever, shows a marked advance on that of Wolf; and other systems 
are reviewed by Boeckh himself. Among the many subsequent 
schemes are those of Emil Hubner, and of Martin Hertz'. 

The list of his pupils includes not a few distinguished names. 
He was keenly interested in the subsequent career of K. O. MiilJer 
at Gbttingen, and of Edward Meier at Greifswald and Halle, and 
in the later work of Gerhard in Berlin, Among his other pupils 
were Gottling and Doderlein, Trendelenburg and Spengel, Droysen 
and Preller, Lepsius and Diinker, Otto Jahn and Bonitz, and 
Ernst and Georg Curtius'. Some of them, such as Trendelenbuig 
and Spengel, had already been pupils of Hermann, and several of 
the foremost of Hermann's pupils, such as Ritschl, Kochly, and 
Arnold Schaefer, were among the warmest admirers of Boeckh*. 

' Encyklopadit und Mtthodohgii der pHUoIogischai Wisscmehafitn, ed. 
Bratuscheck (1877), 814 pp.; ed. 1 (18S6). Cp. Bursian, ii 703-5, and Max 
Hoflmann's .5i'«:SA, 147 — iji- 

> Encyklepiidii etc. p. 64 f. 

' Reviewed by Buraiin in Jahresb, vii (i8;6) 145, and xi (1877) 36, 

* Max Hoffmann. 79 f. Cp. Jakrb.f. Pkild. Ixxv 138 f. 

" %b. 138 f. — Many of Boeckh's monographs are collected in his JCltine 
Sckriflen, 7 vols. (1858-74). On his life and works, cp. R. H. Ktfliisen, in 
S. F. Hoffmann's LtUmbUder btriihmter Humanistm, i (1837) 19 f; B. Stark, 
Ufher Boeekh's Bildvngsg(aig in VorirSge elc. (1880) 409-, and in A. D. B.\ 
Bursian, ii 687 — 705 ; Urlichs, 128' f ; Britfaicchstl xwischtn August Botckh 
und JCat-l Olfried Mueller (1883I ; Ernst Curtius, Allerittm und Gegetmmrl, iii 
1 15 — 155 (1885)1 I'n'l Via.t. Hoffmann, August Boeckh, Ltitnsbesckreiiung und 
AusToahl aus setnem wisitns<haflHckm BriiJviecAiel [his correspondence with 
Welcker, Niebuhr, Thiersch, Schomann, Gerhard, A. Schaefer, Ritschl, A, v. 
Humboldt; followed by his Pindaric Ode of 1819], 483 pp. (1901}; also 
Leutsch, in Philol. Am. 1886, 131 f ; S. Reiler, in Neue Jakrb.f. kl. Ail. xiii 
(1901) 436—458; and GiLdersleeve, in Oscillatioiu and J^ulations, 1 — 7, and 
in A. J. P. xxxviii 131. 




Hermann and Boeckh, as the great representatives of pure and 
applied scholarship respectively, are men of whom all the votaries 
of classical learning may well be proud. At a later point we shall 
return to Boeckh's devoted pupil and friend, K. O, Miiller'. Mean- 
while we must briefly trace the careers of some of the scholars 
who belonged to the school of Hermann. 

' Chap, xxxiv inil. 




The grammatical and critical school of philology is partly 
represented by two of Hermann's contemporaries, who were not, 
however, in complete agreement with his views. The works of 
both were defective in aim and in method; and their authors 
may be described as independent members of the parliament 
of scholars. 

Gottfried Heinrich Schaefet (1764—1840), the librarian of Leipzig in 
1818-33, ™^ essenlially a student, and not a teacher. In 
three successive editions of Viger, Hermann stated that he 
had only been able to make a partial use of the itiargiHalia placed at his 
disposal by Schaefer. This statement gave offence to the latter, who in his 
commenlaiy on Demosthenes retaliated by attacking Reisig and other pupils 
of Hermann*. A man of wide learning, especially in the province of Greek 
prose, Schaefer buried much of that learning in the works of others'. The 
most important of his own works was the Apparatus Crilicus to Demosthenes, 
including excerpts from all the earlier commentators, with valuable additions 
of his own'. His editions (usually accompanied by prolix commentaries 
of the old Dutch type) included Dionysius of Halicamassus, Dt Csmposiliotu 
Virborum. His edition of Gr^orius Corinthius, and other writers on Greek 
dialects, was equipped with a valuable CrnnmetUalio Palaeograpkua and 
facsimiles by Bast^. He also edited many of the Tauchnitz Classics, with 
emendations of bis own, but there is a marked absence of any definite critical 
principles or any methodical recension of the text'. 

The same defect is obvious in the productions of an abler critic, Friedrich 
Heintich Bothe (t77o— 1855), who held no educational posi- 
tion, but spent his whole life in the mechanical manufacture 
of classical books. His best work was connected with the Greek and Roman 

' Koechly's Hermann, 115 f. 

' i.g. in the London ed. (181s f) of the Greek T'iejau™! of H. Slephanus. 

' S vols. (London, 1814-7); ^"l- vi, /wfirw by E. C. Seller (1833). 

* ii p. 397 sufra. ■ Burdan, ii 707-9. 


drama. He repeatedly edited all (be Greek Dramatists, including the frag- 
ments, with criticisms on Aristophanes (iSoS) under the pseudonym of Hutibius 
(an approximate anagram of Bothius). His criticisms on the Greek Comic 
fragments were published under his own name in the Didot series (1855). 
Plautus, Terence and Seneca, were edited by him separately, as well as in a 
collected form (1S34). In all these works there is a lack of critical method, 
but tbere aie many excellent emendations. The same holds good of his 
editions of the Homeric Poems, and of Horace and Phaedrus'. 

One of the earliest and most distinguished of the pupils of 
Hermann was Christian August Lobeck (1781 — 
i860), who taught at Wittenberg in 1803-14, and 
was professor at Konigsberg for the remaining 46 years of his 
life. Hermann himself has dwelt in glowing terms on the 
profound learning that pervades every page of his pupil's edition 
of the Ajax'. The same learning, combined with a singular 
faculty for grouping large masses of facts under general laws of 
language, is manifest in his second great work, his edition of the 
Atticist, Fhrynickus (1820). A fragment of Herodian is appended 
to the latter, and the last 300 pages are mainly devoted to the 
laws of word-fornution in Greek, Simitar subjects are treated 
in his Faralipomena GramntatUae Graecac (1837) and his 
Rhematikon (1846), The terminations of Greek nouns are the 
theme of eleven dissertations comprised in the Prolegomena to 
the Fathologia Sermonis Graed (1843), followed by the two 
parts of the Patho/ogia (1843-62), His valuable additions to 
Buttmann's Greek Grammar have been already mentioned*. All 
of these works are marked by a singularly comprehensive know- 
ledge of the whole range of Greek literature, by an acute 
perception of real or apparent analogies, and a fine sense of 
the life of the language. His clear insight and wide erudition 
enable him to deduce definite laws and rules of usage from an 
almost overwhelming multitude of details. He holds aloof from 
the methods and the results of the Comparative Philology of 
his day, but one of the foremost of Comparative Philologists has 

' Bursian, ii 709-11. 

* Pnuf. ad Sufh, Aiac. ed. 4 p. vi, 'cuius in edilione nulla pagina est qua 
perlecta non docliorem se factum sentiat qui discere didicerit'. 

* 1809; ed. 3, 1866. 

* p. 84 supra. 

h. i.MM,Googlc 


stated that the suggestions modestly put forward by Lobeck ' are 
always combined with such a wealth of learning, such fine 
philological discrimination, and such careful regard for tradition, 
that they contribute much to the comprehension of the principles 
of Greek Etymology, and, even where his results cannot be 
accepted, the process of his inquiry is exceedingly valuable". 

His interest in the history of Greek religion is exemplified by 
the anonymous notice of Creuzer's Dionysus, in which he makes 
merry over the mystic meanings which Creuzer sees in the pots 
and pans of ancient houses and temples'; by the similar review 
of the Symbolik, where he attacks the author's passion for 'finding 
symbols under every stone"; and, above all, by his Agiaophamus\ 
a masterly work of astounding learning, in which all that is really 
known as to the Greek mysteries is set forth in instructive 
contrast to the fanciful speculations of the Symbolists. 

Lobeck's wit and humour, as well as his devotion to the old 
Greek texts, are well exemplified in a short letter to Meineke t — 

What is this that I hear, my dear friend? I can hardly believe my ears. 
Are you rtally wanting to visit Italy ? Why Italy, of all parts of the world f 
Simply to see a few statues with biokeo noses? noI If I cannot visit 
Niagara, or the Mississippi, or Hekia, I prefer sitting here beside my own warm 
stove, reading grbek scholiasts, — which is, after all, the true end of the life 

Twenty years later, Hermann, at the age of 70, wrote as 
follows, when he was endeavouring to induce his old pupil to pay 
him a visit at Leipzig : — 

Yoa talk of your 'old pain in the chest'. Whyt /, who, as a matter of 
fa.ct, have a constant cough, and am not anfreqoently coughing, day and night, 
for four weeks tc^eCher, never stop to inquire whether I have one limg or two, 
so long as I can breathe with the lung that I have. You also talk of 'life's 
setting sun'. Whyl that, in the phrase of 'Longinos", would give us the 
promise of a new Oifyiseya^ the counterpart io tiit Iliad ot yim AgloBpAamm'' . 

' G. Curtius, Principles of Gk Elym. i I+, E. T. 

^ Jena Allg. Liltiralur-Zeilung (1810), no. 18 — 10, p. 137 f. 

' ib. 1811, no. gfif; cp. 1811, no. 71—73. 

* Sive lU thealogiae mysticae Graecervm caiais, t vols., 1391 pp. ((8*9). 
Cp. Koechly's ^iirRiiniR, 45, 183. 

" Milthiilungen aus Lobeckt Briifaiecksel, ed. FriedlSnder, 67 (iSii). 

« C.9. 

' Br. p. Ill (1843); Ausg. Briefe, ed. Ludwich, p. 317 f. On Lol>eck, 
cp. Lebrs, Erinntmngen in Ftpttliirt Au/satu (1875*) 479 f ; Friedlander's 


Among the earliest pupils of Lobeck in his Wittenberg days, were several 
who did good work on the Greek Epic poets. Frani Ernst . 

Heinrich Spitiner (1787— 1841) produced an edition of the '" 

Iliad with 3 critical commentary, and a number of eicursuses founded on a 
careful observatioo of the language and the pro»idy of the Homeric poems. 
His Observations include many excellent emendations on Quintus Smymaeus'. 

Another pupil of Lobeck, Gr^or Wilhelm Nitisch (1790 — 1861), was a 
professor for ij years at Kiel and, for the last nine years of his 
life, at Leipzig. With the exception of some papers on the 
history of Greek religion and on Plato, with an edition of the Ian, his work as 
a scholar was mainly devoted lo Homer. Grammatical exposition is well 
represented in his explanatory notes to the first twelve books of the Odysuy 
(1816-40); bul he is best known as an early and an effective opponent of 
Wolfs theory on the Homeric question. 

While Wolf regards Homer as a primitive bard, who began lo weave the 
web of the Homeric poems, and Only carried it down to a certain point, Nitisch 
looks upon him as a 'great poetical artist who, coming after the age of the 
short lays, framed an epic on a larger plan'*. Thus Wolf places Homer a[ the 
ttginning of the growth of the poems, Nitzsch nearer to the end. Nilisch 
regards the Jliadas mainly the work of Homer, but this view does not exclude 
the introduction of minor interpolations aod changes at a later date. The 
Odysiey he considers to be the work of perhaps the same poet, who (he holds) 
was more Original here thati in the Iliad. In the course of the controversy 
Nitisch observed that some of ihe 'Cyclic' poems of the seventh and eighth 
centuries B.C. presupposed our Wmf and Oi^jjg' in something like their present 
form, and, further, that the Greek use of writing was probably older than Wolf 
had assumed'. 

Nitzsch was conscious of a certain obscurity of style, which 
prevented his views from becoming widely known, but he worked 
on to the very end at the favourite theme of his life. On the 
day of his death, a sultry day in July, when he was about to 
lecture at noon on the Odyssey, he hastened to his house to fetch 

MitthHluTtgen etc. (lS6[); and Programmen (1864), i, iii — v; Lehnerdt's 
Auswahl aus LabecUt akademisrken Jteden (1865); Autgewdhlte Briefe (1801- 
7S) von und an C. A. Loieck und K. Lehri, ed. Ludwich, 1049 pp- (1S94) ; 
Bursian, ii 571-5, 711-4. 

' Bursian, ii 713 f. 

' Jebb's Homer, n ( . 

* (l) De Historia Humeri, maximtque de scriftorum carminum aetatt 
meUtemaia (Hanover, 1830-7), with supplements in Kiel programs 1834-9; 
(a) IHe Heldemage der Criechen wxch ihrer naiiomdeit Gelbtng (Kiel, 1841) i 

(3) Die Sagenpoesie der Griccken irilisch dargestelll (Braunschweig, 1851); 

(4) Batragi air CeschichU o!w episthen Poesie der Griichen (Leipag, i86i). 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


a book that he had forgotten, and died of the sunstroke which 
befell him on his way back to the lecture-room'. A funeral- 
oration by Overbeck described him as one whose name would 
be remembered forever in the history of learning by the side of 
Wolf and Lachmann and Welcker. A strict integrity of character 
is the leading trait that strikes one in his broad and square-set 
face as it appears in the portrait prefixed to his life'. 

Among th« CDrrespondenlsofNilzsch none, perha|>s, agreed more complelety 
with his views on Homer than Karl Friedrich NSgelsbach 
^^ (1806—1859), who, after teaching for 15 years at tbegymna- 

sium of Nuremberg, spent the last 13 years of his life as a professor at Erlangen. 
Nitisch and Nagelsbach had also a coramon interest in the theology of the 
Homeric poems*. The published works of Nagelsbach include Notes on the 
Rist three books of the Iliad, omitting the Catalogue of Ships (1834), and two 
important volumes on Homeric and Poithomtric Thtclogy (1840-57), besides 
papers on Aeschylus and a posthumous edition of the Agamemnon (1863). 
The most widely appreciated of his works is that on 'Latin Style', with special 
r^^rd to the difTerences of idiom between Latin and German piose*. 

Among the pupils of Lobeck, Spitzner and Nitzsch were even surpassed 
in ability by Friedrich August Wilhelm Spohn (1795 — 185*) 
who, for the last nine yeais of his brief life, was a teacher in 
the university of Leipzig. Following iu the track of WolF, he wrote a short 
paper on the discrepancies in the topography of the Trojan plain, as represented 
in the Iliad (1814), and a commentary supporting the opinion of Aristophanes 
of Byzantium and of Aristarchus, that the conclusion of the O^ssey was a later 
composition (1816). He also published, with supplementary noteii, Morus' 
edition of the Panegyricus of Isocrales, a school- edit ion of the Works and Days 
of Hesiod, with the critical marks invented by the Alexandrian Grammarians, 
a monograph on Tibullus, and textual criticisms on Theocritus, He was the 
first of German scholars to attempt to decipher the hieratic and the demotic 
writing of the ancient Egyptians'. He was proposing to produce works on 
the ancient Geographers, on Ihe Mytboli^ of the Eastern and Northern 

' F. Lubker, 87. 

" F. Lubker, G. W. NHsseh in seintin Ltben und Wirhtn (1864), esp. 
14 f, 8+ f| 8q, ios f, 108 — 110, 119 — H3, with biblit^raphy on 188 — 193; 
also Volkmann, GescA....der Wolfschen Pro/eg. 184 — 190, 104, 116; Barman, ii- 

' Liibker's Niltsck, 105-7, '85-7- 

* Laleiuischt Slilisltk, 1846; ed. 9 (Iwan MUlIer, with fiill Index), 1905. 
Cp. in general Diiderlein's Oeff. Rtden, i860, 139 f, and Liibker's Lebembilder, 
1861 ; also Bursian, ii 715 f. 

• Letter to Lobeck in Lobeck's Briefaieckul, ed. Friedliinder, 74 f, and 
Ludwich's ed. of Ausg. Briefe, 7 f. 


nations, and on the literature of the Augustan age, when hU life came to an 
nntimelf end'. 

The foremost of Lobeck's pupils at Konigsberg was Karl 
Lehrs (1802—1878), who was one of his master's 
colleagues for the last 29 years of that master's life, 
and was himself the head of the Konigsberg School for 18 years 
after. Under Lobeck and Lehrs the School was distinguished 
by a Special interest (i) in the history of grammatical studies 
among the Greeks from the beginning of the Alexandrian to the 
end of the Byzantine age, (2) in the study of the language, metre 
and composition of the Gre^ Epics, from Homer down to 
Nonnus and his imitators, and (3) in the investigation of the 
religious opinions of the Greeks, with special reference to the 
ethical content of the myths, excluding all attempts to interpret 
those myths by means of the phenomena of Nature. Lehrs 
made his mark in all three lines of research. 

In the fiisi, his principal work related to the 'Homeric Studies of Aristar- 
chus". In the earliest of his Quaeslianes Epicae (183;) he showed that Wolf 
had exaggerated Ihe value of the grammarian Apion's services to the text ef 
Homer. Hb papers on the history of the Greek originals of the terms /^';b- 
li>S"^i gratnmalUu!, and critieui*, and on the grammarian Asclepiades of 
Myrlea, were reprinted as an appendix to an improved edition of three minor 
works of Heroilian*, which paved the way for the great edition of the whole of 
that grammaiian's works by the pupil of Lobeck and Lehrs, August Lentz 
([810—1868)=. Lastly, in his volume on the sc/ii>/ia to Pindar (1873), be 
arranged Ihe confused mass of the extant scholia in certain groups anif 
endeavoured to determine the dale of each. 

(3) In his Quaestiotus EpUat', after examining the iVoris and Days of 
Hesiod, he arrives at the conclusion that the original nucleus of the poem is to 
be Toniid in lines 383 — 694. In the same work he investigates the linguistic 

' Life by G. Seyf&uth, prehxed to Spohn, De littgva it lilterii vcttntm 
AegypHontm (iSjj) ; Bursian, ii 716-8. 

' De Arislarcki Studiii Homericis, 1833, 1865', 1881' (506 pp.). In the 
Epimiira to ed. 1 and 3 he deals with the lexici^raphy, grammar and metre of 
the Homeric poems, and with questions as to the genuineness of single lines or 
larger portions of the poems. He handles amilar questions in Ihe Appendix 
to his pupil Eduard Kammer's work on the Unity of the Odyssey (1873). 

* Cp. vol. i6— II supra. 

* ttfiX /top^pouj WEei«, irepl 'IJaaiCT! ■wpotlfKa.t, rtpi Sixpirf, 1 848. 

* Herediam ttcknUi reliquiae (1867-70), with Indices by Arthur Ludwich. 
■ ■79t- 



and metrical peculiarities of Nonnus, and the characteristic differences between 
the genuine Halitutita ol Oppian and the Cynegelica erroneously attributed to 
that a.uthor. 

(S) In his 'Popular Essays" he maintains that the Greek Mythology is 
founded on an elhical basis, and not on the phenomena of Naturt, thereby 
ascribing lo the infancy of the Greek race an atlilude of mind that is more in 
Iteeping with its maturer age. In the same Essays, however, he gives proof of 
a fine perception of the moral and religious opinions of the Greeks during the 
time of their highest developement. 

His researches on the Greek Grammarians have won a far wider approval 
than his criticisms on Ovid's Heroides, and on Horace, many of whose Odfs he 
rejected (1B69)'. 

The interest in the Greek epic poets and grammarians is a 
tradition of the Konigsberg School, which has been well main- 
tained by living scholars. 

Returning from the line of the descendants of Lobeck to the immediate 
pupils of Hermann, we note the name of Lobeck's fellow- 
student and friend, Johann Friedrieh August Seidler (1779 — 
1851), who, under Hermann's direct influence, made a brilliant banning with 
a work of pemianenl value on the dochmiac metre (181 i-i), and edited three 
plays of Euripides' on the model of Erfurdl's edition of Sophocles. Hermatm 
had so great a respect for his former pupil's ability as to print in the preface to 
his /m some 16 pages of notes supplied by Seidler. 

Another pupil of Hermann, Carl Christian Reisig (i 791 — 1819), left Leipzig 
for Gottingen, served as a Serjeant among the Saion troops 
that fought Napoleon in 1813-15, ^"'^1 ^^itr studying for two 
years at Jena, became a professor at Halte in 1810, and, nine years after, died 
on his way to Venice, at the early age of 37. He was a man of marked ability 
and energy, and of singularly sound judgement. His general character re- 
sembled that of Wolf. At Wolfs university of Halle he lectured mainly on 
the Greek Drama, as well as on Horace and Tibullus, Demosthenes and Cicero, 
with Greek and Roman Antiquities, and Greek and Latin Grammar. The 
importance of his lectures on the last subject may be gathered from the edition 
afterwards published with valuable supplements by his pupil, Friedrieh Haase'. 
Of the three subjects treated in this volume, Etymolt^, Semasioli^y, and 
Syntax, the second owes its origin to Reisig. The work published by himself 

' Populdrt Ati/ial^se, 1856, 1875*. 

' Cp. E. Kammerinfto^r./oArf. for 1878, 14—18; SnV/e, ed. Farenheid 
(1878); BrUfean M. Naufit {iSgi) ; AusgeuMlte Briefe, &A. Lndwich {1894); 
Butaian, ii 718—714; KUiat Schriflen, with portrait, ed. Ludwich (1901), 
581 pp., and Ludwicb's Rede, ipoj, ib. 554 f. 

* Tro. 1811 ; El. and Iph. T. 1813. Cp. Bursian, ii 715 f. 

* VitrUsungen uber lot. Sprackviissemckafl (\'&i^\. 

h. i.Mh,Googlc 


was mainly concerned with Aristophanes and Sophocles. A copy of [he second 
Jontine edition of Aristophanes was his constant compaaton during his cam- 
paign against Prance, and, in the following year, he dedicated to Hertnann a 
series of conjectures on the text, mainlf suggested by considerations of metre 
(1816). His critical edition of the C/o»*- appeared in 1810, while his interest 
in Sophocles is attested by his very full commentary on the Oedipus ColoHeus'^ . 
Lastly, his emendations on the Promethtus Vinclus of Aeschylus were published 
by Ritschl, who was one of his most devoted pupils at Halle*. 

Much was meanwhile done for the exegesis of Sophocles by Eduard Wunder 
(idoo — 1869), who spent the last +3 years of his life at the 
Saxon school of Grimma. In the interval between his early 
studies on Sophocles and his explanatory edition o( 1831-50, he produced an 
elaborate commentary on Cicero, pro Pltotcio (1830), besides publishing 
readings from an important ms of Cicero, then at Erfurt and now in Berlin*. 
Wander's edition of Sophocles appeared in the series edited by Jacobs and 
Rost at Gotha. In the same series, seven plays of Euripides* 
were edited by August Julius Edmund Pflugk (1803—1839). PAugk 

On the early death of Pflugk at Danzig, four more pla}^' were added to the 
series by Reinhold Kloti'. 

Hermann's pupil, August Ferdinand Naeke (t788 — 1838), distinguished 
himself at Bonn as an able lecturer on some of the principa] 
Greek and Latin poets, and on the History of Greek poetry. 
Singularly fastidious in his taste, he produced only one important work, a 
collection of the fragments of the epic poet, Choerilus. His edition of the 
Dirae and Lydia, which pike Scaliger) he ascribed to Valerius Cato, was 
posthumously published in T846. His minor works were collected in two 
volumes of Ofimcula, the second of which includes the fragments of Calli- 
machus. His paper on Latin alliteration is only to be found in the Rhanischa 
MiiStum', of which he was an editor for a few years. The outlines of his 
courses of lectures, still preserved in the library at Bonn, were described by 
Ritschl as marked by the same devotion to the discovery of truth, and the same 
calm judgement, as his few published works'. 

One of Naeke's colleagues at Bonn, Karl Friedrich lleinrich (1774 — 1838), 
was educated at Gotha and Gottingen, and, after holding a 
mastership at Breslau, was professor at Kiel in 1804-18, and 


• 3 vols. (18JO-13). 

" Ritschl, Opuic. i 378—393 i cp. A7. Phiioi. ScAr. v 95 f ; Ribbeck's Life 
of Ritschl, i 34 — 5* ; Haase's Preface to the Vorhsungen, v f ; and Borsian, 
ii 726. 

* V<aiiu Ltctiimes {\%^^y 

* Med., Hec, Andram., HeraeL, He!., AU., Hen. Furem, 

• Phoett., Or., Iph. T., Iph. A. 

• p. ri5 infra. 

' iii (18*9) 3*4 f. 

* ib. N. F, xxvii f93 f. Bursian, ii 719 f. 



at Bonn for the remaining ]0 years of his life. At Bonn he lectured with 
marked success ou the Roman satirists, and was even more successful as the 
director of the classical Seminar. While still a student under Heyne at 
Giittingen, he produced an edition of Mnsaens, and three volumes of explanatory 
notes on the Atneid. He was aided in the latter by Georg Heinrich Noehden 
{1770 — 1S16), who published a work on Porphyry's scholia to Homer, with 
appendices on the Townley and Eton Mss', and for the last fifteen years of his 
life held an appointment in the library of the British Museum. As a master at 
Bteslau, Heinrich produced not only a treatise on Epimenides, but also an 
edition of Nepos and of Hesiod's Shield of AchUles. These early works had 
been prepared under the influence of Heyne, the rest were produced under 
that of Wolf. At Kiel, in 18 r6, he published, in conjunction with Andreas 
Wilhelm Cramer (1760 — 1833). the fragments of Cicero /ro Scaurs, firo TuUio. 
ariA pre Flacca, recently discovered by Mai in the Ambrosian Library; at Bonn, 
he edited the speech of Lycurgus against Leocrates (1S11) and Cicero, De 
Ripttblica (1S13-8). His editions of Juvenal and Persius were posthumously 
published. His critical notes on the treatise of Frontinus on the Koman 
Aqueducts were included in Dederich's edition (1S41). Heinrich had intended 
to edit the work in conjunction with the eccentric scholar, Chrlsloph Ludw^ 
Friedrich Schulti (1780 — 1834), who &tncilu1ly regarded the works of Vitru- 
vius and Pomponius Mela as fabrications of the Middle Ages'. 

Among the earliest and most important of the pupils of 
Hermann was Friedrich Wilhelm Thiersch (1784 — 
i860). Educated at Schulpforta under Hermann's 
former tutor, Ilgen, he studied the Greek poets, and acquired an 
exceptional facility in Greek verse, under Hermann at Leipzig. 
In 1807 he was drawn to Gottingen by Heyne; two years later 
he left for Munich, where his success as a school-master led to 
his being entrusted with the direction of a philological Seminar 
which was incorporated in the Bavarian university on its transfer 
from Landshut to Munich in 1826', He also lectured on Greek 
Art, after studying the sculptures in the Louvre and the British 
Museum (1813-5). These studies were continued in Munich 
itself on the founding of the Glyptolhek by the Crown Prince, 
Ludwig, and were still further extended by half a year's absence 
in Italy (1822-3). Classical studies were languishing at Munich 
during the later years of Ast, when they were revived by the 
eneigy of Thiersch, who, for 15 years, was ably supported by 

' Goltingen, 1797. * Bursian, ii 731-3. 

' Papers by the director and his friends (including Doderlein, Spengel, and 
Halm) were published in the Acta Philologaruni Monacensium, iSii-ig. 


Spengel. His jubilee as a Dcx:tor was celebrated in 1858; he 
retired from active work in the following year, and he died 
in i860. 

Thiersch took an important part in the organisation of the 
schools and universities of Bavaria, as the champion of classical 
education and of intellectual freedom'. In 1837, at the celebra- 
tion of the centenary of Gottingen, he brought into existence an 
annual congress of the scholars and school-masters of Germany. 
He also took a warm interest in the cause of Greek independence, 
and in the organisation of the Greek kingdom under Otho of 
Bavaria*. He was a prolific writer on political and educational 
questions, and on general literature. His contributions to classical 
learning fall under three heads : — (i) Greek Grammar; (2) 
criticism and interpretation of Greek poetry; {3) archaeol(^, 
including topography and epigraphy. 

(1) His 'Greek Grammar, with special reference 10 (he Homeric dialect' 
(iSi^). reached a third edition (1S19)', his shorter Grammar (iSij) was 
considerably enlarged in its fourth edilion (i8ss)'. The Grammar of i8is led 
to a controversy on Homeric moods with Hermann'. His life-long interest in 
grammar was further proved by papers on Greek word -formal ion and on Greek 
particles', preparatory to a proposed edition of the Asamemiuin. He was also 
familiar with modern Greek, but his paper on the langu^e of the present 
inhabitants of N.E. Laconia' has since been superseded by more accurate 

(3) He was also interested in Hesiod and the early el^iac poets, and in 
Pindar and Aeschylus. In one of his first papers, he maintained that the 
poems bearing the name of Hesiod were fragments from various poems of 
diffcrent ages, the relics of an old Boeotian school of epic poetry'. He 
regarded the (Vorks andDayi as composed by several poets, and also treated 
it in connexion with the gnomic poetry of Greece'. He edited Pindar, with an 
introduction and explanatory notes, and with a German translation in the 

' Thiersch, U^r gehhrle Sthulm (1816-31) ; cp. Paulsen, ii 418—430*. 
' His interest in modem Greece is attested in bis work, Dt PStat actud 
dtlaCri^e, i vols. (1833). 

' Cp. Eckstein, Lai. und Gr Unlerrickt, 396. 

* Thiersch, .4rfo/Ai7.jW(w. i l, 175, 435, 468, and Hermann's O/bj^. ii i8f. 
' Munich Acad., Denksdri/len, xivii 379, xxx 30J, xxxiii i. 

' M. Deffner, Zaionisehe Gramntatik, 1881. 
» Denkscknfim, iv (1813). 

• Acta Phil. Moil, iii 389, 567. 



original mettes. He wrote on lacunia in Aeschylus and on passages calling for 
correction by transposition of lines', and left behind him, ready for press, a 
lengthy commentary on (he Aganitmmm. 

(3) In archaeology, his earliest work conMSIed of three papers on the 
'Epochs of Greek Art'*. They represented a relapse from the sounder views 
of Winckelmajui, and were strongly opposed by K. O. MilUer', though 
supported by Thiersch's pupil, Feuertiach (1798 — rSji). Thiersch's vial to 
Italy ted to his planning a great work on Italy and its inhabitants, and its 
treasures of art in ancient and modem times, hat the only portions that ever 
appeared were his own account of'his tour, and Schom's description of Ravenna 
and Loretto (1826). A plan for a similar work on Greece ended in some 
papers on Pares and Delphi, and on the Enchtkewa*. The collection of 
Greek vases formed by king Ludwig I prompted a paper showing that the 
vases found in Etruscan tombs were really Greek and mainly Athenian', and 
also opposing the opinioo that they were connected with the Mysteries*. 

Among the immediate predecessors of Thiersch in the 
Bavarian university, Georg Anton Friedrich Ast 
(1778 — 1841) was a classical professor for the last 
36 years of his life, first at Landshut, and next, at the new seat 
of that university, in Munich. Besides editing the Characters of 
Theophrastus, he had made his mark as an expositor of Plato, 
had written on Plato's Life and Works, had edited all the 
Dialogues with a Latin translation, had annotated the Protagoras, 
Fhaedrus, Gorgias and Phatdo, and had crowned all this with ' 
his celebrated Index to Plato {1834-8). In his later years he 
was somewhat remiss as a lecturer, and it was then that (as we 
have seen) a new life was breathed into the classical studies of 
Munich by the enet^y of the youthful Thiersch. Thiersch was 
strongly supported in Munich by Leonhard Spengel, who was then 
a master at the Old Gymnasium, and who worked with Thiersch 
for 15 years at the university'. From 1843 Thiersch had the 

1 Denkschnfttn, xxi (1846). 

' Era of (1) religious Style, ending c. 580 B.C. ; (j) artistic developement, 
580—490 B.C. ; (3) perfected style, from Pheidias (500 — 430) to Hadrian 
(d. 138 A.D.) and M. Aurelius (d. 180 A.D,). Ed. 1, 1819. 

> Kleine deutsche Sehriflm, ii 3IS f- 

* Dentschri/lea, xxi (1849) J9; xivii (1850) 99, ajo. 

' Abkandlungea of Munich Acad., iv (1844) i f. 

■ Cp., in general, Ufe by H. W. J. Thiersch (1 vols., 1866) j Bibliography 
in J. Poll's Rede (Munich, i860) ; Buraan, ii 733, 738-49. 

' p. 180 in/ra. 




support of the eminent Aristotelian, Carl Prantl (1820-88)', and, 
from 1844, that of Ernst von Lasaulx (1805 — 1861). 

Classical education in Bavaria was also ably promoted by 
Ludwig Doederlein (1791 — 1863), who was born 
at Jena and educated at Schulpforta. His studies, 
begun at Munich under Thiersch, were continued at Heidelberg, 
Erlangen, and Berlin. As a professor at Bern he produced 
in 1819 a volume of philological papers in conjunction with 
Bremi'. At Erlangen he was professor from 1819, and head- 
master of the local school from 1819 to 1862. As director of 
the philolc^cal Seminar, he had for his colleague, first, Joseph 
Kopp {1788 — 1842), a man of vast learning who, on principle, 
produced nothing ; next, the eminent stylist, K. F. Nagelsbach', 
and lasUy, the future editor of the Latin Grammarians, Heinrich 
Keil, who, on Doederlein's death in 1863, continued his work 
until 1869, when he left for Halle. As a university lecturer, 
Doederlein was interesting and stimulating, but unduly prone to 
paradox. As head of the local school, he made his mark by his 
impressive personatity and by his forcible eloquence*. He was 
less happy as a writer of works on Latin Synonyms, and on Greek 
and Latin Etymology, in which he was apt to be unduly subtle, 
while his wide learning gave a factitious support to fanciful and 
eccentric views'. The same eccentricity and lack of method are 
evident in his editions of Homer and the Oedipus Coloneils, and 
of Theocritus, the Epistles and Satires of Horace, and Tacitus'. 
Henry Sidgwick, who met him at Brunswick in i860, describes 
him as 'a dear old man with such a loving face, and, at the same 
time, very refined features, expressing the thorough scholar in the 
Cambridge sense of the word". 

Among the other schoolfellows of Thiersch at Schulpforta 
was Ludolph Dissen {1784— r837), who was also 
his fellow-student under Heyne at Gottingen. 

* PkHologiscki Bdtrdge aus der Sehweii (1819). 
' p. 106 supra. 

* Rtden etc., 1843, 1847, i860. 

" Lat. Synonymen und EtymologUn, 6 vols. ( 1 8*6-38) ; Lot. Synonymik 
{l8j9, 1849'); Lai. Etym. (1841); Horn. Gluitanum, 3 vols. (1850-8). 
' Bur^an, ii 749 f, and in A. D. B. ' Life, 59. 

s- III. I,. |., ii,l^5i)O^IC 


Dissen did not actually belong to Hermann's school ; he was 
in feet opposed to Hermann's method of interpreting the 
Classics; but he was none the less a representative of the 
grammatical and critical type of classical learning. With the 
exception of a brief stay at Marburg (1812-3), ^^ resided at 
Gottingen from 1808 to his death in 1837, At Gottingen he 
produced his earliest work, that on Greek moods and tenses*; 
at Marburg he published an inaugural discourse on the Memora- 
bilia of Xenophon'; and, late in life, he wrote a paper on Plato's 
Theaetetus'. But his main interest, as a classical scholar, lay in 
the investigation of the Laws of poetical and oratorical composition. 
As a leading exponent of the artistic and aesthetic interpretation 
of the Classics, he illustrated his principles in his editions of 
Pindar (1830)' and TibuUus (1835)* and of Demosthenes, I>e 
Corona (1837). The acumen and the powers of observation, which 
Dissen applies to the study of these works, are worthy of all 
praise, but his method is unduly artificial and tends to obscure 
our sense of the living genius of the poet and the orator*. 

A fine sense of the beautifiil in poetry and art, combined with 
a thorough knowledge of the classical lai^uages, 
and a methodical skill in the collection of lexi- 
c(^raphical materials, are the main characteristics of Franz 
Passow (17S6— 1833). A pupil of Jacobs at Gotha, he attended 
Hermann's lectures for two years at Leipzig, before studying 
ancient art at Dresden. After showing special aptitude as a 
school-master at Weimar and near Danzig, he left for Berlin, where 
he attended Wolfs lectures at the age of z8. For the last 
18 years of his life he was professor at Breslau, where his ap- 
pointment led to a revival of classical studies at that university. 
He was warmly supported by that thorough scholar, Karl Ernst 
Christoph Schneider {1786 — 1856), who afterwards edited Plato's 

' Kleint Sckrifttn, i f. » ii. 89 f. ' ib. iji f. 

« Criticised by Hermann, Opusc. vi (i) 3—69, and Boecltb, Ges. il. Sckr, 
vii 369 f{cp. Briefwecksil swischen Beeckh vHd K. 0. MuIUr, 489 — 19')- 
Dissen had already contributed to Boeckh's ed. of iSi l a commenlary on the 
Ncmeim and Isthmian Odes. 

' Criticised by Lachmann, Kl. Sihr, ii 145 f. 

' Bursian, ii 751-3. Dissen'sAr«)M...&in/(«i{i839)indudereniiniscences 
by Thiersch, Welcker and K. O. MiiJIer. 



Repuhlu and took part in the Didot edition of Plato, besides 
producing a critical recension of Caesar's Gallic War, and 
claiming for Petrarch the 'Life of Caesar' wrongly ascribed to 
'Julius Celsus'. Passow had hitherto been mainly interested in 
Peisius, Musaeus, and Longus; he now devoted himself to 
the laborious task of producing in 1819-23 a greatly enlarged 
and improved edition of the Greek lexicon of J. G. Schneider 
(1750 — 1822), then one of the senior professors at Breslau. 
The work was so lai^ely altered that, in the fourth edition, 
Passow's name alone appeared on the title-page {1831)'. Passow 
contributed to Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopaedia articles on 
Aeschines and on the Latin Anthology, which are reprinted in 
his ' Miscellaneous Works ', with his article on Bast, his essays on 
Hieronymus Wolf and Henricus Stephanus, and his paper on 
Philostratus the elder. Next to his lexicographical labours, his 
most important works were his extensive program on the Persae of 
Aeschylus, and his shorter papers on Sophocles and Aristophanes, 
and on late Greek authors'. He made some preliminary pre- 
parations for an edition of Stephanus of Byzantium, which he 
proposed to produce in conjunction with August 
Wellauer {1798 — 1830), the editor of Aeschylus 
and of Apollonius Rhodius, and the compiler of the Lexicon 
Aeschyleum. The only Latin texts edited by Passow were 
Persius and the Germania of Tacitus, It may be added that it 
was at his instance that the Leipzig publisher, B. G. Teubner 
{1784 — 1856), began in 1824 his celebrated series of Greek and 
Latin texts, and, in 1826, the Jahrlmcher fur PMlolegie und 

Among PiLSSOw'a earliest pupils at Weimar was his life-long friend, Karl 
Wilhelm Gottling (i793— 1869). who, for the last 47 years of Q>|„]in 
his life, was a professor at Jena. He lectured on classical 

' It was subsequently made the foundation of a lai^e lexicon prepared by 
V. C. F. Rost, in conjunction with Fiiedrich Palm and other scholars (1B41-57). 
Meanwhile, Wilhelm Fape (1S07— 1854) had added to his Lexicon of 1S43 a 
lexicon of proper names, which, in Benseler's improved edition of 1863-70, 
became an admirable work of reference, well described as a ' model of com- 
pendious learning' (Toier's Gisgraphy of Greece, 335 n.). Cp. p. 168 infra. 

' Opusc. Acad, 

' Patsow's Lehen uml Bri'/e (18^9) ! Bursian, ii 753 — 761. 


.^ ^/'»-^ _, 


Reduced fiom Eugelbacb's litlu^raph of Che presentation portrait by 
Oscar B^as. 



archaeology as well us classical literatuie* ; and he edited Aristotle's Pelitics 
and Ecmmmics, as well as Hesiod. The help derived from Hermann's severe 
review of (his last was acknowledged in grateful and generous terms in (be 
improved and corrected edition of 1843*. 

Among Gotlling's colleagues at Jena was Ferdinand Gotthelf Hand 
(r786 — 1851)1 a many-sided scholar, best known as Ihe author ^ . 

of the unfinished work on Latin particles known as Hand's 
Tursillinus', and also of a manual on Latin style. Gflttling's colleague in the 
next generation was Karl Ludwig Nipperdey (i8jt — 1875), 
the editor of Caesar. Nepos. and Tacitus, and the author of 
an important paper on the Ltgts Annalts of the Romans*. 

Gottling, the university professor of Jena, was far surpassed, 
as a scholar, by his contemporary, the Berlin school- 
master, August Meineke{r79o — 1870). Bom in 
the old Westphalian town of Soest, he was educated under his 
fether at Osterode in the Harz, and afterwards under Ilgen at 
Schulpforta. While he was still at school, he wrote scholarly 
papers on the death of Cato, and of Regulus, and his valedictory 
dissertation consisted of criticisms on many of the Greek poets*. 
At Leipzig he came under the immediate influence of Hermann. 
His own influence was no less effective in both of his head- 
masterships, during his 9 years at Danzig and his 31 years 
at Berlin, where, as a scholar, he was the peer of the leading 
professors: — Boeckh and Bekker, Buttmann and Lachmann'. 
Elected a member of the Berlin Academy in 1830, he lectured 
on Horace and Aeschylus in 1852-3'. As an editor of important 
classical works, he was the first sitice Bentley to make his mark 
on the criticism of Menander and Philemon (1823). His 'Critical 
History of the Greek Comic Poets ' appeared as an introduction 
to his ' Fragments of the Comic Poets ', which filled three further 
volumes {1839-41). In this edition, the fragments of Aristophanes 
were collected by Meineke's assistant-master and future son-in-law, 
Theodor Bergk. The fifth volume was published in two parts 

' A wide range of subjects is covered in his Abhandlungm (i8$i ; ed. 3, 
1S63), and his 0/wcu!a ([36g). 

* p. Kxxii, 'quem ego virum fortissimum lubeotissime sequi soleo. habent 
enim eius arma hoc cum armis illius herois commune, ut etiam medeantur, 
dumsauciant'; cp. p. 94 n. 9 la/™. ' Four vols. (1819-45); ii 369 jw^a. 

* Abkandl. siic&s. Ges. d. Wiss. v. 

' F. "Ranyx, August Miineke, aof. ' *i, 63. ' il>. 115. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


(1857), including an excellent index by Heinrichjacobi (1815-66), 
Meanwhile, a new edition of the Fragments had appeared in two 
volumes (1847). Meineke's work on Attic Comedy was completed 
by his text of Aristophanes, with a prefatory Adnotatio Critica 
(i860), and a postscript entitled Vindkiarum Aristophanearum 
liber (1865). 

His study of the Alexandrian poets is best represented by his 
Analecta Akxandrina (1843), a collection of monographs on 
Euphorion, Rhianus, Alexander Aetolus, and Parthenius, and by 
his third edition of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus {1856). Less 
important than these are his Callimachus (1861), his selections 
from the Greek Anthology (1842), and his edition of the 
gec^raphical poems of ' Scymnus of Chios ', and of Dionysius, 
son of Calliphron {1846). His study of the geographical poets 
led him to produce a new recension of Stephanus Byzantius 
(1849), while his preliminary work for a proposed commentary 
on that lexicon ended in his publishing a new edition of Strabo, 
with a pamphlet of Vindiciae Strabonianae (1852). 

The rest of his works originated mainly in his study of Attic 
Comedy, namely his text of Athenaeus with the Analecta Critica, 
and his Stobaeus and Alciphron. His editions of Joannes 
Cinnamus and Nicephorus Bryennius in the Corpus of Byzantine 
historians were works done to order, in which he took little 
interest. His friendship with Lachmann led to his contributing 
to Lachmann's Babrius a collection of fragments of the Greek 
choliambic poets, while his position as head-master of a great 
classical school prompted his editions of the Antigone and Oedipus 
Colomtis, both of them followed by critical monographs. It also 
prompted his edition of the Odes of Horace, in which he applied 
the rule, simultaneously discovered by himself and Lachmann, 
that all the Odes of Horace are written in stanzas of four lines 
(1834)'. The preface to the second edition (1854) includes 
many fine criticisms, which are only marred by the editor's ex- 
cessive fondness for suspecting the presence of interpolations. 

As a keen and vigorous textual critic, not uninspired by a 
poetic taste, he estended to all the Greek Comic Poets the work 
which his great prototype, Bentley, had begun in the case of 
' The only exceplion is Che Ode to Censorinus [iv S). 



Philemon and Menander'. As a school-master he was a man of 
remarkable moral force and thoroughly religious spirit. He had 
a strong physique, a broad brow, prominent cheeks and thin lips. 
The quiet voice of his ordinary conversation rang out loud and 
strong, whenever he had occasion, as a master, to use the language 
of reprimand^. His resignation of his mastership in 1856 was 
commemorated by the painting of his portrait, which was re- 
produced in lithograph with a line in his own hand-writing : — 
ouK iuTi KoAXof olov aAi/^ti' t^*''' ^^ ^^^ y^^*^ °^ ^'^ retirement, 
he excused himself from lecturing in the university by humorously 
remarking: — 'if any one asks why I do not lecture, you have only 
to tell htm that, after teaching for forty-one years, I have at last 
made up my mind to try and learn something myself*. 

One of Meioeke's assislan I -masters from 1817 to 1838 was the eminent 
Greek Grammarian, Karl Wilhelm KtUger (1796—1874}, who ^^ ^^ 

was bora at a small village in the heart of Pomerania, and 
wns a student at Halle from 1816 to iSio. On resigning his mastership al the 
age of 41, he devoted himself to the preparation of text-books, published by 
himself in Berlin and elsewhere, until his death at the little town of Weinhelm 
in the Odenwald, N. of Heidelberg. 

His Greek Gra.mmai for Schools" is divided into (wo parts, (1) on the 
Attic, and (3) on the other Dialects, and each of the two parts is divided into 
Inflexions and Spitax. This arrangement is convenient for educational 
purposes, but it conveys a false impression as to the historic developement of 
the language. The rules, however, stated with clearness and precision, 
and are illustrated by excellently chosen examples. Kriiger declined to re- 
CC^ise in his Grammar any of the results of Comparative Philoli^y, and he 
even attacked the principles followed in the Greek Grammar of G. Curlius 
(i85») in a series of polemical writings, the bitterness and violence of which 
can only be excused by their author's many misfortunes'. 

Grammatical exegesis is the strong point of his editions of Xenophon's 
Anaiatiy, and of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Arrian. Wider interests are 
apparent in his critical questions on the Life of Xenophon, his treatise on the 
Anabasis, his edition of the historical work of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and 

' Cp. Ranke, ii(|— 111. ' Ranke, 8if. 

' Ranke, 13* ; p. 116 lu^a. 

* ii. 140. On Meineke, cp. Lebembild by Ferdinand Ranke, 175 pp. 
(1871)} also Sanppe's Eritmerung (187a); Haupt, Opusc. iii iiSf; and 

. Bursian, ii 764-^. 

• Griechischt SfrachUhri, Berlm, 1843 ; ed. 5, 1B73-9. 

' Cp. Krllger's pamphlet of 1869, and the epilt^e on pp. 193 — 114 of 
Part II, vol. ii of his Grammar, ed. 3, 1871, 




his later writings on the Life of Thucydides, his supplements to his Latin 
translation of Fynes Clinton's Fasti Hdltnki, and his two volumes of 
Historical and Philological Studies'. 

As a Greek Grammarian, and as an editor of Xenophon, Kruger found an 
„„. able rival in Raphael Kiihner (tSoi — 1878), who was bom 

and educated at Gotha, studied al Goltingen, and was, from 
1814 (o 1863, a master al the Lyceum of Hanover, where he died 15 years 
aflenraids. His large Greek Grammar in two volumes (1334-5)" '^ > ^^^t 
repertory of grammatical lore, that has attained a third edition in four volumes 
under the editorial care of Btass and Gerth (1890 — 1904). He also produced 
a Greek Grammar for Schools (1836), and a still more elementary work on the 
same subject (r837), which has gone through many editions, together with 
corresponding works on Latin Grammar (1841 etc.). On retiring from his 
mastership, he published a large Latin Grammar (1877-9), which is a monu- 
ment of learning and industry. His work as an editor is best represented by 
his commentary on Cicero's Tusculan Disputations^. 

The study of Greek Dialects was advanced hy Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens 
(1809— 1881), a native of Helmstedt, who studied at Got- 
liagen, and, after holding several scholastic appointments, 
was Director of the Lyceum of Hanover in 1849-79, having Kiihner as one of 
his senior assistants for 14 of those years. Ahrens was still a master at Ilfeld 
when his great work on the Greek Dialects was being published al Gottingen 
(1S39-43)'. He published a Grammar of the Homeric and Attic Dialects", 
an important critical edition of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus, with many 
papers' in the Pkilologvs founded at Gottingen by his fellow-countryman and 
friend, Friedrich Wilhelm Schneidewin, and continued by Ernst Ludwig von 
Leutsch. The two scholars last mentioned were also associated in a com- 
plete edition of the Greek Paroaniographi (1839-51). 

Schneidewin {1810-56), who had studied under K. O. Miiller 
at Gottingen, was a school-master at Brunswick 

aehoeiaewln „ n , 1 , , ■ . 

from 1833 to 1836, and there came under the in- ' 
fluence of Adolph Emperius (1S06 — 1841), who edited Dion 
Chrysostom, and of Hermann's pupil, Ferdinand Bamberger 
(1809 — 185s), who was specially interested in the criticism of 
Aeschylus. Thus, although his academic training was mainly 
archaeological, he proved his affinity to the critical school of 
Hermann by the editions of the Greek Lyric Poets, which he 

' W. Poke], K. W. Kriigcr's Ltbensabriss, with portrait and bibliography, 
40 pp- (1885) ; Halm in A. D. B. ; and Eursian, ii 769—771. 

" Trausl. by W. E. Jelf, 1841-5. ' 1819; ed, 5,1874. Bursian, ii 771 f. 

* Recast by R, Meister (1881 0- ' '853 ; ed. », 1869. 

• Kleint Schrifitn {Zur Spriukwissenschi^), 1891. 


Ix^an at Branswick and continued at Gottingen, where he held a 
professorship for the last 20 years of his life. At Gottingen he 
produced his excellent edition of Sophocles, with introductions 
and brief German notes (1849-54), besides many papers on that 
poet'. He contemplated a similar edition of Aeschylus, but 
only lived to complete the Agamemnon (1856), He produced 
two editions of Martial (1842 and 1853), and an edition of 
the speeches of Hypereides/«J Euxenippo 3Jidpro Lycopkrone^ in 
the same year as Churchill Babington's tdiiio pritueps (1853)*. 

Schneiiiewin's colleague, Von Leutsch (1808—1887), edited the fragments 
of the Cyclic Thtbais (i8jo). and produced an outtme of 
lectures (with exiracis from ihe ancient authorities) on Greek 
Metre (1S41). Almost all his energies were afterwards devoted to editing 
the PhUologu! and the PhiloUgischer Artuigtr, and he did little else, except 
completing in 1851 the joint edition of the Parotmiographi*. 

A new impulse was given to the systematic study of Syntax by 
one of the last survivors of the school of Wolf, 
Gottfried Bemhardy (1800 — 1875), who was bom of 
Jewish parentage at Landsbeig an der Warthe, and was educated in 
Berlin, where he was baptized at the age of sixteen. He studied 
under Wolf and Boeckh, besides displaying the most assiduous 
industry in his private work. After holding minor scholastic 
appointments (for which he was not specially suited), he qualified 
for a university career in Berlin by producing a learned dis- 
sertation on the Fragments of Eratosthenei. This was followed by 
an edition of Dionysius Periegetes. Meanwhile, he had become 
acquainted with Meineke and Buttmann, Zumpt and Lachmann, 
and had written in a Hegelian organ published in Berlin some 
excellent reviews of works such as Hermann's Opuscula and 
Lobeck's Aglaophamui. In 1829 he published a volume of some 
500 pages on the 'Scientific Syntax of the Greek Language". 
Syntax is here regarded in relation to the History of Literature, 
and the author's characteristic tendency towards the systematic 
and the encyclopaedic method of treatment receives its earliest 

' Gottingen AbhandtungeH, v r59f, vi 3f, ttgi; Philalogus, iv 450 f, 633 f, 
Yi 593 f. ' Bursian. ii 774 f. 

• Bursian, ii 776 ; Biogr. fakrb. 1887, 41—48. 
' Supplemented in the Paraiipomina, 1S61. 



exemplification. In the same year he was appointed to succeed 
Reisig at Halle, a position which he held for the remaining 
46 years of his life, besides being an efficient librarian for the 
last 31 of those years. As Pro-Rector he published in the winter 
session of 1841-2 a program on the History of Halle, concluding 
with an admirable eulogy on Wolf. The influence of Wolf is 
apparent in Bernhardy's conception of classical learning as a 
whole, and in the thoroughness with which he explores its several 
parts. That of Heget is no less apparent in the profundity of his 
research, and in the obscurity of his style. In 1832 he published 
his own System of Classical Learning, in which Grammar is 
treated as the instrument of that Learning, and Criticism and 
Interpretation as its elements, while a subordinate place is assigned 
to the History of Art, with Numismatics and Epigraphy'. This 
work was published after his History of Roman Literature (1830)', 
and before his History of Greek Literature (1836-45)'. In both 
of these important works the subject is divided into two parts, 
(i) a general account of the historical developement of literature 
in chronological order ; and (2) a special account of its several 
departments, with biographical and bibliographical details on each 
author. This division involves the frequent repetition, in the 
j/rf«a/ portion, of points already mentioned in the genera/ survey; 
and, although three volumes are devoted to Greek literature, the 
special history of Greek Prose is never reached. Both works, 
however, deserve to be remembered with respect, in so far as they 
were the first to set a distinctly higher standard of what is meant 
by the History of Literature, 

Bernhardy's edition of Suidas (not completed until 1853) was 
already in the press when that of Gaisford was published (1834), 
It was partly founded on a study of the Paris MS, but owed its 
value mainly to the notes, and to the eommentationes in the 
second volume'. His principal colleague as a classical professor 

' Volkmann's Goltfried Bemhardy, 40, 131. 

' Grundlinitn lur EneykhpOdie der Fhilo/ogii, 410 pp. (1831). Volkmann, 

* Grandriti der rSmischen LilteriUur, ^. 5, 187a. 

* Grundriss der g?iahischttt Litleraiur, ed. 4 in 3 vols. (1876-80) ; ed. 5 
of vol. i, 844 pp. (ed. Volkmann, 1891). 

* Volkmann, 65 — 68, 91 f. 



was M. H. E. Meier, the specialist on Greek Antiquities, and, 
although their rivalries in the management of the classical 
Seminar put a severe strain on their relations with one another, 
there was no lack of generosity in Bemhardy's obituary notice of 
his colleague'. It was mainly owing to Bemhardy's efforts that 
Meier was succeeded by Bergk, who soon, however, became 
estranged from Bernhardy, and, happily for the latter, left for 
Bonn in 1869, when he was succeeded at Halle by a more 
congenial colleague in the person of Heinrich KeiL In the 
same year a proposal to commemorate Wolfs connexion with 
Halle bore fruit in the excellent edition of his Minor Works', 
produced by Bernhardy, the last survivor of the great master's 
immediate pupils. 

He had a delicate constitution, but his very early hours, his 
simple diet, his habit of constantly standing at his desk near an 
open window, his fondness for swimming, and for walking for an 
hour or two every day (with his arms thrown behind his back), 
helped to prolong his years, to the age of 75. He was im- 
mediately commemorated by a medallion portrait at the place of 
his birth, and by a generous eulogy on the part of his colleague 
at Halle, Heinrich Kei!'. Of his many pupils, few owed more 
to his guidance and his suggestiveness than Nauck*. The best 
tribute to his memory is the sketch of his career ultimately written 
by another of his distinguished pupils, Richard Volkmann'. 

Bemhardy's work on Roman Literature found a rival in that 
of Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel (1820—1878), who ^^^^^^ 
taught at Tiibingen during the last 34 years of his 
comparatively short life. Much of his time was devoted to the 
continuation of the Real-Encydopddie begun at Stuttgart in 1839 
by August Pauly (1796 — 1845). His work on Roman Literature 
(1870), the fourth edition of which was revised and supplemented 
by L. Schwabe (1882) and translated by G. C. W. Warr (1900), 

' Pn^rara of 1806, 'On the age of Harpocration' ; VoUtmann, 96. 
' F. A. Wolf, Kteiiie SehrifUn. uoo pp. 
" Volkmann, 116, cp. 158, and Ritschi's Iribule (in 1871), 109. 
' ib. ijof. 

■ Gottfried Bimkardy, eur Erinturung an sein Lebm und Wirken., 160 
pp., with portrait (1887) ; cp. Eckstein in A. D. £., and Buisian, ii 776—780. 


tboi^h not characterised by the profundity and the originality of 
Bemhardy, excelled in clearness of style and arrangement'. 

Bemhardy's three volumes on Greek Literature were mainly confined to 

the poets. An endeavour was afteiwards made by Rudolf 

Nicolai of Beilin to supply a complete History of Classicat 

Greek Literature in three volumes', followed by a History of Modem Greek 

Literature, and of Roman Literature. His History of Greek Literature 

was regarded by a competent critic as completely inadequate'. That of 

Bergk (to which we shall shortly return) extended to four volumes, midnly on 

thepoels. — While 'ScienlificGreek Syntax' had been ably treated by Bemhardy, 

Syntax was well represented in the elemenlBry Greek Grammars produced in 

South Germany {i8j6etc.) by Baumlein (1797 — 1S65), and in North Germany 

(i868) by Aken [1816— l8;o). The Grammar of the Attic Inscriptions was 

successfully handled by Konrad Meisterhans (1858—1894). 

who studied at Zurich under Hug and Blilmner, and, after 

spending a year in Paris, in the course of which he worked through all the 

Greek inscriptions of the Louvre, was appointed 10 a mastership at Solothnm, 

and held that portion for the remaining eleven years of his brief life. The 

work by which he is best known was su^ested by Hug, and was dedicated to 


The earliest author of a systematic Latin Grammar, in Germany, was 

Konrad Leopold Schneider (1786— 1811), who in the last 

Schii^der three years of his short life produced a large Grammar, which 

is, however, confined to Accidence. The only works that he 

had found useful were the Aristarchus of G. J. Vossius (1635) and the 

Imtiiuliona of Thomas Ruddiman (173J-31). The usage of Latin authors 

on points of Accidence was afterwards set forth in lull detail by Christian 

Friedrich Neue (1798 — 1886), a master at Schulpforta in i8io-3r, and a 

professor at Uorpat in [831-61, who spent the last »5 years of his life at 


Syntax is included in the comprehensive Latin Grammar of 
Karl Gottlob Zumpt (1792 — 1849), who studied at 
Heidelbei^, as well as at the university of his 

' Described by Bemhardy, in pref. to ed, 5 of his own work, as ant mil 
gilekrlen Belc^n und Sludim ausgalatlelc Chrottik. Teuffel drew up a con- 
spectus of the literature of Plato (1874), with a view to a History of Greek 
Literature. His early works included editions of the Clouds and Persat. The 
variety of his interests is indicated by his ' Stndies and Characteristics ' (1871; 
ed. 1, 1889). Cp. Biogr.Jahrb. 1878, 1 f. 

> 1865-7 i ed- '> I873-8- ' Bur^ian, ii 779. 

* Grammatik dtr atlischen Insckriftm 1885 ; ed. 3, 1900. Schulthess in 
Biegr. /ahrb. 1896, 35—44. 

' FirrmenleAre U%6i-6), ed. 3 Wiener, in 4 vols. incl. Index {1888— 1905). 




native-place, Berlin, where he had 15 years' experience as a 
school- master, besides holding a professorship of Roman Litera- 
ture for the last 21 years of his life. His Latin Grammar of 
1818, which was limited to classical prose, passed through many 
editions and was translated into English. It held its own in 
Germany until it was superseded in 1844 by that of Madvig. 
Zumpt also produced a useful Chronol(^y of Ancient History 
down to 476 A.D.' Roman Antiquities were the main subject 
of his lectures in the university, and of his papers in the Academy 
of Berlin. He also produced editions of Curtius, the Verrine 
Orations of Cicero, and the Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian*. 

Latin Giammat and Lexicography were [he main interests of the many- 
sided but somewhal superficial scholar, Reinhold Klotz 
(1807 — 1870), who studied at Leipiig, where he held a pro- 
fessorship for the last 38 years of his life. His admirable ' Handbook 
of Latin Style', which owed its excellence to the author's Constant study of 
Cicero, was posthumously published by his son. Cicero had been the theme 
of his earliest work, the Quactliatas Tullianat; he also prepared critical 
notes on the Cato maior and Lailius, md commentaries on all [he Speeches 
and the Tusculan Disputations, with a complete edition of the text (1S50-7)'. 
He further edited Terence, with the ancient commentaries, and devoted his 
practical experience of agriculture to an edition of the Georgia, which he 
unfortunately failed to finish. The Greek texts which he edited included 
several plays of Euripides*, the Somnium of Lucian, and the works of 
Clement of Alexandria. A<i a textual critic be is extremely conservative ; 
passages that ate clearly corrupt, he attempts to defend by means of highly 
artificial explanations, while his own emendations, which he vainly endeavours 
to support by palaeographical devices, fail to carry conviction. 

His intermediate Latin Dictionary (iS;3-7) was to have been fomided 
throughout on the direct study of the Latin Classics, but pressure on the 
part of the publishers compelled him to call in the aid of F. Lubltei and 
E, E. Hudemann. This led to a certain unevenoess in the execution, and also 
to the introduction of errors arising from unverified references borrowed from 
the Dictionary of Freund (r834-45)*, which is little more than a compilation 
from ForcellinL He added much new material in his edition of the work 
of Devarius on the Greek particles*. He also planned a History of Latin 

> Annalet, 1819, 1S61. 

' On his supplement to Spalding's ed.,see p. 81 supra. Cp. A.W. Zumpt, 
De CaroH Timotkti Zumptii vita el studiii narraiio (iSji) ; Bursian, ii 783-5. 

' Also numerous papers in/ahrb./. PhiloL, which he edited in 1831-56. 

* Phoen., Or., Iph. T., Iph. A. 

' b. (of Jewish parents) 1S06, d. 1894 (at Breslaa); compiler of Triennium 
Fhilologicum etc ' Vol. ii p. 78 supra. 

Reduced from A. Teichel's engiaving of the phott^raph by H. Biow. 



Literature on a large scale, but the only part that was published ( 1S46) hardly 
reached the threshold of the subject'. 

A passing notice is here due to Johann Friedrich Jacob (1791 — 1854), the 
Director of the school at Lilbeck', (he editor of the Adna, 
and of Fropertius, as well as the Epidicus of Plautus. and the 
astronomical poem of Manilius. He was also a translator of Terence, and the 
author of a work on Horace and his friends. Munro describes his edition of 
the Aetna as, 'like his Manilius, sadl; wanting in precision and acumen', 
while 'its prolixity exceeds all bounds of toleration'*. 

Latin lexicography and Latin style were among the interests of Albert 
Forbiger (1798 — 1878). His fether, Gottlieb Samuel Forbiger 
('75' — i8i8), was for 33 years Rector of the Nicolai School 
at Leipzig. The son, who was for nearly 40 years on the staff of that School, 
left in 1863 for Dresden, where he spent the remaining 15 years of his life. 
His early dissertation on Lucretius was followed by an edition of that poet 
and of Vii^l, both of them marked by laborious industry rather than by 
critical acumen. Meanwhile he had produced a German-Latin Dictionary 
and a work on Latin Style. He also published a comprehensive work on 
Ancient Geography*, a translation of Strabo, and, in extreme old age, a 
popular work entitled Helta! und Horn'. The name of Forbiger is familiar 
to the readers of Lachmann's commentaiy on Lucretius. In the case of 
Forbiger in particular, the habitual sternness of Lachmann even ' passes into 
ferocity'"; bnt (as Munro' charitably adds) ' most of his errors, that scholar 
could hardly avoid in the circumstances in which he was placed '. 

Karl Lachmann (1793 — 1851) was the son of an army- 
chaplain, who was afterwards appointed preacher at 
a church in Brunswick, where his son was born and 
bred. Karl studied for a short time under Hermann at Leipzig, 
where he was already interested in Mss of the Greek Testament, 

' NtkrologmJaJa-b.f. Pkihtl. cd {l%^\) iS3f; Bursian, ii 785-8. 
» Life by J. Classen Qena, 1855). 

* Aetna, p. 47. Cp. Bursian, ii 934. 

* Bursian, ii 1118. ' ib. 1195. Cp. BUgr.Jahrb. 1878, 3f. 

* e.g.f. 13, Forbigero iniuriam faciat qui eum vel minimam rem per se 
inlell^ere postutet ; 14, Forbiger nihil usquam laudabile gessit ; 15, (nostri) 

n Forbigeri operam, in qua neque ratio ullaesseC neque diltgentia, 
e debebant ; note on i ?So, Forbiger, quod absurda lam fortiter 
concoquere possit, laudari poslulat; i 814, a Forbigero indicium expectari non 
potuit ; ii 734, hoc saeculum avaritia librariorum nutrit Forbigeri sordibus ; 
ii 760, Forbiger quid fiiceret, nisi contenineret ? ii 795, impudenter respondet 
ad haec Forbiger; iii 476, Forbigeri mendadum ; cp. i 923, 996; ii 501; 
iii 361, 1088; iv 391; vi s6f- 
' Lucretius, vol. i p. ii'. 



and for six years at Gottingen, where Lachmann and Bunsen 
joined in founding a Philological Society, with Dissen as 
president. Meanwhile, he had taken his degree at Halle on the 
strength of a dissertation on TibuUus (rSii). In 1815, when he 
had just completed, but had not published, the first of his two 
editions of Propertius, he joined the volunteers and marched 
into France, not foigetting to taJte with him his favourite copy 
of Homer. Napoleon had been defeated at Waterloo before 
Lachmann crossed the Rhine. However, the volunteers pressed 
on, and Lachmann visited Paris twice, saw the treasures of art 
in the Louvre, and found the triumphal arch of Julius Caesar 
imbedded in the walls of Rheims', In 1818-24 he was a pro- 
fessor at Konigsberg, where the best of his pupils was Lehrs. 
But Lachmann found himself overshadowed at Konigsbei^ by 
the fame of Lobeck, and accordingly failed to win that scope for 
his great abilities which he obtained in 1825 at Berlin, where he 
was one of the foremost professors for the remaining 26 years of 
his life. 

As a Latin scholar he produced, besides his early edition of 
Propertius (1816), a second edition of that poet, together with 
Catullus and Tibullus (1829)'. He also edited the poem of 
Terentianus Maurus, de litteris, syllabis, el me/ris', and the Fables 
of Avianus*. Late in life he produced his masterly edition of 
Lucretius (1850). His Lucilius was posthumously published in 
1876. Of all these, by fer the best known is his Lucretius, The 
first serious thought of this undertaking occurred to him on the 
deck of a steamer between Bamberg and Schweinfiirt, during 
a tour in the autumn of 1845 in the company of Haupt, who 
warmly supported the proposal'. As to the merits of this work, 
it will be enough to quote the generous eulogy written by another 
great editor of that poet : — 

' This illustrious scholar, great in so many deparlments of philology, sacred, 
classical and Teutonic, seems to have looked upon Latin poetry as his peculiar 
province. Lucretius, his greatest work, was the main occupation of (he last 
live years of his life, from the autumn of 1845 to November 1850. Fortunately, 
he had the full use for many months of the two Leyden Mss. His native 
sagacity, guided and sharpened by long and varied experience, saw at a glance 

' Hertz, 17 

' a. 138. 



theii relations to each other and to the original frotn which Ihey were derived, 
and made clear the arbitrary way in which the common texts had been con- 
structed. His zeal warming as he advanced, one truth after another revealed 
itself to him, so that at length he obtained by successive steps a clear insight 
into the condition in which the poem left the hands of its author in the most 
essential points..., Though his Latin style is eminently clear, lively, and 
appropriate, yet from his aim never to throw away words, as well as from a 
mental peculiarity of his, that he only cared to be understood by those whom 
he thought worthy to understand him, he is often obscure and oracular on a 
first reading.,,. But, when once fully apprehended, his words are not soon 

Among his papers on Latin poets, may be mentioned his 
review of Dissen's TibuUus* ; his chronological, critical, and 
metrical observations on the Odes of Horace*; his attempt to 
distinguish between the genuine and the spurious Heroides* ; and 
his attribution of the Latin Homer of ' Pindarus Thebanus' to 
the time of Tiberius'. In the department of Latin prose, his 
name is associated with two editions of Gaius, and with the text 
of a joint edition of the Roman land-surveyors*. 

In the editing of texts of Greek prose he is represented by his 
important recension of the Greek Testament finished in 1850, 
and by an edition of Gencsius contributed to the Corpus of 
Byzantine Historians at the request of Niebuhr, His interest in 
the Greek poets is exemplified in his able review of Hermann's 
edition of the Ajax' ; a paper on the date and purpose of the 
Oedipus Coloneiis" ; and two Konigsberg prt^rains on the Choral 
Odes and the Dialogue in Greek Tragedy, contending that the 
total number of lines assigned to each Chorus and each Dialogue, 
as well as the total number of the lines assigned to each actor, 
was divisible by seven,— a contention that has not been generally 

The discovery of a MS of the Fables of Babrius by the Greek 
Minas in a monastery of Mount Athos, and its somewhat hasty 
publication byBoissonade in November, 1844, led to Lachmann's 
producing in the space of four months an excellent edition of the 
text, to which contributions were made by Meineke, Eekket, 

' Munro's Lucretius, i p. loT * Kleiaert SchrifUn, ii lo*. 

' Kl. Schr. ii 77, * ib. ii 56. ' ib. ii 161. 

' GromaHH Veleres\ Hertz, Ijjf. ' Kl. Schr. ii if. 

' Kt.SikT.Xx 18. 

s- III- ,..,-Mh,Gcx")glc 


Hermann, and Haupt, the first of whom added an Appendix of 
the fragments of all the other choliambic poets'. 

Lachmann's study of Wolfs Prolegomena led him to apply 
the principles of that work to the great German epic of the 
NiebeluHgen-noth, and to show that the latter, which attained its 
final form early in the thirteenth century, could be resolved into 
a series of twenty primitive lays'. More than twenty years after- 
wards he applied the same principles to the Homeric poems 
themselves in two papers presented to the Berlin Academy'. 

' Lachmann dissected the Iliad into eighteen separate lays. He leaves it 
doubtiiil whether Ihey are to be ascribed to eighteen distinct authors. But at 
any rate, he majntaitis, each lay was originally more or less independent of all 
the rest. His main lest is the inconsistency of detail. A primitive poet, he 
argued, would have a vivid picture before his mind, and would reproduce it 
with close consistency. He also affirms that many of the lays ate ulteriy 
distinct in general ^irit' '. 

Lachmann was the true founder of a strict and methodical 
system of textual criticism. He has laid down his principles 
most clearly in the preface to his edition of the Greek Testament. 
Here and elsewhere his great example is Bentley'. 

The restoration of an ancient literary work involves a two-Fold process, 
(1) an investigation of the author's personality, and of the original form of the 
work, and (il), an exposition of his thoughts and feelings, as well as the 
circumstances which gave rise to them. The hrsi of these two processes is 
Crilicism ; the second, Interfrtlalien. Criticism has three stages, (t) the 
delerminaiion of the text as it is handed down in Mss (rtctnsire), (i) the 
correction of corruptions (tmendare), and (3) the discovery of the original form 
of the work (origintm dftegere). The original form of a work may be ascer- 
tained in two ways, (n) by weighing the evidence of the mss, and (J) by 
correcting their evidence when it is false. It is therefore necessary, in the 
lirst place, to ascertain what has been attested by the most credible witnesses ; 

' Hertz, 136 f. 

> KUina-i Sckriftm, i i f (i8i6) ; Herti, iiSf. 

' Hitrachtimgm Ubtr Hsnun IHas (1837-41) ; reprinted with additions in 
184?. 1865. '874- 

* Jebb's Homer, 118 f; for criticisms on Lachmann's theory, cp. Fried- 
lander's Horn. Krilik, rSja, i7f; Bonilz, Vortrag, i860, +7*f. 

' In his Studien und Kritiktn (1830), 8jof. he admires the grossarlige 
fVcist of Bentley, dis grdislen Kritikers dtr mutrm Zeit. In his Lufrilius 
p. 13, he writes:— 'In iuvenijibiis Benileii schediasmatis permultasunt summo 
et perfecio artifice dignissima'. 




in the second, to form a judgement as to what the writer was in a position to 
write ; and, in the third, to examine his personality, the time when he lived, 
the circumstances in which, and the means whereby, he produced his work. 
The first business of the critic, reansio, the settlement of the test handed 
down to us in the best MSS, can (and indeed must) be carried out without the 
aid of inlerpnlalio. On (he other hand, the two other stages of the critical 
process are most closely connected with interprelalio ; for ( i ) evieiidalia, or 
conjectural criticism, and (1) the investigation of (he origin of any given work 
{or the ' higher criticism ' as it is called), assume as their foundation an 
understanding of the work, while, on the other side, a cempUte understanding 
can only be attained by the aid of the results of a critical examination. 

These principles were applied by Lachmann in all his editions of Latin or 
Greek orUerman texts. His aim in all was, Rrstly, the dttemiinatieit of the 
earlUit form of the text, so far as it could be ascertained with the aid of mss, 
or quotations ; and, secondly, the resloration of the original form by means of 
careful emendation'. 

' The influence of Lachmann on the general course of philolt^cal study ' 
was 'probably greater', says Netlleship', 'than that of any single man' 
during the nineteenth century. 'Many scholars who never saw him, and to 
whom he is only known by his books, have been inspired by the extraordinary 
impulse which he gave to critical method ; Greek, Latin, and German philoli^y 
have alike felt the touch of the magician.' ' Hardly any work of merit ' (says 
Munro') ' has appeared in Germany since Lachmann's Lucretius, in any branch 
of Latin literature, without bearing on every page the impress of his ex- 
ample'.,,,' His love of merit of alt kinds incites in him a zeal to do justice lo 
all the old scholars who have done anything for his author; while his scorn 
and hatred of boastful ignorance and ignoble sloth compel bim to denounce 
those whom he convicts of these offences'. 

'In their activity of mind and body' (says Donaldson*), Hermann and 
Lachmann came nearer to Englishmen than 99 out of 100 Germans ; and both 
of them made more progress in classical composition than any GeUhrlen of 
their time '....Both 'were little, why, and nimble men, full of spirit and 
enei^ — as different as possible from the usual type of German bookworms'. 

' Cp. Haupt, De LachmantiB Criltco, in Belger's Haupt, 43 ; Bursian, 
ii 789 f 

» Essay,, i 9. 

* Lucretius, i p. ao". 

* Scholarship and Learning, 157 f. Cp. Lachmann, h'Uinere Schri/len, 
1 vols. (18711) ; Briefe an Moris Haupt, ed. Vahlen, 164 pp. (1891) ; M. Herii, 
Biographie (1851); J. Grimm, Rede (1851), reprinted in Grimm's Kleinere 
Schnften, i 145—161; Haupt, De Laiknmnne Critico ; M. Schmidt, De C. 
Lachmanni iludiis melricis, 1880; and Bursian, ii 78a — 791; also F. l^o 
(Gottingen, 1893), tS pp.; Vahlen, Berlin Akad. Bericht. 1893, 615 f; Wein- 
hold. Bed. Akad. 1894, 37 pp. 



In connexion with the Homeric question, the earliest follower 
of Lachmann in his theory of lays was Hermann 
Kochly (1815 — 1876). The son of a Leipzig 
publisher, he was educated at Grimma under Wunder. At the 
university of Leipzig he was an enthusiastic pupil of Hermann ; 
he commemotated the centenary of his master's birth by de- 
hvering in 1872 an admirable oration in his memory, and by 
publishing it in 1874 with a full appendix of authorities. Three 
years of experience as a schoolmaster at Saalfeld, near Meiningen, 
were followed by nine at Dresden, where his career was cut short 
by the political events of May, 1849, which compelled him to 
flee from Saxony'. He escaped to Hamburg and Brussels, where 
his study of the Greek Tragic poets was resumed in his examina- 
tion of the problem of the Promethsus, and in his other early 
work on the Alcestis, Hecuba, and Helena. He also continued 
his critical edition of Quintus Smyrnaeus, and, in three weeks, 
he had finished his notes on the last five books, which, in his 
busy Dresden days, might have taken three years. He further 
undertook to edit Manetho for the Didot series, in the hope that 
it might ultimately lead to a professorship'. Meanwhile, he was 
actually appointed to fill the place which had remained vacant 
at Ziirich since the death of Orelli. He held that position from 
1850 to 1864, when he was invited to Heidelberg, to hold a 
professorship at that university for the remaining twelve years of 
his life. 

The structure of the Iliad is examined in his seven Ziirich 
dissertations {1850-9), and in a paper on 'Hector's Ransom' 
(1859); that of the Odyssey in three Ziirich dissertations (1862-3). 
The results of his examination of the liiad were embodied in a 
practical form in an edition of sixteen lays published at Leipzig 
in 1861'. 

Kdchly's 'lays' do not, however, correspond to Lachmann's. 'The two 
operators take different views of the anatomy'. A theory of short lays, 
' whatever special form it may assume, necessarily excludes the view that any 
one poet had a dominant intluence on the general plan of the poems'*. 

' E. Biickel, Hermann Kdchly, 105 — 155 ; Gustav Freytag, Erinnertatgen, 
1887; E.T. 1890. 

' Biickel, 137—131. ' Cp. Bocltel, 187 f. 

* Jcbh's Homer, 119. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


Apart from works on educational policy, most of Kochly's 
publications were concerned with the post-homeric epics. He 
produced a critical edition of Hesiod, in conjunction with his 
pupil Kinkel, as well as a plain text (1870). Meanwhile, he had 
edited Aratus, with Manetho and Maximus, in the Didot series, 
and had published a separate edition of Manetho, two editions 
of Quintus Smyrnaeus (1850-3), and lastly, Tryphiodorus and 

As early as 1840 he gave a lecture on the Antigone, and the 
performance of that play at Dresden in 1844 led to his delivering 
his first popular lecture on Greek Tragedy'. He gave proof of his 
critical skill by his emendations (1860-2) on the Tauric Iphi- 
geneia, by his edition of that play (1857), and by his paper on the 
Birds of Aristophanes. In a course of lectures on Schiller, he 
traced the influence of the Greek and Latin Classics on the 
poetry of Germany'. At Ziirich, the exile from Saxony was 
joined in 1852 by other exiles from that land, by Haupt and 
Jabn and Mommsen ; and we learn that, in a private reading of 
Antony and Cleopatra, the historian of the Roman republic took 
the part of Octavius Caesar'. Kochly was the heart and soul 
of similar readings of the Agamemnon, the Antigone, and the 
Baahae at Heidelberg*, and brought about a fine performance 
of the Persae at Mannheim in 1876'. At Ziirich and at Heidel- 
berg he gave a course of six public lectures on Demosthenes', 
whose speech De Corona he translated into German', as well as 
Cicero pro Ststio and pro Milone^. He joined the military 
expert, Riistow, in translating Caesar, and he also wrote an 
Introduction to the Gallic War (1857). In 1863, his work on 
Caesar was specially recognised by Napoleon HI. 

While he was a devoted pupil of Hermann, he was led by the 
advice of Wachsmuth to enlai^e the range of his interests by the 
study of the writings of Boeckh, and he was also attracted to 
K. O. Miiller's ' History of Greek Literature'*. In conjunction 
with Riistow, he wrote a ' History of Greek Warfare' {1852), and 

' ib. ,^^. 

' 0/«/..Ui48f. 

> Bockel. 44. 

* Bockel, 331. 

" <A. 3S«, 387. 

' U. 183; anon. i8s6. 

» (*.4i, IJ7; cp.esp.173f. 



edited the Greek writers on Tactics (1853-5)- As President of 
the Congress of Scholars and School- masters at Heidelberg in 
1865, his influence with the Grand Duke of Baden led to the 
military experts being authorised to construct full-sized models of 
the baliista and caiapulta^ ; and, at the Congress at Wiirzburg, 
in 1868, he gave practical illustrations of the handling of the 
haslit amtntata of the ancients*. 

In his proposals for the terorni of German secondary education, iniiteaii of 
vainly alteiiipting to exact a complete command of the Latin language in 
speaking and in writing, he prefeired to promote a perrect understanding ai 
the classical texts and a historical grasp of the ancient world'. He urged 
that the modem languages should be learnt first, that Latin and Greek should 
not be begun until the age of fourteen, and that a knowledge of the Greek and 
Roman world, in its historic aspect, should be the main object in learning 
those languages*- 

The dream of his life was a visit to Greece. That dream was 
fulfilled in the autumn of 1876, and in the company of his pupil, 
the prince Bernhard von Sachsen-Meiningen. But, unhappily, 
his health was already failing ; he fell from his horse on the field 
of Marathon, and died at Triest. He was buried at Heidelberg, 
where an admirable oration was delivered in his memory'. 

While Kochly was connected with Lachmann in maintaining 
that the Iliad was formed from a number of primitive lays, there 
was a still closer connexion between Lachmann and 
Haupt (1808 — 1874). Both of them were inspired 
with a keen interest in German as well as Classical Scholarship, 
and both of them devoted their main energies to the criticism of 
the Latin poets. They were also united by the closest bonds of 
friendship, and were su(X:essively professors in Berlin. Moritz 
Haupt was bom at Zittau in Saxony. From his father, a man of 
poetic taste and of fiery temper, he inherited a keen and im- 
petuous spirit, as well as a vivid interest in poetry. At Leipzig 
he was the pupil of Hermann, whose daughter he afterwards 

• Bockel, I4I. ' ib. 319. ' ib. jo. 

' ib. 9+. Cp. Paulsen, ii 4(19' f. 

' Bernhard Stark, Vortrage etc. +17 f; cp. A. Hug, Hermtmn Kochly 
{1878), 4.1 [^.; Eckstein in Eisch and Gruher; Bursian, ii 798; and esp. 
Ernst Biickel, Hemtattti KSchly, an Bild seines Lebens, with portrait, 416 pp. 



married. It was by reading Hermann's edition of the Bacchae 
that he first leamt what was meant by 'really understanding an 
ancient author". He spent seven years at Zittau, tending his aged 
father (1830—7), and working at Catullus and Gratius; in 1834 
he accompanied his father to Vienna and Berlin, where he first 
met his life-long friend, Lachmann', and in the same year he 
printed his exempla poisis Latinae medii aevi*. In 1837 he began 
his professorial career at Leipzig by the publication of his 
QuaeiHones CatuUianae. In 1850 he was suspended from his 
professorship on political grounds, and, although he was acquitted 
by a court of justice, he was arbitrarily deprived of his office. 
For the last twenty-one years of his life he filled with distinction 
the professorship vacated by Lachmann in Berlin. 

From 1837 to 1854 his interests as a professor had been 
equally divided between old German and Latin poetry, but, for 
the last twenty years of his life, the place of the old poets of 
Germany was taken by those of Greece. At Leipzig he had been 
highly successful as the Director of the Latin Society which 
flourished by the side of the Greek Society founded by Hermann, 
and his double interest in Classical and German philology ted 
to his frequently lecturing on the Gertnania of Tacitus- He 
also expounded the JHad, with select plays of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, Aristophanes, Plautus and Terence, and Theocritus, 
Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius. 

His Quaestiones CaiuUianae (1837), a work of special import- 
ance in connexion with the textual criticism of Catullus, was 
succeeded by his critical edition of the Halieutica of Ovid and 
the Cynegetica of Gratius and Nemesianus, and by his Observa- 
tiones Grammatkae, including a number of fine grammatical and 
metrical criticisms on the Roman and the Alexandrian poets. 
In 1847 he added a supplement to Lachmann's 'Observations' 
on the Iliad, and, in 1849 and 1852 respectively, published 
Hermann's posthumous editions of Bion and Moschus, and of 
Aeschylus. In 1850 he produced his own edition of the Pseudo- 
Ovidian Epicedion Drusi, and, in 1852, a tastefully printed text 
of Horace. 

His entry on his professorship at Berlin was marked by his 
> Betger, Merits Haupt, 17 f. ' ii. 48. 



treatise on the Eclogues of Calpumius and Nemesianus. He 
abo published a school-edition of the first seven books of Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, and elegant editions of Catullus, Tibullus and 
Propertius, and of Viigii. His first edition of this last author 
was anonymous; the second included, among the Pseudo- 
Virgiiiana, an improved text of the Aetna. In Latin prose, he 
only edited the Germania with brief critical notes. A wide range 
of interests is covered in his published papers, in the lectures and 
speeches delivered before the Academies of Leipzig and Berlin, 
and in an unbroken series of 42 Latin programs, for the corre- 
sponding Semesters of all the zi years from 1854 to 1874 
inclusive. He was a frequent contributor to the Rheinisches 
Museum and the Philohgus, and finally to Hermes, which he 
founded in 1866. 

Haupt, like Lachmann, perpetuated in an intense form the 
polemical spirit of his master, Hermann'. Among his main 
characteristics was his masterly precision as a critic, and his 
skill in applying his familiarity with the early poetry of Germany 
and France to the attainment of a profounder knowledge of the 
poetry, and especially the epic poetry, of Greece and Rome. 
His energy, his proud self-consciousness, his high ideal of the 
scholar's aim in learning and in life, the keenness and the 
remorselessness with which he condemned all that was mean or 
common, and even all that was merely weak or immature, in fact 
everything that failed to satisfy his own high ideal, has been 
coramemorated by Bursian^, who was one of his' pupils at Leipzig. 
His lectures on the Epistles of Horace at Beriin, which b^an 
with an exposition of the principles to be followed in constituting 
the text, and included a running fire of criticisms on Orelli, were 
attended by Nettleship, who then iearnt for the first time to 
appreciate the true greatness of Benttey. One of Haupt's life- 
long friends was Gustav Freytag. In the Verlorne Handschrift 
the character of Felix Werner is to some extent founded on that 
of Haupt, who himself suggested part of the plot'. Freytag has 
told us how Haupt, who had a great flow of language in the 
company of his friends, and could even rise to eloquence in the 
presence of a congenial audience (as in the case of his famous 

' Belger, 19. ' ii Soof. ' Belger, ig, 34 f. 

h. i., 11,1^.001^10 

CHAP. XXX.] F. HAASE. 1 37 

eulogy of Boeckh'), had the greatest difficulty in composing any- 
thing that would satisfy his own standard as a writer. All that 
he wrote, however, was admirably terse and transparently clear'. 

Haupt's contemporary, Friedrich Haase (1808 — 1867), was 
bom and bred at Magdeburg, studied under Reisig 
at Halle, and was a school-master at Charlotten- 
bui^ and Schulpforta, where the fact that he was a member of a 
political association of German students led to his being con- 
demned in 183s to six years' imprisonment at Erfurt He was 
released after a year, and proceeded to Halle. He afterwards 
visited the libraries of Paris, Strassburg, Munich and Vienna, 
and, for the last 27 years of his life, was a distinguished professor 
at Breslau. 

His earliest independent work was a commentary on Xeno- 
phon's treatise on the constitution of Sparta (1833). His interest 
in military tactics was exhibited by the illustrations to that work, 
and by his study of the mss of the Greek and Roman tacticians 
during his travels abroad'. He contributed to the Didot series 
an edition of Thucydides, with an excellent Latin translation, 
and afterwards published papers on points of textual criticism in 
that author'. In L.atin scholarship his proficiency is proved by the 
notes to his edition of the Lectures of his master, Reisig", and 
by his own Lectures on Semasiology, with an introduction on the 
History of I^tin Grammar". As a textual critic he is best known 
through his editions of Velleius Paterculus, Tacitus, and Seneca. 
Separate passages of Greek and Latin authors, and Greek inscrip- 
tions, with questions of lexicography and literary history, are 
treated in his Miscellanea Phihhgica. He also paid special 

' Belger, ejf. 

' A. Kirchhoff, Giddchlnissrids (1875); Gus(av Freytag, Im Ncuen Reich 
(1874) 3+7f; Haupt, Opunula, 1 vols. 1875-6 (with portrail); C. Belger, 
Meritt Haupt ah aiadtmischer Lehrer, 340 pp. (1879) ; Nellleship, Essays, 
i I— n; Bursian, ii 800—805. 

* De militarium s<riptortim...edilisne (184;). 

* Lucubrationes Thuc. (1841, 1S57)- He also published an important 
paper on the Athenischt Slammverfassung (Brestau Abhandl. 1857), and 
articles on Palaesira, Phalanx, Pkrygia elc. in Ersch and Gruber. 

' p. 108 supra. 

' Car/esungen, ed. Eckslein and Peter (:874-8o). 


cm a lithc^raph of the drawing by A. Hohneck (1844), published by Henry 
and Cohen, Bonn, with nutt^raph and motto, nil tarn d^iiUst quin quae- 
rendu invesligari fossitt (Tei. Haul. 675). 



attention to the History of Classical I^earning'. His own con- 
tributions to that subject included a paper on the Subscriptiones 
in I^tin mss', and a valuable disputation on the philological 
studies of the Middle Ages'. As a man of frank and straight- 
forward character, and full of fresh enthusiasm for high ideals 
in public life and in scholarship, he exercised a healthy and a 
lasting influence on all who came under his care. In his portrait 
the most striking point is his steady gaze, looking upward*. 

The birth of Haase and Haupt was preceded by two years 
by that of a still greater scholar, Friedrich Ritschl 
(1806— 1876). The son of the pastor of a Thurin- 
gian village, he was educated at Erfurt and Wittenbei^ under 
Spitzner, and studied for a short time under Hermann at Leipzig, 
and for some years under Reisig at Halle. Under the influence 
of Reisig, his early interest was directed towards the Greek poets. 
That interest bore fruit in his dissertation on the age of Agathon 
(1829), and in his articles, in 'Ersch and Gruber', on the Greek 
Ode, on Olympus the aulltls, and on the poet Onomacritus. 
About the same lime he produced an edition of Thomas Magister 
(1832}, discussed the Greek grammarians Orus and Orion, and 
published, with appendices, his essay on the Alexandrian 
Libraries (1838). Meanwhile, his four years of university teach- 
ii^ at Halle {1829-33) had been followed by a call to Breslau. 
The rest of his life falls into three periods during which he was 
professor first at Breslau (1833-9), i^^^ ^t Bonn (1839-65), and 
finally at Leipzig {1865-76). 

His interest in Plautus was first displayed at Breslau. It was 
there that in 1834 he wrote the review of Lindemann's work, 
in which he promised a critical edition of his own. In i8j5 he 
edited the Bacckides, and, about the same time, contributed to 
the RheinUches Museum a bibliographical survey of the criticism 
of Plautus'. In 1836-7 he visited Italy and spent several months 
of a bitterly cold winter in deciphering the Ambrosian palimpsest 

' F. Salgo (pseudonym), Virgangmkeit und Zukunft der PhUologu 
0835); Bufsian, ii 810-1. 

' Breslau pr^ram, i860. ' id. 1856. 

* C Fickerl, Breslau Gymn. progr. 1868 ; Bursian, ii 8oj — 813. 

» Ofusc. ii I— 165. 



of Plautus at Milan. He embodied the results in a letter ad- 
dressed to Hermann, in which that scholar's views on Plautine 
prosody were amply confirmed^. The accuracy of Ritschl's report 
of the readings of the palimpsest was in vain attacked by Karl 
Eduard Geppert (iSii— 1881), who had studied at Leipzig under 
Hermann and under Boeckh in Berlin, was an adept in music 
and in recitations from Shakespeare, was interested in the Greek 
and Roman theatre, and had revived several of the Plautine 
plays in Berlin, and edited nine of them*. The pahmpsest has 
since been deciphered (so far as practicable) by Gustav Lowe 
and Wiihelm Studemund. Meanwhile, in 1841, Ritschl started 
a new series of papers on Plautus, which were published with 
additions in 1845 under the title of Parerga, and won for him 
the name of sospitator Plauti. In 1848 he began his edition of 
Plautus, and, by the end of 1854, had published nine plays'. 
He produced new editions of these nine, and entrusted the 
preparation of the rest to three of his ablest pupils: — Gustav 
Lowe, Georg Gotz, and Friedrich Schbll. Ritschl's papers on 
Plautus, and his edition of the text, mark an epoch in the study 
of that author. The field that had been inadequately cultivated 
by previous editors, such as Weise, Lindemann, and Bothe, now 
attracted the attention of eager and well-trained scholars of the 
new generation. Ritschl himself studied the laws of the ancient 
Latin language with the aid of the oldest Roman inscriptions, 
and applied the results to the extension or correction of the views 
expressed in his Prolegomena. Many points of detail were taken 
up by his friends and pupils, while others attempted to support 
the traditional text. 

Ritschl's Plautine studies led him to investigate the history of 
the Latin language. His numerous papers on that subject are 
included in the fourth volume of his collected works. But the 
most important monument of his labours in this department is 
his great collection of Ancient Latin Inscriptions*. Many points 

' ii 166—101. ' Biogr.Jahrb. 18B4. 131-6- 

* Ttinummui, Milts, Batchidei (1849); S/ichus, PseudoJus (iSjo) ; 

Mimuchmi (1851); Mostetlatia (rSsj) ; Ptrsa, Meriator (1854). 

' FHscae latinitatis monumenia cpigraphica {1861); Supplementa in KUine 

Schriftin,\y i,>j^—f,-iv. 



of early Latin Grammar are here illustrated, either in the descrip- 
tive letter-press or in the elaborate indices. It was followed by 
an important paper on the History of the Latin Alphabet'. In 
the investigation of the laws of ihe Satumian verse, Ritschl held 
that we should begin, not with the fragments of Livius Andro- 
nicus and of Naevius, as recorded by the grammarians, but with 
the inscriptions ; and he discovered that the fragments of Cato's 
Carmen de moribui were written in Satumian verse'. His exami- 
nation of the early fortunes of the plays of Plautus led him to 
inquire into the literary activity of Varro, to set forth the wide 
extent of his labours, and to determine the character of his 
Disciplinarum Librt, his Imagines, and his Logistorici Libri*. He 
also wrote an important paper on the survey of the Roman 
Empire under Augustus*. Some of his minor papers were 
concerned with the modem pronunciation of Latin", the recent 
History of Classical PhiIol<^y°, and the Plautine studies of Veit 
Werler {ft. 1507-15)' and Camerarius*, with biographical sketches 
of Passow and Reisig'. 

The completion of 25 years of successful teaching at Bonn 
was celebrated in 1864 by the publication, not only of a volume 
of papers by eight of his pupils of that time"*, but also of a 
collection of papers contributed by no less than 43 pupils of 
former years". 

While Ritschl is associated mainly with I^tin Scholarship, 
it must not be forgotten that almost all his early career as an 
Academic teacher was connected with Greek". It is to be 
regretted that he did not begin his work on Plautus at an earlier 
date, and that he was diverted from the completion of his edition 
by taking up a number of points incidentally suggested by his 
Plautine studies. At Bonn he was a most successful teacher for 
26 years. It was at his su^estion that Otto Jahn was invited 
to accept a professorship at that university, and it was owing to 

■ Kliinc Schrifien, iv 691 — 716. 
* ui 743f- 

' V 91 — 98. " Liter Miscellaneus. 

" Symbola Pkilohgorum BonnenHum (1864-7), ^^' F'eckeisen. 

" He edited Aesch. Septem \ 

ib. 81 f. 

= ib. iii 35»— 59*- 

MLi67— 19. 



unfortunate differences between Jahn and himself that he resigned 
his professorship and withdrew entirely from Prussia, to spend 
the rest of his life at the Saxon university of Leipz^'. 

Foremost among Ihe supporters of Ritschl's views was Alfred Fleckeisen 
FleckeiKn ('820-99), * native of WolfenbUtle], who was educated al 
Helmstedt. and who studied under Schncidewin at Goltingen. 
In his earliest independent work, the ExtTtitationcs PtaMlinat (1841), he was 
inspired by (he example of Bentley. Reiz, Hermiinn and Rilschl. Fruin that 
time forward he was closely associated with RitschI, and, on the appearance of 
Che first volume of the edition of Flaulus, welcomed it as supplying in all 
important points a firm foundation for the liiture study of the text'. In this 
spirit he edited the Teubner text of ten plays, with a full Efitstala Criiica 
addressed to RitschI (i8jo-t). He also published a text of Terence (1857), 
which marked tbe first important advance since the time of Beiitley. Fleckeisen 
was for many years Conreclor of a School at Dresden, and for 43 years editor 
of lYte/ahrbuikfrfiir Fhihlogie^. 

Wilhelm Sludemund (1843—1889), besides transcribing and publishing 

in 1874 the palimpsest of Gains discovered by Niebuhr at 

Verona*, devoted himself with the moat strenuous industry 

to the deciphering of ihe Ambiosian palimpsest of Plaulus '. He also produced 

a large number of papers on Plautine subjects, together with monographs on 

points of early Latin Grammar and Prosody prepared by his pupils under his 

direction at Strassburg". The conservative side, among editors of Plautus, 

was meanwhile represented by Geppert' and Moritz Grain, and by the Danish 

scholar, Johann Ludwig Ussing. Ritscbl's Plautine studies were acutely 

criticised by Bergk in a series of reviews and programs', and in a special work 

on the final D in Latin (1870). His views on the relation of the word-accent 

to the verse-accent in Plaulus were opposed by an eminent investigator of the 

early history of the Latin language, Wilhelm Corssen (iSio — 

1875), in liis work on Latin pronundalion, vocalisation and 

' Curt Wachsmulh in Ritschl's KUine Sehriflen, iii pp. x — xviii ; L. Miiller, 
Fr. RitschI, tine wissemchaftlUkc Biographic (1877 ; ed. i, i8;8) ; and esp, 
O. Ribbeck, F. W. Ritsekl, tin Btilrag sar Gesfhichte dtr Pkilologit, t vols. 
384-t-S9i PP-. 1879-81 (with two portraits); cp. Bursian, ii 811—840; Rohde, 
Kl. S(hr. ii 451-461 ; Gildersleeve, in A.J. P. v 339— JSS- Bililiography in 
Ritschl's Kleini SchHflen. v 715— 75^- 

^ Jahrb.f. PkilolXaiz^i; Ixiiyf. 

" Biogr. lakrb. 1900. 115 — 147; portrait in Corm 
anai {1890). 

* p. 80 !up,a. 

' Apografhum, posthumously published in 1890. 

« Sluditn, 1873—. Cp. Biogr. Jahrb. 1889, 81—11 

'' p. 140 supra. * Plaulina in 



accent uition (1858-9). Corssen aJso wrote on the early history of Roman 
poetry (i84(5),on the language of the Volsci(i8j8tand the Etruscans (1874-5), 
besides papers on Latin Accidence (1863-6) and articles in Kuhn's Zeilscfirifl'^, 
and in the Ephirmrii EfigraphUa (1874). The dispute between Corssen and 
Ritschl prompted one of Ritschl's pupils, Friedrich SchiiU, to collect and sift 
all the evidence of (he old grammarians on Latiti accent, and (o inquire into 
the nature of that accent and the importance of the word-accent in Latin 
verse (1876). The evidence of the old grammarians had already been 
discussed at Bonn in 1857 in an important dissertation by 
another of Ritschl's pupils, Peter Langen (1835 — 1897), the 
author of Plautine Beilrage (1880) and Sludien (1886), who was a professor at 
MUnster for the last 1^ years of his life'. 

Among the scholars inspired with the new interest in Plautine studies was 
Wilhelm Wagner of Hamburg (18+j— 1880), who edited the 
Anlularia, Trinummus, and Menaechmi, as well as the whole W. Wagner 
of Terence, with English notes. Julius Brix (1815— 18S7). ^itai 
who was born and bred at Gorliti, and studied under Ritschl 
at Breslau, was in 1838 awarded the priice for an essay on the principles 
followed in Bentley's Teremi, and in 1S41 produced a dissertation on the 
prosody of Plautus and Terence. After holding minor scholastic appointments, 
he was Pto-Rector at Leignitz in 1854-83. At Leigniti he produced several 
editions of the Trinummus, Caplivi, Menaechmi and Miles Gleriosus^. August 
Lorenz (b. 1836), who was educated at Copenhagen and ultimately became a 
school-master in Berlin, edited the McsUllaria, Milts Gloriosus and Psrudolus 
(18615-76), and vrrote many papers and reviews on Plautine subjects. Lastly, 
Oskar Seyffert (r84i— 1906), who was educated in Berlin r, o a, 
under his namesake, Moritz Seyffert (1809—187!, the editor ' *'' 

of Cicero's Laelius), and was for forty years on the staff of the Soph ien- gymna- 
sium of Berlin, devoted a large part of his enei^ies to the study of Plaulus*. 
He saw through the press Studemund's Apograpkon of the Ambrosian 
palimpsest, enriching it with an important Index Orlhographicus (1889); and 
he was ever ready to place his minute and varied learning at the service of 
other students of his favoyrite author". 

' Vols, x, xvi, xviii. 

* Editor of Val. Flaccus (p. 194 infra) ; Bicgr. Jahrb, 1898, i — 13. 

* Biegr.Jahrb. 1887, 63—68. 

* His works include Sludia Plautina (1874), and surveys of Plautine lite- 
rature (1883-94), i" Bursian's_/b4r«i^i-ii:A(. 

' He expanded and improved E. Munk's Nisiory 0/ Latin Literature; 
and himself produced a Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (188]), the English 
edition of which was revised and enlarged by H. Nettleship and J. E. Sandys 
(iSgi). See esp. E. A. Sonnenschein, in Alkenaemn. 4 Aug. 1906, p. 130 f. 




In turning to the other contemporaries, and the successors, 
of Ritschl, we shall find it convenient to group them according 
to the main subject of their studies, beginning with the editors 
of the Greek Classics. 

Karl Wilhelm Dindorf (1802— 1883), the eldest son of a 
professor of Hebrew at Leipzig, lost his father at 
the age of ten. Having thus been mainly left to 
his own resources, he acquired a singular independence of cha- 
racter and a habit of indomitable industry, not unaccompanied 
by a certain lack of principle and a disregard for social con- 
ventions. At the age of fifteen he studied at Leipzig under 
C D. Beck and Hermann, supporting himself by correcting 
proofs for the press. He began his career as an editor by 
completing in seven volumes (1819-26) the edition of Aristo- 
phanes begun in two by Invernizi (1797), and continued in four 
more by Beck (1809-19). He also produced critical editions 
of separate plays, reprinting the notes of Hermann, Monk, and 
Elmsley, together with a complete collection of the Fragments 
(1829). Meanwhile, he had brought out an edition of Pollux 
and of Harpocration, and had published, for the first time, certain 
of the works of the grammarians, Herodian and Philoponus, 
besides a new edition of Stephanus of Byzantium. For the 
Teubner series of Greek texts with critical notes, begun in 1824, 
he edited Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes, as well 
as Aeschines, Isocrates, Demosthenes, and the Memorabilia of 
Xenophon. His brother Ludwig {1805 — 1S71) edited the rest 
of Xenophon, together with Hesiod, Euripides, and Thucydides. 




In the new series of texts begun in 1849, Homer, Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, and Demosthenes were edited anew by Wilhelm, and 
Xenophon by Ludwig. All the Greek dramatists were further 
edited by the former, with notes and scholia, for the Clarendon 
Press (1832—63), The text of the whole was first printed in a 
single volume in 1830, the well-known Poetae Scenki Gnuci, 
which attained a fifth edition in 1869. The Lexicon Sophodeum 
of 1871 was withdrawn from sale, owing to an unauthorised use 
of the lexicon of EUendt (1834 f), a new edition of which was 
published by Genthe in 1869-72'. Dindorf's Lexicon Atschyleum, 
founded on that of Wellauer (1830), was completed in 1876. 
His volume on the metres of the dramatists, with a chronoiogica 
scenica, was a careful and useful work (1842). His editions of 
Aeschylus and Sophocles were founded on a careful collation 
of the Laurentian MS by Diibner. He edited, for the Didot 
series, Sophocles and Aristophanes, with Herodotus, Ludan, and 
part of Josephus; and, for the Clarendon Press (besides the 
dramatists), Homer and Demosthenes with the scholia; also the 
scholia to Aeschines and Isocrates, the lexicon of Harpocration, 
and the works of Clement of Alexandria. To the new Tauchnitz 
series he contributed a text of Lucian. Among the texts prepared 
by him for other publishers were Athenaeus, Aristides, Themisrius, 
Epiphanius, the praecepta ad Antioehum of Athanasius, and the 
' Shepherd ' of Hermas. The credit of taking part in producing 
the first edition of this undoubtedly genuine work was unfortu- 
nately impaired by his publication of the 'palimpsest of Uranius' 
on the chronology of the Egyptian kings, which had been fabricated 
by the discoverer of the genuine Hermas, the notorious Con- 
stantine Simon ides. 

At an early age Dindorf was nominated to 'extraordinary' 
professorships at Berlin and Leipzig. Failing to be appointed to 
succeed Beck in 1833, be took up the task of K. B. Hase, as 
editor' of Didot's Paris edition of Stephanus' Thesaurus Graeciiatis, 
and the main part of the work, ending with 1864, was done by 
the brothers Dindorf, who had begun to help as early as 1831. 
The younger brother, Ludwig, was thrown into the shade by his 

' Cp. Dindorf in Jakrb. f. cl. Pkitol. xcix 103, 105; and Genthe in 
ZdUchrift f. Gyma, xxvi. 



elder brother, and, as he never appeared in public, a legend arose 
that he did not exist, but was invented by Wilhelm to help to 
account for the extraordinary number of editions that appeared 
under the name of Dindorf. Ludwig edited (in addition to the 
texts already mentioned') Dion Chrysostom and the Greek 
Historians, including Xenophon, Diodorus, Dio Cassius, Polybius, 
the Historid Graeci Minores, with Zonaras, and the Didot edition 
of Pausanias. 

Wilhelm Dindorfs industry and thrift made him, in the eariy 
part of his career, a prosperous man, and in 1837 he became 
a Director of the Leipzig and Dresden Railway. But his life 
ended in gloom. In i87r he had to lament the death of his 
younger brother. A few months later, at the age of 70, he lost 
his all by speculations on the stock-exchange, and was even 
compelled to part with his library. But he still worked on, 
producing (in 1873-6) his lexicon to Aeschylus, and {in 1875-80) 
his complete edition of the scholia to the Iliad. His hand-writing 
remained clear to the very last, and there was but little failure of 
his bodily powers. After his death, the greatest misfortune that 
befell his memory was that even his former friends forgot and 
disowned him'. 

The Greek poets were the main (heme of study with Dindorfs con- 
temporary, Johann Adain Harlung (1801 — 1SS7), who studied 
at Erlangen and Munich, and was Director of the gjunnasium 
at Erfuit for the last three yeai^ of his life. An ovet-fondness for conjectural 
criticism was his main characteristic as an editor of the texts of the Greek 
elegiac, melic, iambic, tragic, and bucolic poets, which he published with 
verse- translations, and with critical and explanatorj^ notes. He also ttanstated 
Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry, with notes and excursuses. In his Euripides 
RfiHliilus ([S43-5), a work inspired by an unbounded admiration for the poet 
whose name it bears, he analj'ses all the extant plays, and even discusses (he 
plots of those that have survived in fragments alone. His earliest works were 
on Greek Particles, and on Roman Religion. The second of these was of far 
higher value than his latest work on the Religion and Mythology of the 

The Lyric Poets of Greece are associated with the name of 
Theodor Bergk (iSu— 1881). At his native place, 
Leipzig, he studied in 1830-5 under Hermann; 

' Biogr.Jakrb. 1883, in— iii ; Bursian, ii 861—870. 


four years later, in Berlin, he was assistant- master to Meineke, 
his future father-in-law; he was afterwards a professor at Marburg 
and at Freiburg; then, for twelve years, at Halle (1857-69); and, 
for the last twelve years of his life, at Bonn (1869-81). 

Grateful as Bei^k was for all that he owed to Hermann, he 
was not unconscious of the one-sidedness of his master's teaching, 
and sought to widen his own interests by learning of Boeckh and 
Welcker and K. O. Miiller. While he was still a student, he 
printed a Comtneniatio on the Fragments of Sophocles. He 
began his public career by editing the genuine Fragments of 
Anacreon, and by producing his Commmta Hones on the Old 
Attic Comedy, a work warmly welcomed by Welcker. Bergk 
contributed to Meineke's 'Comic Fragments' an edition of the 
Fr^ments of Aristophanes, which was followed by several editions 
of the plays. Meanwhile, he had completed at Marburg, in 1843, 
the first edition of his Poetae Lyrici Graeci, a work whose merit 
depends less on any systematic use of the extant mss than on the 
felicity of the editor's emendations. In the Olympian Odes 
alone, eleven of these were afterwards confirmed by the mss. 
The defects of this work were sharply criticised by Schneidewin 
in 1844, and improved editions appeared in 1853, r866, 1878-82. 
Bergk's paper on the Age of Babrius was first published in the 
Classical Journal of 1845'. In 1858 he produced a text of 
Sophocles, followed by an edition of the Lexicon Vindobonense 
(1859-62). His familiarity with the Epic poetry of Greece is 
attested not only by the first volume of his 'Greek Literature', 
but also by several minor works'. He is less well known in 
connexion with his papers on Greek, Latin and Cypriote Inscrip- 
tions, on Latin Grammar and the textual criticism of Plautus, 
and on ancient Prosody, on Greek Mythology and Archaeology, 
and on the text of the Greek Philosophers and the Alexandrian 

His studies were for a time interrupted by political duties. 
In 1848 he represented the university of Marburg in the Hessian 
Parliament, and was one of the delegates to the federal conference 

' Opasc. a 547—569- 

' Opusc. ii 415—444 (Unity of II. i), 409—414 (Tabula Iliaca), and 
Enemiatiottes in Halle Piogtams of 1859 and 1861. 

h. i.,loA3.00^IC 


at Frankfurt. To this period belongs the only portrait of Bei^k 
that was ever painted'. In 1852 he accepted a call to Freiburg in 
Breisgau, where he lived for five years an idyllic life, surrounded 
by congenial colleagues, and busy with the text of Aristophanes 
and Sophocles. His subsequent time at Halle was marked by 
bad health, due in part to over-work. On settling in 1869 at 
Bonn, a university to which he was attracted by the presence of 
Otto Jahn, his health improved, and he continued to lecture until 
1876. At Bonn he began his 'History of Greek literature' and 
completed the ms of four volumes in the course of ten years. 
He also wrote papers on the history and topc^aphy of the 
Jiheinland in Roman times, and incidentally gave proof of his 
being an excellent strat^ist'. Though he was able to prepare 
a fourth edition of his Poetae Lyrici, and to exhibit a singular 
acumen in the identification of the two Berlin fragments of 
Aristotle's Constitution of Athttts", he was in failing health for the 
last five years of his life. The baths of Ragaz in Switzerland, 
which had proved efficacious in former years, were of no avail in 
1881, when his strength finally failed him, and he passed away on 
the 20th of July. 

As a classical teacher, he was thoroughly familiar with the 
langu^e, literature, and monuments, of Rome as well as Greece: 
He was characterised by a remarkable breadth of knowledge, and 
a singular d^ree of acumen. A severe critic of his own work, he 
left many of his most elaborate papers unSnished. Opinions, 
which he deemed unsound in point of scholarship, he was wont 
to attack with a sharpness which, in the years of failing health, 
approached the limits of positive rudeness. But, in every con- 
troversy, his constant aim was the attainment of the truth ; and in 
all that he said or wrote, the advancement of classical studies was 
the joy and the glory of his life'. 

The Greek drama was one of the main interests of Adolf SchoU (1805— 
18S3), who studied at TiibingeD, Gottingen, and Berlin, and 
b^ao his literar; career with a dissertation on the origin of 

' Frontispiece of Qpuse. 1. 

^ PeppmUUerin Bei^k's Opusc. I Ixxxixf. * 0/<«c n 50S— 553- 

' Arnold Scbaerer, in Btagr. Jahrb. 1881, 105 — no; also Peppmiiller in 

Bergk's Opuscula, 718 + 813 pp. (i88«-6), iixiij— xcv; Buraian, li 819, 871-5. 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lc 

CHAP, xxxi] A. schOll. buchholz. nauck. 149 

the drama (1818). He aTletwards owed much to Che influence of K. O. Miiller, 
whom he accompanied on the fatal journey to Greece. Meanwhile, he had 
produced important papers on tragic tetralogies', and had translated Sophocles 
and Herodotus with the highest degree of literary skill, besides writing a 
monc^raph on the ' Life and Work of Sophocles ' (1841) '. In the same year 
he was appointed professor of Archaeology at Halle, leaving in the following 
year for the directorship of the Art Museum at Weimar, where he died nearly 
forty years kter". 

The subject'malter of Homer was the principal theme of theclassical studies 
of Eduard Buchholi (1815 — i88j), who was educated under 
B. R. Abeken at Osnabrilck, studied under K. F. Hermann 
and Schneidewin at Gottingen, and ended his scholastic career at the Joachims- 
thai gymnasium in Berlin (1871-81). His German plays on classical subjects 
are less widely known than his comprehensive and instructive work : — Die 
Homerisclun Rtalitn*. 

The text of the Greek tragic poets is associated with the name 
of August Nauck (1822—1892). The son of a ^^^^^ 

village-pastor in NE Thuringia, he was educated 
at Schulpforta, studied at Halle (mainly under fiernhardy) in 
1841— 6, and, after holding scholastic appointments in Berlin, was 
in 1859 elected a Member of the Academy of St Petersburg, 
where he was also professor of Greek Literature in 1869-83. 
His first important work was an edition of the Fragments of 
Aristophanes of Byzantium (1848), suggested by Bemhardy. His 
text of Euripides (1854) was followed by an excellent edition of 
the Fragments of the Greek Tragic Poets (1856), the design for 
which had occurred to him during his study of the scholia in 
connexion with his edition of Aristophanes of Byzantium. He 
was busy with the Fragments while he was still an assistant- 
master to Meineke, and it may be assumed that the editor of the 
' Comic Fragments ' was interested in his assistant's work in a 
similar domain. This undertaking made it necessary for bim to 
traverse the whole range of Greek literature. He thus found 
traces of the Aeschylean simile of the 'struck eagle", not in 
Aristophanes alone, but also in Philo, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 

' Beitrdgi zur Cesch. der attischen Tragitrr (1839), i. 
* Also on Shakespeare and Sophocles ntjahrb. der deiilschia Shakespcare- 
GtsilUckafi UUi). 

' Biogr.Jahrb. i88j, fij^^g. 

■* 3 vols. (1871-8S). Biogr. Jahrb. 188;, «8 f, " Frag, 139. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 


Athenaeus, Aristides, Galen, and Eustathius. A line, which 
violated Porson's rule as to the final cretic', had been quoted 
from the Canones of either ' Ion ' or ' loannes '; it had been rashly 
ascribed to Ion by Heyne ; but it was more judiciously assigned 
by Nauck to Joannes Damascenus, and was subsequently found 
in that grammarian's works'. Another of Meineke's assistant- 
masters was Adolf Kirchhoff. Kirchhoff and Nauck were simul- 
taneously preparing editions of the text of Euripides. Nauck 
placed at Kirchhoff's disposal his own collection of quotations 
from Euripides, while Kirchhoff, both before and after his visit to 
the Italian libraries in 1853, kept Nauck informed of points that 
were likely to interest him as an editor. The second edition of 
Nauck's Euripides included ProUgomena on the life, style, and 
genius of the poet, in which the subject is tersely and succinctly 
treated, while the original authorities are added in the notes. 
Like Porson and Elmsley', for both of whom he had a high 
admiration, he was specially strong in his knowledge of metre. 

In 1859, on the proposal of Stephani, he was elected a 
Member of the Academy of St Petersburg, and in that year, and 
again in 1862, he laid before that Academy the two instalments 
of his ' Euripidean Studies ''. Most of his subsequent work, apart 
from editions published in Germany, appeared in the Transactions 
of the Russian Academy, and unfortunately attracted little notice 
in the land of his birth'. 

From 1856 onwards he was repeatedly engaged in the critical 
study of Sophocles. Every few years he produced a new revision 
of Schneidewin's school-editions of the several plays. His own 
edition of the text (1867) was severely reviewed by Bergk, while 
he himself was no less severe in his review of the ' Comic Frag- 
ments ' of Kock. He was less strong in the ' recension ' of the 
text as a whole than in the details of its 'emendation '. In one 
of his papers he drew attention to the fact that his own conjectures 
had repeatedly been confirmed by the Mss*. 

' imfKut d^itjiToit tv SiapSpa! SaxriXois. 

» T. G. F. p. xiii. * Melanges Gr. Rom. iv 61, joSf. 

* Mimoins, Sir. vil, i no. 1 1, and v no. 6. 
' Milangis Grhe-Rotnains, six vols. 

• (■*. 11135. "317, 333, 453- 


CHAP. XXXr.] NAUCK. igi 

In his edition of the Odyssey (1874) and the Iliad (1877), 
the text of Aristarchus is generally retained, resolved fonns of 
diphthongs only introduced where necessary, and conjectures 
added below the text. To ascertain his actual views as to the 
textual criticism of Homer, we have to consult his Kritische 
Bemerkungen^. He there avows that the aim of the Homeric 
critic is to bring the text as near as possible to the original form ', 
with the aid of Analogy and Comparative Philology. 

While his first decade at St Petersburg had been mainly 
devoted to Sophocles, and his second to Homer, the third was 
assigned to Porphyry and his circle. Here again, the first impulse 
had come from Bernhardy. In 1846 he had spent three months 
collating Porphyry mss at Munich. On his return to Halle he 
collected many of the fragments, but, on reaching the Byzantine 
writers, he left his original task unfinished. At St Petersburg, 
however, with the aid of his colleague, Chwolson, he became 
acquainted with the Arabic authorities on Porphyry's philosophy. 
In i860 he produced Teubner texts of three of Porphyry's tracts, 
namely the Life of Pythagoras, the treatise On Abstinence, and 
the Letter to Marcella. Here {as elsewhere) he did more for 
' emendation ' than for ' recension '. Indeed, it was shown in 
1871 that the Munich ms, which he had followed, was only an 
ordinary copy of the Bodleian ms'. His examination of the 
Laurentian ms of lamblichus' 'Life of Pythagoras' in 1879 
resulted in an edition of that work {1884), followed by a second 
edition of the Porphyrii Opuscula Sekcla (1886). 

The main achievement of his life was his final edition of the 
Fragments of the Greek Tragic Poets. The first edition had 
appeared in 1856. The publication in 1862 of the first part of 
the second collection of Volumina Herculamnsia, including many 
passages quoted from the poets by Philodemus, led to a long and 
friendly correspondence with its able editor, Professor Gomperz 
of Vienna. The loan of a Vienna ms enabled him to publish the 
ElymologicuM Vindobotiense in 1867, and, three years afterwards, 
a Vatican ms of that lexicon revealed the name of its author, 

' 1861, 1863, 1867, and esp. 187:. 

* Mil. Cr. Rom. iii 109 j see esp. Biogr. Jahrb. 1893, 44 H 

» Val. Rose, in Hermts, v j6j f. 



Andreas Lopadiotes'. The final edition of the Tragic Fragments 
appeared in 1889, and the complete Index in 1892. The aged 
editor had lately lost the sight of one eye and his memory had 
bt^un to fail him ; yet he was eagerly planning fresh works for 
the future, when his life came to an end*. 

A crilkal editioD of Pindar was produced in 1864 by Tycho Mommsen 
(1819—1900), a younger brother of the historian. After 
Momm«n studying in 1838-43 at Kiel, which was then a Danish uni- 
versity, be visited Greece and Italy in 1846, and, in 1846-7, 
collated MSS of Pindar in Rome and Florence. Further collations were made 
in 1861. The results appeared in his edition of 1864 ; he also edited a large 
part of ihe ichatia (1861-7), He was Rector of the school at Oldenburg 
from 1856, and Director of the gymnasium at Franltfurt from 1864 10 the end 
of his life. The greatest work of his closing years was an investigation of (he 
usage of Ihe prepositions vir and ihtA in Greek literature beginning with the 
poets (1874-9) '"d ending with the writers of prose'. 

Numerous papers on Pindar were produced by Eduard Luhhert (1830 — 
I iiViK rf '889), a professor al Giessen in 1865-74, and at Bonn from 

1881 to his death. The series began with a JIalle prc^ram of 
1S53 and ended with the end of his life*. 

A brief and suggestive Commentary on Pindar was prepared by Friedrich 
^^^ _. Meiger (1833—1893), a son of the Rector of the gymnasium 

of St Anna al Augsburg, who studied at Eriangen and Leipzig, 
and, after teaching under his father for eight years at Augsburg and under- 
taking similar work for eight years at Hof, returned to bis father's school in 
iSyi, and ihere taught for the remaining three years of his father's life, and 
for seventeen years after. The fruit of many years of study appeared in his 
Commentary of 1880, a work intended for those who desired to study the 
poet for his own sake, without being distracted by the divergent views of his 
interpreters, with which Meiger himself was perfectly familiar, his own library 
including some 300 works on the subject. It may be added that he was led to 
hb well-known theory of catch-words in Pindar by the practice of learning 
each ode by heart before commenting on it'. 

Eoeckh's lectures on Pindar at Berlin were attended by Morii Schmidt 
(1813 — 1888), who had already studied under Haase at the 
university of his native place, Breslau. For the last thirty- 

' Stein's lai^er ed. of Herod. I Ixxvf; Krumbacher, % 138' (first half of 

* Iwan MUller in Bicgr. Jahrb. 1893, I — 65 (with complete bibliography) ; 
cp. Bursian, ii 8 70-1. 

' Beitrdge lu der Lehre von den griechischin Prapositiontn (1886-95), 
847 pp. Cp. Biogr. Jahrb. 1904, 103 — 117. 

* Biogr. Jahrb. 1891, 135 — 171, with list of papers on 169 — 171. 
' Biogr. Jahrb. 1894, 78 — 86. 

h, i.MiA.OOgIc 

M. Schmidt 


one jtKta of his life he was a professor at Jena. He began his career wilh a 
treatise on the dithyramb and the remains of the dithyrambic poets (i8+s)- 
He afterwards collected the fragments of Didymus (1854), and produced as 
his o/uj- magnum the edition of Hesychius in five volumes, with Quaestionn 
Hnychianae in Che second half of volume iv, and elaborate Indices in volume v 
{1S58-68). He subsequently published in a single volume (1864) the nucleus 
of Hesychius, in the form of a restoration of (he epitome of the lexicon of 
Pampbilus, which Schmidt regarded as identical with (he small lexicon of 
Diogenianus'. He also produced papers on the inscriptions of Lycia (1867-76) 
and collected those of Cyprus (iS;6); edited the fables of Hyginus and ihe 
Ars Poetiea of Horace, the Foetu of Aristotle (with a translation), and (he 
first Book of the Politics, besides discussing the Pseudo-Xenophontean treatise 
on the Constitution of Athens. In his works on Pindar (i86g, 1881} and 
Horace (187]), and his editions of the Oedipus Tyrannus and the Aniigont 
{1871-80), he showed a special aptitude for conjectural emendation. His 
discussion of the metres of Pindar, and of the Tragic Choruses, was founded 
on a careful study of Aristoxenus, a translation of whose treatise on rhythm 
was placed by Schmidt at the disposal of Westphal. He endeavoured vrith 
very doubtful success lo solve Ihe difficulties in the choral metres of Pindar 
and Sophocles (1870) by Ihe aid of the modern theory of music. Maturer 
work in this field is to be found in his papers on the Choruses of the Ajax 
and on the structure of Pindar's Strsfhae. He did much for the text of 
Aeschylus, and gave proof of an artistic and tasteful style in his excellent 
translations of the Oedipus Tyrannus and of Pindar's Olympian Oda\ 

Homer and Pindar formed a principal part of the wide 
province of Greek literature which was illustrated 
by the life-long labours of Wilhelm Christ (1831 — 
1906). Bom near Wiesbaden, he studied at Munich and Berlin ; 
was a pupil of Karl Halm at Hadamar and Munich, and of 
Thiersch, Spengel, Boeckh, Bopp, and Trendelenburg at Munich 
and Berlin ; and, for more than half a century, was one of the 
praeceptores Bavariae, first as a master at the Max-Gymnasium 
and for the remaining forty-five years as a professor in the 
university of Munich. Under the influence of Halm, he became 
interested in the textual criticism of Cicero, De Divinatwne, and 
De Fato. Under that of Boeckh, he ultimately edited a text of 
Pindar, followed by a commentary {1896). Under that of Spengel 
and Trendelenburg, he produced a text of Aristotle's Poetic and 
Metaphysics'. As a former pupil of Bopp, he lectured in alternate 

' See index to vol. i s.v. 

» Biogr. Jahrb. 1889, 83—130 ; Bursan, ii 875-7, 

* Beitriige in Munich S. Ber. 1886, 406 — 423. 

h, i.MM,Googlc 


years on Comparative Grammar. He also repeatedly undertook 
subjects that would otherwise have been unrepresented in the 
list. His lectures on Homer resulted in his text of the Iliad 
(1884)'; those on the Odes of Horace, in his Studies on Rhythm 
and Metre, and on the chronology of the poems in general ; those 
on Demosthenes, in his paper on the edition by Atticus (1882); 
and those on the Germania of Tacitus, in his Studies on Ancient 
Geography, a subject which he constantly kept in view during his 
travels in Greece and the Troad. His comprehensive hand-book 
of Greek Literature has passed through several editions'. He 
was one of the most versatile of scholars. He was capable of 
examining in archaeology, and of lecturing on ancient philosophy, 
besides taking an interest in astronomy. His services on the 
Bavarian Board of Education were recognised by his receiving, 
among many public distinctions, that of the 'Star of Bavaria*. 
Even in the last few months of his long life, he had large 
audiences attending his lectures on the Greek Theatre. He was 
a loyal and generous colleague ; a man of noble nature, and of 
cheerful temper ; one who found his chief happiness in his work, 
and in his home'. 

The Suppliies and Pcrsae of Aeschylus were edited by Johannes Oherdick 

(1835 — 1903), who studied al Mlinsler and Bonn, and at 

Breslau, where he received an honorary degree in :874. His 

principal scholastic appointment was that of Director of llie Catholic gymnasium 

of Glatz. He was interested in Latin Orlhc^aphy*, and was a corresponding 

Memlier of the Academia Virgitiana of Mantua". 

An edition of the Ekctra of Sophocles (1896) was one of the 
finest of the works produced by Geoi^ Kaibet 
(1849 — 1901), who was born and bred at Liibeck, 
and studied under Ernst Curtius and Sauppe at Gottingen, and 
under Jahn and Usener and BiJcheler at Bonn. He was a 
student of the Archaeological Institute in Rome in 1873-4, and 
visited Italy for his health in the winter of 1877-8. In 1878 he 
published his Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta, a work 

' Also in papers on 'repetitions' and 'contradictions' in the Iliad; Munich 
S. Ber. 1 880-1. On the substance of his PioUgomena, cp. Jebb's /fum^r, 116 f. 
' Ed. 1889 ; ed. 4, 1905, 996 pp. (with appendix of 43 portraits). 
' E. W(olfBin), va Btilagc zur Allgtmtmt Ztitnng, u Feb. igolS, 169 f. 
* Siudicn in 4 parts {1879-94). ' Biogr. Jahrb. 1904, 10 — n. 



containing some 1200 epigrams extending in date over ten 
centuries. From 1879 to 1886 he was successively professor at 
Breslau, Rostock, and Greifswald ; then, for ten years, at Strass- 
burg, and for the last five years of his life at Gottingen. His 
principal works, beside the edition of the EUdra, were his critical 
text of Athenaeus (1886-90), his collections of the Greek Inscrip- 
tions of Italy and Sicily and the West of Europe (rSgo), the 
edition of Aristotle's Constitution of Athens, in which he was 
associated with his life-long friend, Wilamowitz (1891), and his 
independent work on the 'Style and Text' of the treatise (1893). 
He had only published the first part of his proposed edition of 
the 'Fragments of the Greek Comic Poets' (1889), when his brief 
life came to an end'. 

A critical edition of Eufipides was begun by Rudolf Prinz (1S47 — 
1890), who studied mainly at Bonn, under Olto John, Arnold . 

Schaefer, and Usener. Afler spending eight months in Paris 
examining the MSS of Sophocles and Euripides, he published the Medea and 
Alttstis (1878-9). In 1880 he was at work in (he Vatican and Laurenlian 
Libraries, and came to the conclusion that the Laurentian MS of Sophocles was 
in the position of princep!, lathei than thai of paicr or avas, in relation to the 
other Mss ; but his proposed edition of Sophocles never appeared. Work in 
the cold Italian libraries inflicted permanent injury on his health, and even 
prevented him from having sufBcient energy to make foil use of his own 
collations. In iS8i he left his appointment in the library of Brestau to 
superintend that of MUnster ; in the following year he pubiished the Hecuba ; 
in 188S he became librarian at Konigsbei^, where he suffered from strange 
mental delusions, and left for a private asylum, where he died'. 

Apart from the complete editions of the text of Aristophanes by Bekker, 
Dindorf, Bergk, and Meineke, there were many editions of separate plays^. 
Critical editions of five' were produced by Adolf voa Velsen 
(1831 — 1900), who studied at Bonn, and was for many years a 
school-master at SaarbrUcken. On the failure of his health, his collections 
were handed over to Zacher with a view to the continuation of the work. 
Four of the plays' hafi meanwhile been edited with German notes by Theodor 
Kock (iSio— 1891}, who had studied at Breslau, Halle, and 
Berlin, and, after holding several scholastic appointments, wa; 
Director of a gymnasium in Berlin (1860-85). and then settled for the rest of 
his life at Weimar. He wrote several German dramas on classical themes; 

I Biogr. Jahrb. 1904, 15—71. ' Btogr. Jahrb. 1891, »i— 31. 

> E.g. Thesm. Ran. ed. F. V. Frilzsche (1838-45). 
* Eq. Thesm. Ran. Plut. Eal. (1869-83). 
° Nub. Eq. Ran. Av. (1851-^4). 



waa keenl; interested in modem music and ancient art, a.nd paid nine visits to 
Italy, and two to Greece. He attained a high degree of excellence in trans- 
lating the whole of Goethe's tphigenU into Greek Iambic verse (1861). His 
latest work, the ' Comic Fragments' (1880-8), was intended to serve as a new 
edition of Meineke's EdxHo minor, but a higher standard was expected in 1S80 
than that which had sufficed thirly'three years before. The new editor 
attempted to trace lost fragments of Greek Comedy in the prose of Lucian and 
other late Sophists, and also elsewhere. He even found a fragment of a 
'comic tetrameter' in a passage which he failed to identify as part of the 
sublime language of St Paul'. 

The value of Aristophanes as a historical authority was submitted to a 

careful and discriminating examination by Hermann MUller- 
SirUbinr .Slriibing (iSii — 1893), who studied in Berlin, and, owing to 

the part which he played in political movements among (he 
students of Germany, was condemned to death in 1835. His sentence was 
commuted to imprisonment ; and, on his subsequent release, he spent the last 
forty-one years of his life in London. His constant researches in the British 
Museum led to his discovery of an excellent MS of Vitruvius, and, in con- 
junction with Valentui Rose, he published a critical text, which is still the 
standard edition (1S67). His polemical work on 'Aristophanes and historical 
criticism' was published in 1873*. He here enlarges on the unintelUgent and 
uncritical use of Greek Comedy as evidence for the political history of Athens. 
In his subsequent publications he paid more and more attention to the historic 
criticism of Thucydides, investigating the dales at which the different parts of 
the history were composed, and discovering difhculties in his account of the 
sii^e of Plataea and the affairs of Corcyra'. Among the best of his papers 
were those on the Pseud o-Xenophontean treatise on the Constitution of Athens 
((880), and on the legends as to the death of Pheidias (iSSif. 

The text of the Greek Bucolic Poets was edited by Christoph Zi^ler 

(1814— 1888), who was educated under Moser at Ulm. He 

studied under Hermann at Leipzig, where he was the first 
student from Wiirllemberg, who chose 'philolt^' as his sole profession; he 
also studied at Tubingen under Wak. His interest in archaeology and in the 

' 1 Tim. iv 6, iyi> yip ^Sii ar^iSo/uu kt\. (Kock, iii 543 fr. 768 ; Classical 
Rai. iii 35). On Kock's life, cp. Bingr. Jakrb. 1901, 44—49 (with full 

' Buraan'syaAnfj*. ii 1001-57, 1360 f. 

» Kritik da Thukydidts Textts (1879): ThuSi. Forsckungm (rSSi); Das 
ersle Jahr des pel. Kneges (1883); Bctaseruag von Plataia (1885); Dit 
Korkyrdisckm Ndndel (t886) ; Verfasiang von Alhtn (1893). The last four 
vaNeueJahrb. /. PhU. i883-(»3, 

* His treatment of Thucydides is ably criticised by Adolf Bauer, Tkak. 
und B. MUllcr-Slrubing, Ei» Beitrag xur Gcsch. der philologischeit Melhmle 
(Nordlingen, 1887). Life and biblit^raphy in 5»D^r. /oArA. 1897,88—105. 




uss of Theocritus led to his paying foui visils Co Italy. After the first of these 
(1S41-1) he published the earliest of his critical editions (1S44). During his 
second visit in 1864 he discovered in the Ambrosian Library what is now 
known as Idyll xxx. Two further editions followed in 1867-79. ^^ ^^ 
edited the Ambtosian scholia, as well as Theognis, Bion and Moschus, with four 
school-editions of the Ipiigeneia in Tauris. Lastly, he produced an excellent 
series of illustrations of Roman topography'. He was a school -master at 
Stuttgart for Chiily-one years (184S-76), led a frugal and a happy life, left his 
library to his school and devoted the rest of his resources Co founding stipends 
for poor students at Stuttgart and Ulm '. 

The text of the Bucolic Poets was ably edited in 1855-9 by H. L. Ahrens 
(1S09— t88i), the learned explorer of the Greek dialects'. 
Theocritus was fully expounded by Adolph Theodor Hennann Ahreni 
Fritische (1818—1878), a pupil of Hermann, and a professor PritjBth"' 
at Giessen and Leipzig. Of his two editions, the first had 
German notes*; the second, a very elaborate Latin commentary'. He also 
expounded the Saltrcs of Horace (1875), and edited \a the early parf of his 
career the eighth and ninth books of the Nicamackian, and the whole of the 
Eadanuat Ethics (1847-51)'. 

Two editions of Apollonius Rhodius nere published in 1851-4 by Rudolf 
Merkel (1811—1885), who is even better known as an editor of Ovid'. 
Callimachus was elaborately edited in 1S70-73 by Otto 
Schneider (1815 — 188a), who studied under Schomann at 
Gieifewald, and under Boeckh and Lachmann in Berlin, where his closest 
friends were Merkel and Hertz. His earliest work was on the sources of the 
scholia to Aristophanes (1838), and he afterwards proposed many emendations 
ol the text'. Meanwhile, he had published his Nicandrta (1856), the two 
volumes of his index to Sillig's Pliny (1857), and his school -edit ion of selec- 
tions from Isocrates (1859-60). From 1843 to 1869 he was a school-master at 
Gotha, where the present writer remembers visiting him after he had retired 
from scholastic work. Eminent as a scholar, he was also excellent as a teacher, 
and frank and straight -forward as a man*. 

The theory of Greek Rhythm and Metre was ably treated by Rudolph 
Westphal and August Kossbach. Westphal (1816—1895), 
who studied at Marbuig, became a ' privat'docent ' at Tubin- 
gen, and an 'extraordinary' professor at Breslau {1858-61), and, after livmg 

O. Sch 


• 1873-7; school-ed., 1881. 

' Biogr.Jahrb. 1888, 47-53. 
' Cp. p. 130 supra. 

• 1857; ed. 1, 1869. * 1865-9. 

• Biogr./ahrb. 1878, i. 
^ p. 19J >«fra. 

« fhilal., and Fleckeisen's/aAr*. (1876-80). 
' Biogr.Jahrli. 1880, 8 f. 



at Halle and Jena, and spending six years in Russia, passed the rest of his 
life at Leipiig, and al BUckeburg, the place of his billh'. 
Rossbach (1813 — 1898) studied under Hermann at Leipdg 
and under Bergk at Marbu^, where he made the acquaintance of Westphal, 
and married his sister. He taught at Tubingen (iSji-C), and was professor 
al Breslau for (he last forly-lwo years of his life. He is there commemorated 
by a portrait-bust as the founder of the archaeological museum. His 
independent works included a Teubner text of Catullus and Tibullus, and 
Researches on Roman Marriage {1853). illustrated (in 1871) by sculptured 

In the study of Greek metre, Rossbach went back to Che original aathority, 
Aristoxenus, and, in conjunction with Westphal, formed a plan for a joint work 
on (1) Rhythmik; (3) Metrik; (3) Harmonik, Orgaaik, md OrchesHk. 
Rossbach's volume on Rhythmik (1854) was the first to set forth the ancient 
system of Rhythm, with constant reference to Pindar and the Greek tragic 
poets. Their joint work on MeSrik (1856) marked a great advance, and was 
well received by Boeckh, and by Bergk and Lehrs, and even by (he strictest 
adherents of Hermann. This was followed by Weslphal's Harmonik and 
Milepoie (1863), his 'General Greek Metrik', his revision of Rossbach's 
Rhythmik, and his edition of ' Plutarch', Dt Musica (1865). 

After ten years of associated work, Weslphal had meanwhile patted from 
Rossbach. Westphal afterwards produced a Teubner text of Hephaestion 
with Vk^ scholia {i%id), and an edition of Arisloxenus (1883-93). His treatise 
on Greek Music (1883) was followed in 1885-7 by a third edition of Rossbach 
and Wcstphal's joint work, under the new title of ' The Theory of the Musical 
Arts of the Greeks'. The work has been widely recognised as a masterpiece 
which marks an epoch in the study of the subject. 

The first edition of Rossbach and Westphal's .^^/rii formed the foundation 

of the work of J. H. Heinrich Schmidt (born in 1830) 'on the 

Schmidt ' artistic forms of Greek poetry, and their significajice '. The 

choral lyrics of Aeschylus and Pindar are included in the first 

volume {1868); those of Sophocles and Aristophanes, in the second (1869); 

and those of Euripides, in the third (1871), while the fourth volume (1871) 

states tlie author's views on Prosody and on musical Rhythm, in which he 

ignores the ancient writers on the theory of Rhythm and Metre, and trusts 

solely to the evidence of the extant remains of choral lyric poetry'. 

' Biogr. Jahrb. 1895, 4.0—90; Bursiat^ 11981 f. His earliest independent 
works were papers on the taw of the final syllable in Gothic (iSjl)) and on 
the form of the oldest Latin poetry. His 'Latin Verbal Flexions' (1871), and 
'Comparative Grammar' (1873), were krgely founded on the labours of others. 

" Biogr.Jahrb. 1900, 75 — 85; Bursian, ii 9S4 f. 

' Bursian, ii 990 f. His introduction to the Rhythmic and Melric of the 
Classical languages was translated by Prof. J. W. White (1877-9). He is also 
the author of four large volumes on Greek 5fnonj'B>(i6(i8j6-86). C^.A.J.F. 
vii 406 f. It ha!< been ascertained that he is stilt living, and tliat, amid the 




The musical instruments and ihe musical theories of the Greeks were 
specially investigated by Karl von Jan (1836—1899), who 
studied at Erlangen, Gotlingen, and Berlin. In Berlin he ^""J"" 

was led by Gerhard to examine the stringed instruments of the Greeks. He 
next turned his attention to the study of the texts, and took part in the con- 
troversies excited by the publications of Westphal. The discovery of the 
Delphic hymn gave the final impulse to the publication of the work of his 
life:— his edition of the i'(Ti>'i>r«/l/ujtr:i' GnuH (iS^s)'. 

Passing from scholars concerned mainly with Greek poetry to 
the special students of prose, we note that the 
Life of Herodotus was the theme of an interesting 
work* by Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1786 — 1860), who 
studied at Copenhagen, Halle, and Dresden, and was professor 
at Kiel, and at Gottingen from 1829 to 1837. In the latter year, 
Dahlmann and the brothers Grimm, and Gervinus, were among 
the seven professors who were dismissed for protesting against the 
violation of the constitution by the king of Hanover'. He sub- 
sequently lived at Leipzig and Jena, and passed the last eighteen 
years of his life as a professor at Bonn'. 

Among the editors of Thucydides a place of honour must be 
assigned to Ernst Friedrich Poppo (1794 — 1866), 
who studied at Leipzig, and was Director of the 
gymnasium at Frankfurt on the Oder from 1817 to 1863. His 
larger edition, in eleven volumes, appeared in 1821-38; his 
smaller, in four, was first published in 1843-51. 

Johannes Classen (1806 — 1891), who was born at Hambui^ 
and studied at Leipzig and Bonn, was for twenty 
years a master at Liibeck, for eleven Director of 
the gymnasium at Frankfurt on the Main, and from 1864 head of 
the school of his native place, where he died at the age of 85. 
His earliest work, De Grammaticae Graecae Primordiis (1829), 
was followed, many years later, by his excellent edition of 

active occupations of a hale old age, he has applied his metrical principles to 
the newly discovered nomos of Timotheus and to the odes of Bacchylides. 
On the recent history of the study of Greek and Roman Metrik in Germany, 
see Radermachet \ti Jakresb. cxxiv 1 — ii, 

1 Biogr./ahrb. 1900, 104— 114. 

' Herodot. Aus siineiit Buche sdn Ltbm (1814) ; E. T. 1845. 

' Cp. Boeckh and K. O. Muller's Briefwechstl, 401. 

' G. Beselet in Unsere Zeil, vi 68—78; A. Springer (Leipzig, 1870). 

n, i.iiA.OOglc 


Thucydides with German notes, first published in 1862-78, At 
the age of 70 he wrote an interesting monograph in memory of 
Niebuhr, in whose house he had Hved as a private tutor before 
beginning his scholastic career'. 

A critical text of Xenophon' was produced in 1869-76 by 
Karl Schenkl (1827 — 1900), who studied at Vienna 
and, after holding a mastership at Prag, was ap- 
pointed to professorships at Innsbruck (1858), Graz (1863), and 
Vienna (1875). His other works included a Greek-German 
(1858') and German-Greek school-lexicon (1866^), and editions of 
Valerius Flaccus {1871) and Ausonius (1883). With Benndorf 
and others, he took part in editing the Imagines of the Philo- 
strati; in conjunction with W. von Hartel, he founded the 
Wiener Studien ; he was general editor of a useful series of Greek 
and Latin texts published in Prague and Vienna; and, late in life 
(like Bonitz in his day), he was pubUcly honoured as the Prae- 
ceptor Austriae'. 

The Oeeonomiai!, AgtsUaus, Hieron, Hellaoia, Memorabilia, Cyropaediia 
and Anabasis were all edited between 1841 and 1875 bjr 
Ludwig Breitenbach (1813 — 1885), who was bom at Erfurt, 
educaled at Scbulpfona, studied under Bernhardy at Halle, and was from 
1840 to i860 a master, mainly at Wittenberg. He was ultimately compelled 
to resign that position owing to extreme deafness. His favourite authors were 
Xenophon and Goelhe*. 

The Anabasis has often been edited separately. An improved text was 
produced in 1878 by Arnold Hug {1831 — 1895), who studied 
under Kiichly at Zurich, and under Welcker and Ritschl at 
Bonn, was a master at Winteithur from 185$ and professor at Zilrich from 
1S69 to 1SS6, when he was laid aside by paraly^s Tor the remaining nine 
years of his life. He collected some of his popular lectures on Demosthenes 
etc. in ^isSltiditn (i88i); he also produced a critical text of Aeneas Poliorce- 
ticus {1874), while his explanatory commentary on Plato's Symposium (1876)' 
attuned a second edition in 1884. He was prevented by illness from 
completing his careful revision of the StaatsaUerthiimir of K. F. Hermann*. 

' Life in A. D. B., and in Biogr. fahrh. 1905, 19 — 33. 

' Anabasis and Libri Sixratiii. 

' Cp. Wurzbach, Biogr. Lex., and esp. Karl Ziwsa in Osltrreich. Millil- 
sckuh, 15 pp., and Edmund Hauler in ZHtsck-f. osterreich. Gymnasiea, 1900, 
xii, 14 pp. ; also Deulseher NekroUg, v 351-8. 

* Biogr. Jahrb. 1886, 295-6. 

» Also expounded in 1875-6 by G. F. Reltig (1803—1897). 

* Biogr. Jahrb. 1896, 95 — 104. 



The text of Plato had been published by Bekker in 1816-23. 

A useful edition in ten volumes, with Latin notes, 
was produced between 1827 and i860 by Gottfried 
Stallbaum (1793—1861), who had been educated at Leipzig, and 
spent the last forty-one years of his life at that place, having 
been appointed Rector of the Thomas-Sekuk in 1835, and extra- 
ordinary professor in the university in 1840, 

Meanwhile an excellent edition of the text was produced at 
Ziirich by Baiter, Orelli, and Winckelmann (1839- 
42), Of these Johann Caspar Orelli (1787 — 1849), 
the younger cousin of Johann Conrad Orelli (1770 — 1820)*, was 
educated at Ziirich, where he was inspired with an interest in the 
Classics by his cousin, and by an older scholar, Johann Jacob 
Hettinger (1750 — 1819). As chaplain and schoolmaster in the 
reformed community at Bergamo, Orelli produced a new edition 
of Rosmini's Vittorino da Felire (1812) ; as a master at Chur, an 
improved text of Isocrates, De Ptrmutatione, together with an 
edition of Isaeus, De Menedidis hertdiiate, by his elder cousin, 
Conrad, and notes on Xenophon's Symposium by that cousin's 
son, the younger Conrad (1814). As master and professor at 
Ziirich, he prepared an important critical text of the whole of 
Cicero (1826-38), the second edition of which was completed by 
Baiter and Halm (1846-62). Of his many other works the best 
known are his annotated editions of Horace (1837-8) and of 
Tacitus (1846-8). 

Orelli's principal partner in the edition of Plato, and his 
successor in that of Cicero, was Johann Geoi^ 
Baiter (1801 — 1877), *ho was born at Ziirich, 
studied at Munich, Gotdngen, and Konigsberg, and from 1833 
was one of the principal masters at the gymnasium, and extra- 
ordinary professor at the university of Ziirich. He was not only 
associated with Orelli as an editor of Cicero and Plato, but also 
with Sauppe in their joint edition of the Oraforts Atiici. 

The third of the partners in the edition of Plato was Ai^ust 
Wilhelm Winckelmann, who was born in Dresden 
(1810), and began his career by editing the Eulhy- wincit^unn 
demus of Plato, and the fragments of Antisthenes. 

' Editor of the Opasatla Graaorum vito-um smientiosa it maraUa, i8i()-ii. 
s- I". I,. I ., II, iJft")O^IC 


He was on the Staff of the school and university of Ziirich from 
1834 to 1845, when he returned to his native place. The edition 
of Plato, in which he was concerned, was founded on the Paris 
MS and the Bodleian ms, and marked a decided advance on that 
of Bekker. 

The text of Plato was afterwards edited in 1851-6 by Karl 
Friedrich Hermann (1804 — 1835), who studied at 
mBiin^ **"■ Heidelberg and Leipzig, and was professor at Mar- 
burg in i83a-4z, and for the remaining thirteen 
years of his life at Gottingen. His interest in Plato is well 
represented by the only volume of his 'History and System of 
the Platonic philosophy' (1839), and in his 'Collected Papers' 
{1849). He led the way in forming a true estimate of the value 
of the uas and the scAo/ia of Persius' and Juvenal'. The points 
of difference between Hermann and Jahn on the scholia, and the 
over-fondness for quotations displayed by both scholars, were 
pleasantly satirised by Haupt'. A still wider reputation was 
won by Hermann's Manuals of Public, Religious, and Private 
Antiquities, originally published in 1831-52, with a concise text, 
full quotations from the ancient authorities, and references to the 
modern literature. He abo wrote monographs on Laconian 
Antiquities (1841), on Greek legislation {1849) and penalties 
{1855), and many programs on points of Attic law*. The range 
and depth of his learning were most remarkable; the general 
purport of his teaching on the history of classical civilisation is 
preserved in a work published by his pupil Gustav Schmidt'. 

Plato was the central theme of the extensive studies of Christian Cron 

(1813 — 1893) for the last thirty-five years, of his life. Bom at 

"" Munich, he held scholastic appointments at Erlangen (1838- 

53) and Augsburg (1S53-S5). He produced successful school -editions of 

Plato's Ap(^ogy atid Crito (1857), and LcKha (i860); also a treatise on the 

Gorgias (1870) and a paper on the Eulhydemus (1891)'. In 

DeuKhIt j^^ ^^^ ^j. ^ |.^ \,^^f,„ life, Julias Deuschle {1818— 1861), 

■ Ltctianes, 18+1; Anaiecia, 1846; text, 1854, 
' De codd. 1847; Schol. 1849; f'iW«-iiw, and text, 1854. 
' Belger's Haupl, 61 f. * Bursian, ii ii6j n. 

' Cttlturgtschichte der Grie<htn u. RBmer (1857-8). Cp. Bui^an, ii 

' S-Bei: MunUh Acad. 


who was on the staff of a gymnasium in Berlin, wrote able dissertations on 
Plato's Cralylas^, and the Platonic Mjlhs', and edited the Gargias and Praia- 
geras {vi;,^i). 

The Attic Orators formed a. large part of the theme of the elaborate 
'History of Eloquence in Greece and Rome' published in 
1833-5 ^y AntoQ Westetmann (1806—1869), who, with the 
exception of his schooldays at Freiberg in Saxony, spent the whole of his life 
in Leipzig, nhete he was a full professor from 1S34 to 1865. Though not a 
brilliant, or even a stimulating, teacher, he was always clear and thorough. 
His four papers on questions connected with the history and criticism of 
DenHtsthenes' and on the documents quoted in the Meidias* and other 
speeches', were followed by his well-known edition of Select Speeches'. He 
also edited a text of Lysias, Plutarch's Solen, the Philostrati aod Callistratus, 
and the Greek Paradoxcgrafhi, Mylhografhi, and Biograpki'. 

Baiter's colleague as editor of the Oratorts AlfUi. Hermann 
Sauppe (1809 — ^1893), was born near Dresden, and 
studied under Hermann at Leipzig (1827-33). tJ" 
Hermann's recommendation, he obtained an appointment at 
Ziirich, where he spent twelve years as a master at the newly 
organised cantonal school, besides being from 1837-8 public 
librarian, and 'extraordinary' professor. He was subsequently 
director ef the gymnasium at Weimar (1845-56), and classical 
professor for many years at Gottingen (1856-93). 

It was at Zurich that he was associated with Baiter in the 
comprehensive edition of the Attic Orators in two large quarto 
volumes (1839-50), the first containing the text founded on the 
best Mss, and the second the scholia, with Sauppe's edition of the 
Fragments, and a full Index of Names. Sauppe celebrated 
Hermann's Jubilee in 1841 by sending him an Epislola Critica 
of 152 pages of print, with many criticisms on the text of the 
Orators and of Plato*. He had already been associated with 
Baiter in an edition of the Speech of Lycurgus against Leocrates 

» PlatBt's Sptackphilmopkie {^axhaig. 1851). 
' Esp. that in the Fhaedru! (Hanau, 1854). 
' Quaistiants Dimesthenkae, 1830-7. 

* Dc litis instrumentis (1844). 

' Unttrsuchung uberdu...Urkunden (}%i,6). 

• Otynthiats and Philippics, Dc Pact and Ciers. ; De Cor., Lepi. ; Aristocr., 
Con., Eubul. (18JO-1, etc.). 

^ Bursian, ii 890-3. 

' Reprinleil in AiisgewdhUc Schrijt/n, pp. 80 — 177. 



(1834), and of the Fragments of that orator, and, in the interval 
between the first and second volume of the Oratores Altici, they 
brought out a translation of the second edition of Leake's Athens 

Sauppe's independent work included an edition of the First 
Pkilippk and Ofynthiacs of Demosthenes with Latin notes, and a 
German edition of Plato's Protagoras; an edition of Philodemus, 
Tt-tp\ KUKiiav, and an admirable discussion of the authorities followed 
by Plutarch in his Life of Pericles ; also a long series of papers 
on Greek inscriptions and antiquities, on Lucretius, Cicero, and 
Floras, and other Latin authors, together with a large number of 
festal discourses on classical subjects, and funeral orations on 
classical scholars, mainly delivered at Gottingen'. He was the 
first to improve the text of Lysias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes, 
by closely following the best ms of each. His most striking 
features were the clearness of his style and the simplicity of his 
character. This simplicity was, however, combined with a pro- 
found knowledge of human nature, and both aUke had a strong 
influence on all who were brought into contact with him in the 
course of a long and strenuous life'- 

The Speech of Lycurgus against Lcocrales was edited by Fr. Osann, 

G. Pinzger and W. A. Rlume. and the fragments by GusUv 

Kiessling. Antiphon and Dinarchus, as well as Lycorgus, 

were edited in 1S36-41 with ciitic&l and explanatory notes by Eduacd 

Maetinet, who was bom at Rostock (1805), and, after studying at Greifswald 

and Heidelberg, was a school -master at Bromberg in 1831-5, and in 1838 

became Director of the first high-school for gitls in Berlin. His later work 

. was mainly connected with English and French Grammar. 

Andocides was edited in 1834 by Karl Christian Schiller (1811 — 1873), w''" 
K C Schill '"^^ Maeiiner) was bom at Rostock; he edited Andocides 
immediately after the close of his university career at Leipiig. 
A text of Lysias was first produced in iBji by KarL Friedrich Scheibe 
(1814 — 1869), Rector ol ^ gymnaaum at Dresden. Select 
Orations of Lysias, Isocrates, Demosthenes and the whole of 
Aeschines, had been edited in 1813-34 by Johanu Heiorich 

1 Cp. Amgauiihlte Schriften {ii^), 86a pp. 

* His library now belongs to the Columbia Univ., New York. His 
portr^dt is prefixed to the Ausg. Sckr. Cp. Bursian, it 849, 858-60; Wjla- 
mowiU, in Gelt. Gtlekrt. Nathr. 1894, 36—49; and LothhoU in N. Jahrb. 
1894, 199—304- 




Bremi (1771 — 1837), a nalive of Zurich, wbo was educated at his native place 
by Hottinger, and afterwards studied at Halle under F. A. Wolf. He 
republished Wolfs edition of the Lefiiines in iSji. In the early part of his 
career he edited Nepos (1796) and Suetonius ((800), and, from that dale to 
rSig, was a professor at Ziiiich'. 

Select Orations of Lysias were admirably edited with German notes by 
Rudolph Rauchenstein (1798 — 1879), who b^[an his classical 
studies under Doederlein at Bern, and continued them under 
Fassow at Breslau, where he produced a prize -dissertation on the order of the 
Olynthiais (1819)'. In 1811-66 he was Master (and for many years Rector) 
of the cantonal school at Aarau, and continued to take an active interest in the 
school lo the end of his long life. He edited Selections from Lysi^ (184^, 
<Az.) and Isocrates (1849, etc.)^. He also published papers on Pindar*, and 
on the Agamaunim and Eumtniiiis', and on the Akeslis and Iphigenda i'h 

Selections from Lysias, with long and elaborate German notes, were 
subsequently published in 1866-71 by Hermann Frohhercer _ 
(1830—1874), who studied at Leipzig and was a school- 
master for the rest of his short life. 

An able and comprehensive edition of Isaeus was published 
in 1831 by Geoi^ Friedrich Schomann (1793 — 
1879), a scholar of Swedish descent, the son of an 
advocate and notary at Stralsund. Afler studying at Greifswald 
and Jena, he was for seven years a school-master at Greifswald, 
and for fifty-eight a teacher in the university, being professor of 
Eloquence for the last fifty-two years of his life. He was Rector 
of the university on four occasions, including the commemoration 
of its fourth centenary in 1856, when he discharged his duties 
with the highest distinction. As a student at Jena, he had owed 
little to the teaching of Eichstadt, whose superficially elegant 
Latinity formed a striking contrast to the pithy and eminently 
original and yet thoroughly classical style of Schomann. His 
own love of concrete facts attracted him to the difficult and 
almost unexplored province of the constitutional system and 

' Bursian, ii 749 n. 1. 

' Published with Preface by Passow and Observations on the Philippics by 
Bremi (i8ii); also abridged and revised in Bremi's Dem. Oral. Sili^lae (iSlg). 
' Paneg. and Areop. 

< Einleitung, 1843; Comminlaliima, 1844-5. 
' 1855-8. 
• 1847-60. Cp. Bivgr. fahrb. 1879, i — %. 



legal procedure of Athens. His early Latin treatise, De Comitiis 
Atheniensium (1819), was published two years after Boeckh's 
Public Economy of Athens, and was dedicated to Boeckh, under 
whose influence it was written. Meanwhile, in i8io, Boeckh's 
favourite pupil, Moritz Hermann Eduard Meier, was invited to 
Greifswald. In the same year Schomann produced his treatise 
De sortitione judicum aptid Aihentenses, and, in 1823, was nomi- 
nated to an extraordinary professorship. In 1824 Meier and 
Schomann published their joint work on Attic Procedure^. Meier 
left for Halle in 1835, while Schomann remained and became 
a full professor in 1837 and librarian in 1844. His interest in 
Attic law led to his producing his translation (1830) and his 
annotated edition of Isaeus {1831), while his equal interest in 
Greek constitutions prompted him to edit Plutarch's Agis and 
Cleoments (1839). In the previous year he had produced his 
systematic Latin work on the Public Antiquities of Greece', 
followed in 1855 by his German ' Handbook ' on the same 
subject'. In 1854 he published his able critique on Grote's 
treatment of the Constitutional History of Athens'. 

Partly under the influence of R. H. Klausen (1807 — 1840), 
the author of the Theologutnena Aeschylea (1829), Schomann 
became interested in ancient Religion. He was thus led to 
produce an edition, and a German translation, of the Prometheus 
Vinclus, with an original German play on the theme of Prometheus 
Solutus (i844);_to translate and expound the Eumenides {iZ\$), 
to comment on Cicero, De Natura Deorum (1850 etc.) and on 
the T/ieogony of Hesiod, besides editing the whole of the text 

Similarly, the influence of Otto Jahn, his colleague in 1842-7, 
may be traced in his papers on classical archaeology in 1843-7'. 
In his public lectures be devoted much attention to Greek and 

' Der atlische Process, iRi+; ed. Lipsiua, 1883-7. 

' Antiquitaies jvrii pubUri Gratconim, 1838. 

* HatKibmh der griichischen AtterthuHur, r85s-9 (E.T. vol. i, 1880); ed. 4 
I.ipsius, 181)7 — 1901- 

' E. T, by Bernard Bosanquet, 1878. 

» Uebcr die Schonkeit {\»^^\ Winekeimann smA Die Genien {\%i,iy, Hera 



Latin Syntax, and in 1864 wrote a paper on the teaching of 
the old Greek Grammarians as to the Article', and a treatise 
on the points of permanent value in the ancient views as to the 
Parts of Speech", In 1827-68 he produced a long series of 
university programs, collected in the four volumes of his Opusoita 
(1856-71), including papers on his special departments of study, 
and also on the poems of Theognis, and on 'the silence of 

In the preface to his 'Greek Antiquities' he states that his 
aim was never to leave his readers in any doubt as to what he 
regarded as certainly trae, or as only probable. His Latin prose 
has been already noticed ; his German style is regarded as in the 
highest degree plain, popular, and perspicuous. His polemical 
writings supply examples of every variety of tone. He is respectful 
towards Grote, conversationally familiar towards K. J. Caesar, 
humorously ironical with G. W. Nitzsch (whose merits he fully 
recognises), and unsparing in the severity with which he exposes 
the 'ignorance' of Bake. 

He was a bom teacher, but he preferred lecturing to small 
classes of thoroughly industrious and attentive students. Among 
his many distinctions he received that of the Prussian ' Order of 
Merit' in 1864. With the exception of three half-years as a 
student at Jena, he spent the whole of his academic life in a 
small but not undistinguished university in the extreme North of 
Germany, where he found himself able to concentrate his powers 
on those studies in which he was a recognised master. He had a 
certain hardness of manner, which made people shy of him, but 
they soon found themselves reconciled to it by his strict sense of 
justice, and he was not without traits of distinct good-will. Though 
he loved a life of retirement, he was always cheerful in really 
congenial company. In his latter days, he was almost the sole 
survivor of the great age in which the foundations of modem 
scholarship were laid under the influence of Wolf*. 

' Jahrb.f. Philol. Suppl. v. 
' Du l^hre von den RtdetheiUn nach d/n Alien. 

' iti 1—29. For his views cm the Homeric question cp. his review of 
G. W. Nitzsch lajahrb. /. Phil. Ixix (1854), 1 f. iigf. 
* F. S(usemihl) in Biogr. Jahrh. 1879, 7—16. 

h. i., iiA.OOt^lC 


Schiknann's collaborator in Ibe Atlische Prociss, M. H. E. Meier (1796 — 
'855), who was professor at Halle for the last iwenly years of 
bis life, produced many programs, mainly On Andocides and 
Theopbrastus, whicb were afterwards collected in his Opuscula (1861-3). 

Isocrates was studied with the minutest care by Qustav Eduard 
Benseler (1806— 1868), who was born and bred in 
the Saxon town of Freiberg, to which he returned 
after studying at Leipzig under Hermann in 1825-31. At Frei- 
berg he was a school-master from 1831 to 1849, when his public 
career was interrupted for five years by his imprisonment on 
political grounds in the castle of Ostenstein at Zwickau. For 
the remaining fourteen years of his life he lived in retirement at 

In 1829 he began a translation of Isocrates, which did not 
extend beyond the fourth volume (1831). His other early works 
were his editions of the Areopagiiicus and Evagoras (1832-4), 
followed by his careful and comprehensive treatise of 557 pages 
on Hiatus in the Greek Prose of (i) the Attic Orators, and (2) the 
Historians (1844), While he was still in prison, his critical text 
of Isocrates was in course of publication in the Teubner series'. 
It was during the same interval of seclusion that he prepared his 
text and translation of selections from Isocrates (1854-5). This 
was followed by a text and translation of Aeschines in three parts 
(1855-60), and of Demosthenes in ten (1856-61)5 of which five at 
least were by Benseler. His Greek and German School-lexicon 
was published in 1859, and his excellent edition of Pape's lexicon 
of Greek proper names in 1863-70. He was also one of the 
editors of the fifth edition of the Greek lexicon of Passow*. 

While critical editions of the whole of Demosthenes had been 
produced by Bekker, Dindorf, and Baiter and 
Sauppe, the text and the I^tin translation were 
edited in Didot's series in 1843-5 by Johann Theodor Voemel 
(1791 — 1868), who afterwards published editions of the Public 
Orations in 1856, and the De Corona and De Falsa Legations in 
i86z, with full and elaborate apparatus criticus. Voemel had 
Studied at Heidelberg. After holding minor scholastic appoint- 

' Vol. 1(1856), vol. ii (1851). 
" Cp. Bursian, ii 903, and p. 1 1 



ments at Weitheim and Hanau, he passed the last fifty years of 
his life at Frankfurt, where he was Rector of the gymnasium for 
more than thirty years (1822-53). ^''^ ^^^ ™°s' elaborate of 
his Demosthenic editions were produced after he had retired from 
that office. 

Editions of the speech against Androlion (1831} and of the Olynlhiaet 
(1834) were produced by Karl Hermann Funkhaenel (1 808-7 +), 
for many years Director of the school at Eisenach, and the 
author of numerous critical papers on Demosthenes. The speech against 
^m/^ra/<.waselaboralelyeditedini845byErnst(Chrislian) ^ ^ ^^^^ 
Wilhelra Weber (1796—1865), for forty years on the staff of ' " 
the gymnasiuBi at Weimar. 

Select Speeches were edited with German coles by Weslennann' in l8jo-l, 
and by Carl kehdanlz (i8t8— 1879), whose edition of the 
'Twelve Philippics' (i860) was superseded by thai of the ' '"" 

'Nine' (i86i). Bom at Landsberg an der Wirlhe, east of Berlin, he was 
educated for six years at the principal gymnasium of that city, and for three at 
the university. He was himself a master at the above gymitaiium from 184O 
to 1851, and at Halberstadt until 185S. In 1859 he visited Italy In connexion 
with his study of Demosthenes. He was successively Reclor of the schools at 
Magdeburg, RudulstadI, and Kreutzbuig in Upper Silesia; and he transformed 
the last two of these into classical schools in accordance with the Prussian 
requirements. Even his illness during the last year of his life did not prevent 
his conlinning lo take the work of his highest class. He was an admirable 
teacher, and had a special genius for interesting his pupils and inspiring them 
with lofty ideals. His earliest work, on the Lives of Ipbicrates, Chabrias and 
Timolheus (1845)1 appeals to scholars rather than to school'boys, for whom he 
subsequently produced an excellent edition of the Anabasis (with a critical 
appendix). The thoroughness of his sludy of the Allic Orators is attested, not 
ordy by his editions of the Public Speeches of Demosthenes, but also by ihat 
of the speech of Lycurgus, and by numerous papers In the Jahrbuchir fiir 

The Philippics of Demosthenes and the speeches of Aeschines were edited 
by Friedrich Franke {1805—1871), Rector of St Afra's at 
Meissen for the last twenty-six years of his life. An etahorale 
critical edition of AescKines was prodaced in 1S65 by Ferdinand 
Schultz (h. 1819), afterwards Director ol "Cdk gymnasiam at Charlottenbui^. 

The Life and Times of Demosthenes were elucidated in 
1856-8 in an admirable historical work by Arnold 
Schaefer (1819— 1883), who was educated at Bre- 
men, where he selected the De Corona as the theme of his 

' p. 163 supra. ' Biogr. fahrb. 1879, 1—4. 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


valedictory discourse. Ac Leipzig, he studied mainly under 
Hermann and Haupt, as well as Klotz and Wachsmuth, while 
among his contemporaries at that university, and his life-long 
correspondents, were Max Miiller and Hercher. During his 
tenure of a mastership at Dresden, he produced a treatise on the 
Pseudo-Plutarchean 'Lives of the Ten Orators'. At Dresden he 
saw much of Georg Curtius, and of Kochly, until the latter became 
more and more perilously interested in politics. Though less 
advanced than his friend, Schaefer published many articles on 
the critical events of 184S-9. In 1847 he produced the first 
edition of his frequently reprinted 'Chronological Tables'. In 
1851 he was placed on the staff of the school at Grimma, and, in 
that pleasant and quiet little Saxon town, found time for a large 
amount of scholarly work'. It was there that he produced the first 
two volumes of his work on 'The Age of Demosthenes' {1856), 
followed by a third and final volume two years later. From 
Grimma he often went over to see his friends at Dresden, and it 
was there that he first met the future Lord Goschen, in whose 
home he was stimulated to a new interest in English literature, 
and especially in the Histories of Thirlwall and of Grote. 

In 1858 he entered on ofl!ice as ordinary professor of History 
at Greifswald. In his published papers he discussed the Spartan 
Ephors, and the period between the Persian and Peloponnesian 
Wars; and, in connexion with his lectures, put forth an Outline 
of the original Authorities on Greek History ending with Polybius 
(1867), to which a second part, on the Roman Empire down to 
Justinian, was added in 1881. This outline is justly recc^ised 
as a most valuable introduction to the study of Ancient History. 

In 1S65 he was appointed professor of History at Bonn, 
devoting most of his time to lecturing, with admirable lucidity of 
style and attractiveness of manner, on Ancient History down to 
the end of the Western Empire. In the address which he de- 
livered as Rector in 1871, he traced the influence of the study of 
the ancient world on the critical study of History, in and after the 
days of Niebuhr. 

His History of the Seven Years' War, founded on the Prussian 
Archives and on those in the British Museum, and inspired by a 
» Das anmulige itUli Grimma (Ptef. to Dtm. u. s. Zdt). 


warm admiration of Frederick the Great and of William Pitt, was 
begun in 1867 and completed in 1874. In October of that year 
he started on a tour in Greece, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, 
taking Rome on his return in the following spring. His love of 
teaching led him to decline the honour of being Director of the 
Public Archives. In the spring of 1879 he visited Sicily and 
Romei in 1880, Olympia and Athens; in 1881, Spain and Algiers. 
A severe attack of rheumatism during his return compelled him in 
the autumn to resort to Gastrin, Baden, and the Isle of Wight. 
In November, i88z, the completion of the zsth year of his 
professorship was celebrated by the publication of a volume of 
historical papers by nineteen of his former pupils. In 1883, 
after spending some weeks at San Sebastian, he returned with 
renewed strength to prepare the second edirion of his historical 
work on Demosthenes. On November 19th, he lectured in the 
forenoon, attended a meeting of the Faculty in the evening, enter- 
tained some of his pupils at his house, was attacked by a sudden 
stroke of paralysis at midnight, and passed away by a painless 
death at an early hour of the following morning. He was remark- 
able for the depth and extent of his attainments, for his gift of 
lucid exposition, for the perfect harmony of his being, and the 
nobility of his character'. 

Many chronological points connected with ihe life and times of Demosthenes 
had already been minutely investigated' by a pupil of Niebuhr 
living in Berlin, — Karl Geoig Bohnecke, who subsequently 
criticised' Schaefer's results. He maintained the genuineness of all the 
documents i]uoted in the Attic Orators, and only too often devoted his un- 
doubted acumen and his wide reading to the elaborate snpport of untenable 
opinions '. 

Hypercides was discussed in three papers of 1837-46 by F. Gustav 
Kiessling (1809-84). The eoiiitf /finfc/j of the Speech against _ _ ~. 
Demosthenes {1850), and those For Lycophron and Eunenip- 
pus ([853), published in England by Churchill Babington, gave a new impulse 
lo the study of that long-lost orator. Of the literature thus produced in 
Germany it may suffice lo mention Schneidenin's edition of the Lycophron and 

' J. Asbach in Biogr. Jahrb. 1883, 31 — 40, and Zur Erinnerung jwilh 
portrait) 1895, 80 pp.; cp. Bursian, ii 913. 
' Forschu»stH {j%^i), 

' Dim., Lykurgos, Hyfiireidts, and ihr Zeilatler (1804). 
* Bursian, ii 914. 



Euxenippus (1853), and Weslermmn's 'Index Veibotum' to all three speeches 

The History of Attic Eloquence was made the theme of an 
admirable historic survey by Friedrich Blass {1843 
— 1907)' Born at Osnabriick and educated at the 
local gymnasium under B. R. Abeken (the author of Ciixro in 
seinen Brirfen), he studied at Gottingen under Sauppe, and at 
Bonn under Ritschl and Otto Jahn. After holding scholastic 
appointments in various parts of Germany, he distinguished him- 
self as a classical professor at Kiel in 1876-92, and at Halle for 
the remaining fifteen years of his life. 

A dissertation on Ihe rhetorical (realises of Dionysius of Halicamassus, 
written for bis degree at Bonn in 1863, was the germ of his earliest substantial 
work, that on the history of Greek oratory from the age of Alexander to that 
of Augustus (1865). This was followed by the greatest of hb works, the four 
volumes of Die Allische Btrtdsamkiit (1868-80), which attained a second 
edition in 1887-98. For the Teubner series he edited texts of all the Attic 
Orators except I.ysias and Isaeus; he repeatedly revised Rehdantz' Fhilippies, 
and produced a school edition of the Di Corona, and of eight of Plutarch's 
Liiiis. His critical texts of the 'kBi^raiat ToXirtfiL (tSQi) and of Bacchylides 
(1898) passed through several editions. His treatise on the pronunciation of 
Ancient Greek' and his Grammar of New Testament Greek were translated 
into English; and he produced a carefully revised edition of the first half of 
Ktlhner's Gretk Grammar, and critical editions of the two works of St Luke, 
besides writing on the 'Philology of the Gospels' and the 'Criticism of the 
New Testament '. In the interval between his two works on the Rhythm of 
Greek Prose', he published a sober and sensible treatise on Interpolations in 
the Oifyssey {1904), in which the Peisistratean edition of the Homeric poems 
is frankly denounced as 'an absurd l^^d '. His latest works were his com- 
mentaries on the Choepkoroe (1906) and the Eumemdes (1907). 

He held that the rhythm of artistic prose {in Latin as well as in Greek) 
depended on the symmetrical correspondence between the clauses viUhin the 
period, and not solely on the metrical value of (he last few syllables of the 
sentence ; and he applied this principle to the text of the 'Aflijrafui' mXirf/o, 
as well as to that of Demosthenes. In the latter he assigned a perhaps exag- 
gerated importance to the evidence derived from citations and imitations, and 
also to the law of composition, whereby Demosthenes, so far as possible, 

' 1870 etc.; E. T. ofed. 3 by W. J. Purton (Cambridge, 1890). 

' (1) Rhythmen der Attiscken Kunstprosa {1901); (i) DU Rhylkmm der 
Asianischen und Ronischen Kunstprosa (1905), noticed by J. E. Sandys in CI. 
Ra,. xxi (1907), 85 f, 




avoids the juxtaposition of three or more short syllables'. His published 
works frequently brought him into friendly relations with English scholars. 
In r879 ^^ '"'^ '^' guest of the editor of the aStie princeps of Hypeieides, 
Churchill Babington; in that year, and again, many years later, he visited 
Cambridge, while, in London and Oxford, and in Dublin (where he received 
an honorary degree in 1891), he repeatedly gave proof of his remarkable skill 
in deciphering and identifying the fr^ments of Greek papyri and in restoring 
the lacunat in the Aflnrolui' xoXirila and in Bacchylides. One of the most 
modest and most unselfish of men, he was ever ready to place the results of his 
learning and of his acumen at the serviee of others'. 

From the scholars who studied the Attic Orators we turn to 
the exponents of Greek philosophy. Histories of 
Greek and Roman Philosophy (1S35-66), and of 
the influence of Greek Philosophy under the Roman Empire 
(1862-4), were published hy Christian August Brandis (1790 — 
1867), who was born at Hildesheim, studied at Kiel and Got- 
tingen, was privat-docent at Copenhagen in 1813, secretary to the 
Prussian Embassy in Rome in 1816, and (with the exception of 
two years at the court of king Otho in Greece, 1837-8) professor 
at Bonn from 1821 to his death in 1867. His earlier works 
included a treatise on the Eleatic philosophers (1813), and an 
edition of the Metaphysics of Aristotle and Theophrastus, with the 
ancient scholia (1823-37). He afterwards edited the scholia for 
the Berlin Aristotle*. 

Eduard Zeller, who was bom in Wtirttemberg in 1814, and 
studied at Tiibingen and Berlin, was successively 
professor at Bern, Marburg, and Heidelberg (1862- 
72), and since that date at Berlin. The first edition of his well- 
known History of Greek Philosophy in three large octavo volumes 
(1844-52) was begun while he was a privat-docent in Theology at 
Tiibingen, and was finished while he was professor of Philosophy 
at Marburg. 

' Cp. Demosthenes, First Phil, and Olynthiacs, ed. Sandys, pp. Ixxii-iv. 

' J. E. Sandys in Ct. Rai. xxi (1907), 75 f ; cp. J. P. M(ahaffy) in Athi- 
naettm, 16 March, 1907. Complete bibliography in preparation by H. Rein- 
hold of Halle. 

* E. CurtiusinGotlingen JViirinVAfew, 1867, 551; Trendelenburg's Hw/«(f, 
Berlin Acad., iStiS. His portrait is included in the monument in memory of 
the Emperor Friedrich III at Koln. 




The History of Greek and Roman Philosophy ex fontium locis 
conlexta was first published with notes in 1838 by 
Ritier Heinrich Ritter (1791 — 1869) and Ludwig Preller 

preiier (1809 — 1861)'. The wofk was begun while both 

were still at Kiel, and was published when Ritter 
was already professor at Gottingen, and Preller was leaving for 
Dorpat, where he stayed for a year only, previous to his appoint- 
ment at Jena. For the last fourteen years of his life, he was 
librarian at the neighbouring Court of Weimar. Preller's earlier 
works included the Fragments of the traveller Polemon (1838). 
He is well known as the author of standard works on Greek and 
Roman Mythology (1854-8)'. 

Adolf Trendelenburg (1802 — 1871), who was born and bred 
at Eutin, studied at Kiel^ Leipzig, and Berlin, where 
he became a full professor in 1:837. His earliest 
work, o;i Plato's doctrine of ideas and numbers, as illustrated 
from Aristotle (i8z6), was followed by his edition of the De 
Anima, his treatise on the Categories (1833), and his Elements 
of Aristotelian Logic (1826)'. His 'Historical contributions to 
Philosophy' were pubhshed in three volumes in 1846-7, and his 
minor works in two (1871)'. Franz Biese, a school- 
Bteae master at Putbus, (woduced in 1834-42 the two 

waiti volumes of his comprehensive work on the Phi- 

losophy of Aristotle; Albert Schwegler (1819 — ■ 
1857), professor at Tiibingen, edited the Meiafhysus in 1847-8, 
and also made his mark by his History of Rome (1853-8), and 
his Histc«y of Greek Philosophy (1859)"; while Theodor Waitz 
(1821 — 1864), who was bom at Gotha, and studied at Leipzig 
and Jena, and taught at Marburg for the last twenty years of his 
life, produced an excellent edition of the Organon (1844-5). The 
Ethics were edited in 1820 by the versatile Karl Zell (1793 — 
1873) and in 1878 by G. Ramsauer. 
, The able Aristotelian, Hermann Bonitz (1814 — 1888), was 
1 Ed. 7, 1888. 

' Ed. 4, Carl Robert, 1887-94; Ausgewakltc At^Stie, 1864. Stichling, 
Geddcklmssride. 1863. » Ed. 8, 1878. 

* Bonili, Zur Erimurung. Berlin Abhandlung, 1872 ; Bratuschek (wilh 
photograph), 1879; Prantl, Gedacklnissrcdt, 1873. 
' Teuffel, Sttidien (tfiji), no. 14. 



educated under Ilgen at Schulpforta, and studied at Leipag 
under Hermann and Harteiistein, and in Berlin 
under Boeckh and Lachmann. For thirteen years 
" he was a schoolmaster at Dresden, Berlin, and Stettin ; for eighteen 
a professor in Vienna (1849-67), after which he returned to Berlin 
as Director of the School ' am Grauen Kloster '. 

At Hartenstein's first course of lectures at Leipzig, only three 
students appeared, and it was solely owing to a fourth presenting 
himself in the person of young Bonitz, that the course was, given 
at all. This event had an important efiect on the future career 
of that student; for it was through Hartenstein's giving the 
Austrian minister, Exner, in 1842, a letter of introduction to 
Bonitz, — his only acquaintance in Berlin, that the latter ultimately 
accepted an invitation to hold office in Vienna, and to reform the 
educational system of Austria. 

In his earliest work, the 'two Platonic disputations' of 1837', 
he gave proof of independence of view, by maintaining that 
Plato's opinions were not always consistent. He returned to 
Plato in his 'Platonic Studies' of 1858-60*. Schleiermacher's 
attempt to deduce a comprehensive scheme of Plato's teaching 
from the dialogues as a whole was attacked by K. F. Hermann 
and by Bonitz, who laid stress on the gradual growth and de- 
velopement of the philosopher's opinions. 

Afler thirteen years of scholastic work in Germany, he ac- 
cepted in 1849 an invitation to fill the Chair of Classical Philology 
in Vienna, an3^ aid in the reorganisation of the schools and 
universities of Austria. In 1854 his scheme came into force, and 
the consequent recognition of Natural Science, as an educational 
instrument by the side of Classics, was the work of a classical 
scholar. As professor, he lectured on Sophocles, and on Greek' 
Public Antiquities, as well as on Plato and Aristotle. The lec- 
tures were well attended, and the students crowded to his house 
for advice and guidance on all manner of subjects. His popular 
lecture on the origin of the Homeric poems is described as an 
excellent specimen of his manner of teaching'. His suggestions 

' (1) Di PlatonU idea boni; (i) De animal mimdanae apud Platontm 

' Ed. J, iSjs; ed. .1, r886. > 1860; cd. j, (88r. 



on Thiicydides ( 1854) were nearly all of them accepted in Kruger's 
second edition. In those on Sophocles {1856-7) he aimed at 
restricting the extent to which Schneidewin had seen 'tragic 
irony ' in the plays of that poet. 

Meanwhile his studies on Plato were being continued, those 
on Aristotle were attaining their ultimate maturity, and his vast 
Index Arislotelicus slowly approaching completion. After 1866, 
when Austria came into conflict with Prussia, fionitz left the land 
of his adoption for the land of his birth. He accepted the 
Directorship of an important school in Beriin ; and it was there 
that, in 1870, he completed his Index Aristotelicus, a work justly 
eulogised by Haupt in Berlin' and by Vahlen in Vienna'. It 
marked for Bonitz the close of a long series of labours connected 
with Aristotle. Those labours had begun with his critical obser- 
vations on the Metaphysics (1843), Magna Moralia and Eudemtan 
Ethics {1844), and had been continued in his edition of the com- 
mentary of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the Metaphysics (1847), 
and in his own commentary (1848-9). His work on Aristotle, 
interrupted for a time by his transfer to Vienna, bore its ripest 
fruits in the five parts of his 'Aristotelian Studies' (1862-7), 
which had been preceded by his treatise on the Categories (1853). 
His dream of a new edition of the text of Aristotle remained 
unfulfilled owing to the pressure of official duties at Berlin. He 
was undoubtedly one of the greatest scholars of his age. He was 
in fact a perfect master of that province of classical learning, 
which includes Greek philology and Greek philosophy'. 

Jacob Bemays (1824 — 1881), the son of a Jewish Rabbi, was 
bom and bred at Hambuig, and studied at Bonn 

erniym .^ 1844-8 Under Ritschl and Brandis. After spend- 

ing thirteen years at Breslau as a classical professor in a Jewish 
seminary, and as a teacher in the university (1853-66), he re- 
turned to Bonn, where he was university hbrarian and 'extra- 
ordinary' professor for the remaining fifteen years of his life. 

During the earlier of the two periods of his life at Bonn, he , 

' OfU!C. iii 168. " Zeilichr.f. d. Sslerr. Gymn. 1872, 531. 

• Gompen in Biogr. Jahrb. 18S8, 53—100 (with biblic^raphy, 91— ioo>; 
cp. Karl Schenkl's Rtde {i888J; Bellermann's Vertrag, and von Hand's 
K'r/>a^(i889) ; Paulsen, ii 475 f, 563 f, S74fi Bursian, ii 913 f. 




obtained the degree of Doctor by producing the first part of his 
important work on Heraclitus (1848)'. He had already written a 
prize essay on Lucretius (1846), and, as a 'privat-docent', he lec- 
tured on that poet and on the introduction of Greek philosophy 
into Rome, and, subsequently, on the literature of the Epicureans 
and Stoics. His lectures on the Speeches in Thucydides included 
a survey of Greek History and Greek Rhetoric, and there were 
similar surveys in his lectures on Cicero's Letters and Aristotle's 
Politics. In 1852 he published an excellent text of Lucretius. 

After leaving Bonn for Breslau, he produced his classic work 
on Scaliger', his paper assigning the authorship of the P/iocylidea 
to a Jew of Alexandria*, and his celebrated treatise on 'Aristotle's 
lost discussion of the effects of Tragedy' (1857)', In the latter 
he maintained that, by KadafKri-;, Aristode meant, not a purifica- 
tion, but a purgation of the emotions of fear and of pity. His 
reputation was greatly enhanced by this treatise and by the con- 
troversy that ensued". 

Meanwhile in 1852 he had been invited to England by Bunsen, 
who was eager for aid in his Biblical researches. The result of 
this visit was an eptstola critica containing a new instalment of his 
Heracleitean studies'. It was at this time that he gained the 
friendship of Max Miiller and of Mark Pattison. To Max MuHer 
he dedicated his work on the Chronicles of Sulpicius Severus, 
published in 1861 as a contribution to Classical and Biblical 
study'; to Pattison, his important treatise on the Dialogues of 
Aristotle in relation to his other works (1863)'. His subsequent 
work on Theophrastus' treatise On Piety (1866) is described by 
himself as 'a contribution to the history of religion', with critical 
and explanatory remarks on Porphyry's treatise On Abstinmce*. 

' Cp. Rkein. Mus. i8+(), * 1855 ; Goropen, Essays, itc, 1 17 f. 

' 1856; Grt. AM. i 191—161; 

* Reprinted in Zvni J ihandtuHgm {t88o). 

' Bemays had been anticipated by Weil (i8*7)- Spengel's attempl of 1858 
to support Lessing's interpretalion was refilled by Betnays. See also Gompcrz, 

• Appendix to part iii of BaasKxCs Artaltcta Anlenkaena (1854); cp. Khan. 
Mus. 1853. 

' Gomperz, Essays, etc., tij-?. ° Gompera, I.e., ii^f. 

S. 111. 



Imbedded in Porphyry he identified important fragments of the 
lost work of Theophrastus, besides analysing the treatise, and 
adding instructive comments on the most varied points of ancient 
philosophy and on the history of religion and literature. The 
work was dedicated to the Berlin Academy. 

On his return to Bonn (1866), in addition to his earlier courses 
of lectures, he discoursed on the Pre-Socratic Philosophy, on 
Suetonius' Life of Augustus, and on the History of Philology from 
the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries'. It was these last lec- 
tures, and those on Plato, that proved the most popular; those 
on Aristotle were less well attended, owing to the high standard 
of work exacted by the lecturer. During the same period he 
published his treatise ' on the Heracleitean Letters ', a contribu- 
tion to the literature of philosophy and of the history of religion'; 
and a translation of the first three Books of Aristotle's Politics, 
with more than a hundred suggestions for the correction of the 
text, as well as explanatory comments intended for the general 
public (1872). In 1876 he presented to the Berlin Academy the 
text of the Pseudo-Platonic treatise ' on the indestructibility of 
the world ', the order of which he had restored by detecting in 
1863 that certain pages had been misplaced. This was followed 
by a brief and interesting pamphlet protesting against Lucian's 
unfair treatment of the Cynics {1879)'. In the following year he 
republished his two papers on Aristotle's 'Theory of the Drama'; 
and shortly before his death, he completed a work on ' Phocion 
and his recent critics' (1881)'. Meanwhile he had produced a 
large number of articles on Heracleitus and Aristotle, and on 
Lucretius, Horace, and Cicero, His published works give proof 
of a wide range of interests, and a rare combination of great 
critical acumen and profound philosophic insight. Towards the 
end of his brief life he was contemplating extensive monographs 
on Gibbon, on the Prophet Jeremiah, and on Erasmus; a new 
edition of his ' Scaliger ', and a comprehensive statement of his 

' He published articles on Polilian and Georgius Valla, on Scaliger, and 

on the Corrispsndenci of Bentley (Bicgr. Jakrb. 1881, 80). 

' iSfip; cp. Gompera, Essays, etc., 111-3. ' '-*■ "3-5- 

' a. 124. Criticised by Gomperz, in Wuner Studim, iv. Die Akademit 

und ikr vermiinllkhir Philemacedonismm. 


views on all the writings of Aristotle. It was at his instance that 
the Berlin Academy began the publication of the Greek commen- 
tators on Aristotle; he was also eager for the publication of the 
works of the Neo-Platonists, and for the preparation of a lexicon 
of Greek philosophy. In German literature his favourite authors 
were Lessing and Goethe. As a strict Jew, he saw nothing of 
general society, but he had a high capacity for friendship, and a 
wide circle of scholarly correspondents. He died in the faith of 
his fathers and was buried in the cemetery of his community at 
Bonn, after bequeathing to the university library a complete 
collection of his works, including all his Scaligerana^. 

The Jew and the Greek were united in the person of Bernays, 
who was at once a strictly orthodox Jew, and a devoted adherent 
of Hellenic culture'. To Bernays 'Philology' was always the 
handmaid of History, and History the servant of practical life. 
Like his great exemplar, Scaliger, he never published lists of 
emendations, or programs on microscopic points, preferring to 
deal with each successive theme of his choice as a complete and 
historic whole'. 

Gustav Teichmiillei' (1831—1888), who wa.s bom at [Irunswick, studied 
under Trendelenburg and others al Berlin. After holding a t 1 >. -11 
scholastic appointment for four years al St Petersbui^, he 
was a professor at Giittingen and Basel, and, for the last seventeen years of his 
life, at Dorpat. Up to ihe age of forty, his work had been mainly limited to 
investigations of (he Aristotelian philosophy on the lines of Trendelenburg. 
In this spirit he had already published the lirst two volumes of his 'Aristotelian 
Researches'*. His call to Dorpat was the beginning of a new departure 
marked by the third volume". In his subsequent 'Studies' he (rated the 
history of philosophical conceptions from Thales to Plalo and Aristotle, and 
dealt with (he influence of the Greek philosophers on the Fathers, and finally 
on Spinoza, Kant, and Hegel'. The study of Plato now took a more prominent 
place in his interests, he came into controversy with Zeller and others, and 
was led to investigate the Chrouolc^y of the Platonic Dialiigues 0^79)' *"•* 
the 'Literary Feuds of (he Fourth Century B.C.' (1881-4). He regarded the 

' Schaarschmidl, in SiP^r./nir*. 1881, 65—83; cp. Biicheler, in Rkait. 
Mas. xxxvi 479 f, Bursian, ii 845 n., and Gomperz, Essays etc., 106 — ill- 
' Gompeti, /.<:., 109. ' ii. 108 f. 

* P(Ktii(im^), Kunst (1869). 

» Gesch. As Bigriffs dtr Parmie (1873). 

* StadvM zar Gesch. der Begrige, 1874; 1876-5. 



Dialt^ues as a series of manifeslos, the date of which was to be determined 
by polemical refetences to Xenophon, Lysias, and Isocrales, as well as 
Aristophanes and even Aristotle himaeK. The first of the two volumes on 
this theme was unfavouiably reviewed by Susemihl and by Blass'. 

The eminent Aristotelian, Leonhard Spengel (1803 — 1880), 
who was educated under Thiersch at Munich, studied 
under Hermann at Leipzig, and Boeckh and Bekker 
in Berlin, and was on the staff of the ' old gymnasium ' in Munich 
until 1835, when he became a professor in the university. After 
an interval (1841-7), during which he held a professorship at 
Heidelberg, he returned to Munich, where he occupied a similar 
position for the last thirty-three years of his life. His early edition 
of Varro, De Lingua Latina (i8z6), was followed by a survey of 
the history of Greek Rhetoric down to the time of Aristotle'. In 
the year of his temporary departure from Munich, he delivered an 
academic address 'on the study of Rhetoric among the Ancients' 
(1841), and in that of his return, he edited the Rhetorita ad 
Alexandrum (1847), which (like Victorius) he assigned to Anaxi- 
menes. He also published a text of the Rhetores Graea {i&^i-6), 
and an important edition of Aristotle's Rhetoric with the old 
Latin translation and with a full commentary {1867). In the 
Transactions of the Munich Academy he traced the indications 
of rhetorical artifice in the Public Speeches of Demosthenes', and 
also criticised the Poetic, the Ethics, Politics, Oeconomics, and 
Physics of Aristotle*. 

His younger contemporary, Carl Prantl (1820 — 1888), a pupil 
of Thiersch and Spengel in Munich, studied for a 
time in Berlin. He was on the staff of the univer- 
sity of Munich from 1843 to the end of his life, having been full 
professor of Philology from 1859, and of Philosophy from 1864. 
His first publication was a dissertation on Aristotle's Historia 

' Bursian'syo^ritj^. xxx i and 134. Biogr.Jahrb. 1888, 7 — 17. 

n scriptores ab inilits usque ad editos 
130 pp.,— still a leading authority on this 

' Abhatidl. ix (i) (1), and x (i). 

* A. Spengel in Biogr.Jahrb. 1880, 3S--59; W. v. Christ, Gedachtnissredt, 
Munich Acad. (i88i); Buruan, it 736, 915, 9*4> Thurot, Rev. de Philol. v 



Animalium (1843). His early career was embittered by bigoted 
attacks on his philosophical opinions ; and at the age of thirty- 
three his objections to a 'confessional philosophy' led to his 
finding himself forbidden to lecture on philosophical subjects. 
Instead of discoursing (as heretofore) on Logic and the History 
of Philosophy, he was only allowed to deal with the safer topics 
of the Greek Tragic Poets (1852), and the 'Encyclopaedia of 
Philology' (l855^. In 1864, however, he was expressly appointed 
professor of Philosophy, and thenceforth he was neither attacked 
nor otherwise hindered in respect to the subjects of his lectures. 
His principal course on Logic and the general survey of Philosophy 
was attended by more than zoo students from all Faculties. 

Meanwhile, he had devoted his enforced leisure to beginning 
the main work of his life : — the four volumes of his celebrated 
'History of the Study of Logic in the West' (1855-70), beginning 
with Aristotle and ending with the year 1534- He also published 
a Survey of Greek and Roman Philosophy ', and translations of 
Plato's Phaedo, Phaedrns, Symposium, Republic, and Apology, and 
of Aristotle's De eoloribus. Physics, and De Caelo etc., besides 
Greek texts of those treatises. But his interests were far from 
being confined to Philosophy and Philology ; he was a Polyhistor 
in the best sense of the term. His published works include 
university history, and bic^aphy, and a long series of reviews'. 

Franz Susemihl (1826— 1901), who was born in Mecklenburg, 
and studied at Leipzig and Berlin, settled in 1850 
at Greifswald, where he was full professor of Classi- 
cal Philology from 1863 to the date of his death. Besides writing 
an important work on the developement of Plato's philosophy", 
he contributed to the Classical Journals many papers on Plato 
and Aristotle. He is still better known through his edition and 
translation of Aristotle's Poetic^, and his three editions of the 
Politics, (i) the critical edition with the old Latin translation of 
William of Moerbeke {1872), (2) the Greek and German edition 

' 1854; newed. T863. 

' Biblic^raphj in Almanack of the Munich Academy, 1S8S, continued in 
Christ's Gtdachtnissrede, 45—48. Cp. K. Meiser in Bwg. Jahrb. 1889, 1— 14. 
' Dit gcaclische EtUviickelung <Ur Platonisehfa PhilosophU (1855-60). 
* :865 ; ed. a, 1879. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


with explanatory notes (1879)', and (3) the Teubner text of 1882, 
The main results of the seven parts of his Quaesliones Crilicae on 
xhe^ Poiitics {1867-74) were summed up in a pamphlet of iz8 pages 
published in 1886*, showing that there were many lacunae in the 
text, and that the transposition of clauses and paragraphs was 
often necessary. He also produced a Teubner text of the Ethics 
(1887), in which, in common with other critics, he proposed 
many transpositions, especially in the fifth Book. Lastly, towards 
the end of his life, he puMished a full and minute History of 
Greek Literature in the Alexandrian Age (1891-2). 

The historical and political purport of the Politics was the 
theme of an important work published in 1870-5 
°'"='"" by Wilhelm Oncken (1838— 1905)', who studied at 

his native place, Heidelberg, and at Gottingen ; and, after spend- 
ing eight years as a teacher at Heidelberg, was professor of History 
at Giessen for the last thirty-five years of his life. He was a 
member of the German Imperial Parliament in 1874-6, and 
organised an important series of historical works, to which he 
contributed three volumes on Modern History. His paper on 
the Revival of Greek Literature in Italy forms an interesting page 
in the History of Scholarship*. 

Aristotle, De Anima, was edited in 1862 by Adolph Torstrik, 
who was a master in the Bremen gymnasium until 
Toriirik his death in 1877. The Fragments of the lost 
RoK works were carefully collected and elaborately dis- 

cussed by Emil Heitz (1825 — 1890) who was a 
professor at the university of his native place, Strassburg"; and 
by Valentin Rose, who studied at Bonn as well as in Berlin, the 
place of his birth (1825), and has been on the staff of the Royal 
Library in Berlin since 1855*. 

' Books I— V have been edited in English with introduction, analysis, and 
commenlary \)y Susetnihl and R. D. Hicks (1S94). 

= Extract bom Jahri.f. d. Phihi. Suppl. nv. 

' Die Staalslekre dis Ar. in historitch-folilischin Umriiuit, preceded by 
Isxratts u. Atken (1861), and HcUas u. Athin (i86g-6). 

* VtrhandlungiH dtr xxiii Fhilelogenversammhmg, 1865, 
' Dit verlortnm Sthrifien da Ar. (1865). ' 

• Dt Arhlolelis librorttm ordine It auclarilali (1854); Aristotelcs pstudipi- 




Friedrich Ueberweg (1826 — 1871) studied at Gottingen and 
Berlin, began his professorial career at Bonn, and 
was professor at Konigsberg from 1862 to the end * 'rweg 
of his life. He was the author of a prize dissertation on the 
genuineness and the chronology of the Platonic writings^, and an 
editor and translator of Aristotle's /'oeiie (1875). Ancient Phi- 
losophy is the theme of the first volume of his valuable Grundriss 
of the History of Philosophy (i86a-6), — a volume, which, in its 
e^hth edition, has been revised by Heinze (1894). 

The Greek Rhetoricians were edited by Ernst Christian Walz 
(1802 — 1857), who was educated at Tubingen, 
where he was appointed 'extraordinary' and 'or- 
dinary' professor in 1832 and 1836 respectively. The former 
date marks the beginning and the latter the end of the nine 
volumes of his Rhetores Graed, a series including many works 
then printed for the first time. He also wrote archaeological and 
mythological articles for Pauly's Encyclopaedia, and, in 1838-9, 
was joint editor of Pausanias with Heinrich Christian Schubart 
(1800— 1885), who afterwards produced the Teubner text of 
1852-4. Schubart, who was bom at Marburg and 
studied at Heidelberg, travelled in Italy and Sicily, 
and was for 47 years librarian at Cassel'. Spengel's edition of 
the most important of the Rhetores Graed, and his other works 
on ancient Rhetoric, have been already mentioned'. 

A systematic conspectus of Greek and Roman Rhetoric' was 
produced by Richard Volkmann (1832 — 1892), who 
studied under Bernhardy at Halle, and, after hold- 
ing minor scholastic appointments, was Director of the ^mnasium 
at Jauer from 1865 to his death. Besides editing Plutarch's 
treatise on Music, he wrote an interesting monograph on its 
author, . as the precursor of Neo-Platonism. Two of his main 
interests were the study of Neo-Platonism and of Epic Poetry. 

^ro/Aiu (1863); Arislotdis qui /crebatUur iibrerum fragments, printed 1867, 
published in vol. v of Berlin Ar. {1870), and in Teubner text (1886). 
> Wien, 1861. 

* Biogr./ahrb. 1885, 89 — 95. ' p. 180 supra. 

* 1871-4 ; ed, 2, 1885 i also a. summary in Iwan Muller's Handbuih ii, 
ed. 1,637—676. 



The former is represented in his admirable work on Synesius of 
Cyrene, and his Teubner text of Plotinus ; the latter, in his early 
dissertation on Nicander, his papers on Ancient Oracles in hex- 
ameter verse (1853-8), his Commentationes Epicae, and his critical 
survey of the influence of Wolf's Prolegomena (1874)^ 

The Religion, Philosophy, and Rhetoric of the Greeks were 
only a part of the wide field of learning traversed 
by Hermann Usener (1834 — 1905), who studied at 
Heidelberg, Munich, Gottingen, and Bonn, where he was pro- 
fessor for the last thirty-nine years of his life. The breadth of 
his erudition is attested by writings on the most varied themes, 
beginning with Homer', and even including Byzantine Astronomy*, 
and the scholia on Horace and Lucan. Among his works were 
the Quatstiones Anaximmeae (1856), and the Analecta Theo- 
phrastea (1858). In the latter year, in conjunction with his friend, 
F. Biicheler, and five other scholars in Bonn, he produced an 
improved edition of the Annals of Granius Licinianus. He 
published editions of the scholia on Aristotle by Alexander of 
Aphrodisias and Syrianus, and of the rhetorical works of Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus, viz. (i) the treatise De Imitatiotte, and {2) a 
critical text of the whole, in conjunction with Radermacher. His 
Epicurea is a critical collection of all the ancient authorities on 
Epicurus, with an elaborate introduction and excellent itidias*. 
He also wrote on the text of Plato^ and on the history of Greek 
and Roman Grammar"; on ancient Greek metre', and on Greek 
cycles*; on the names of the gods', on the mythology of the old 
Greek epic'", on the History of Rel^ion", and on the legends of 

' Gtschichte and Krilik der SVoIfichen Prolegomena zu Homer, 364 pp. 
187+, Cp. Biogi: Jahrh. 1891, 81-103. 

' De Itiadis caituiue quodam FAeeaieaiiSji). 

' Adhistoriam astroiiamiae symbala (1876) ; Be Siephani Alex. (1880). 

* Leipzig, 1887. 

" Vnser Plalolext,'\Ti Gdltingen Naehr. 1893,35 — 50, 181—115. 
' Eitt iilli! Likrgebdude der PAilelogie, in S.-Ber. of Munich Acad. 1892, 

' Attgrieckiseher Versbau (1887). r 

" Gr. Oktaeteris in Rhcin. Mus. xxxiv 388 f. 

• Cr. GSttenmmen, 1896. 

« Gr. Epos, in .9. Ber. Vienna Acad. 1897. 

" See (in/^r o^ifl) honorem Jtfommseni {iHj'j), Sinjiulsagen (1899), 




certain Saints'. His Anecdoton Holderi (1877) threw light on 
Cassiodorus and Boethius, and the Roman chronology is illustrated 
by his edition of the laterculi iviperatorum Romanorum Gram. 
Some of the ablest scholars of Germany passed through his 
Seminar, and the high ideal kept in view in his life and in his 
works has been eloquently set forth by his colleague, Biicheler'. 

Polybius was ediled in 1867-71 by FriedtLch Otto Hullsch (1833—190(5), 
who was born and bred in Dresden, where he was appointed h It h 

Rector of his old school, after studjiing in Leipzig. His high 
malhematical ability was exemplified in his careful editions of Heron and 
Pappus (1876-8}, and in his important work on Greek and Roman Metrolog}'*. 

The text of the ' Roman Archaeology ' of Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus ■ was edited in 1860-70 by Adolph 
Kiessling (1837— 1893), who studied at Bonn, and 
was a professor at Greifswald and at Strassburg. He produced 
several valuable papers on Plautus and Horace', and was associated 
with Rudolph Scholl in the joint edition of the commentary of 
Asconius on Five Speeches of Cicero (1875). 

Lucian was edited in 1821-3: by John nn Gonlieb Lehmaim (1781— i8,i7), 
Director of the gymnasium at Luckau, and in 1836-41, and 
1851-3, by Karl Gottfried Jacobitz (1807—1875!, while jbcoT™ 
F. V. Frilzsche (1806—1887*, editor of the Tkcsmopko- F. V. Fritische 
riiaasae and Ranat of Aristophanes) produced, in 1860-81, '*'"'"" ^ 
three volumes of an elaborate critical edition, and Julius Wilhelm Sommerbrodt 
(1813— 1903) edited selections with excellent German notes and published the 
readings of the Venice MSS, besides writing valuable papers on the Antiquities 
of the Greek Theatre'. His critical edition of Lucian was completed in 1899. 

The text of the Greek NovelisLs' was ediled by a Member of the Berlin 
Academy, Rudolph Hercher (1811-1878), who also edited ^^^ 

the Greek Efislc/ografki, with the minor works of Arrian, 

Dreihtit (1903), and Weihnachhfiil (1889) ; and cp. Archivf. Riligionswmm- 
sthafl, (905. ' S. Pelagia, S. Marina, S. Theodosius. 

' Nimjakrb.f. kl. Alt. 1905, 737 — 741 (with portrait); also Wendland in 
Preuss. Jahrb. 1905, 373f; Dieterich, in Archivf. Religionswiss. 1906, i— xi ; 
E. Schwartz, Rtik (Berlin, 1906); Olio Kern, ^iot (Rostock, 190(5), 8—10; 
Usener's Vmiriigi und Aufsdlit, 1907. 

' i86j; ed. 1, 1881; F. Radio's /i/aeiruf at Basel Philohgen-Veriamm- 
lung, Sept. 1907. 

* Hursian, ii 848, n. 1. ' Biogr.Jnhrb. 1887, 99— lot. 

* 1876, Scenica Collicla. ' Erotici Seriflarti Gratti, 1858-9- 



I86 GERMANY. [cent. XIX. 

Aeliln, Aeneas Poliocceticos, and Apollodonis. Hercher was one of Ibe 
founders of Hermes^. 

The Histoiy of the Greek Novel was admirably wriUen in 1876 by 
Rohde '^''*'" ^"''"'^ (1845—1898), who was educated at Jena and 

Hambui^, and was a devoted admirer of Ihe teaching of 
Rilschl at Bonn and Leipzig. At Leipzig, he and his friend, Nietzsche, com- 
bined an enthusiasm for riding with an intense interest in classical learning, 
and they scandalised the more normal students by coming in riding-costume 10 
the classical lectures. Both alike were sworn foes of every form of pedantry. 
When the friends parted in 1867, Rohde went to complete his studies under 
Ritschl's future biographer, Ribbeck. 

His literary career b^an with a paper on the Lucius of Lucian. It was 
continued by a dissertation on the authorities of Pollux on the Greek Theatre, 
by his History of the Greek Novel', a brilliant and masterly work (which 
was partly supplemented by a lecture at Rostock in the same year), and by his 
sketch of the later Sophists and of their connexion with Asianism'. He 
lectured with great success at Jena (1876) on Ancient Rhetoric, and at 
Tubingen (1878) on Greek Philosophy. 

Next to the History of the Greek Novel, he altaclted the problems con- 
nected with the growth of the ancient history of Greek Ulerature. He proved 
that in the hiogiaphies preserved by Suldas the term "y^ate must refer to the 
date when an author flourished, and not to the date of his birth'. His 
subsequent studies on the Chronology of Greek literary history' were models 
of their kind, and led to important results. 

During his brief tenure of a professorship at Leipzig in 1886 he gave a 
course of lectures on Homer, and, in the same year, he was invited to 
Heidelberg. The third of his three main interests as a scholar, bis interest in 
Greek Religion, was first displayed in his lecture on the Eleusinian Mysteries 
(1880). Its culminating point was reached in his Psyche (1891-4)*, the most 
important work on the subject that had appeared since Lobeck's Agtaophamus, 
and far more popular in its method of treatment, and in its style. His main 
thesis was that the cult of souls was the most primitive stage of religious 
worship throughout the world, and that there was no reasoti for excepting the 
Greeks from this general rule- The apparent inconsistency of this cult with 
the Homeric theology was solved by an analysis of the earliest epics, showing 
in Homer, and still more in Hesiod, the existence of rudimentary survivals of 
a more ancient cult. The religion of Ihe old Epics was thus put in a new 
light ; and the Homeric theology stood out against the dark background of an 
earlier type of religion. Rohde's interest in the life of Creuzer, one of his 
predecessors at Heidelbei^, was partly inspired by Ms own study of the history 

' BiogT.Jahrb. 1878, 9 f. 

' Der griechischt Soman und seine Vorldufer, 1876; ed. i, 1900. 

' Rhein. Mus. xli (1886) rjof. 

' 1878-9 ; Rhciti. Mus. xxxiit r6i f, 638 ; xxxiv 610. 

' t*. xxxvi 380 f, 5i4f. • Ed. 1, 1897, 

h. i.MiA.OOgIc 


of rdigion, and led to his publishing a work which was a conlribuiion to the 
History of Romance rather than to the History of Scholarship'. He lived to 
produce in [897 a second edition of his Psycht, in which many additions were 
made to the notes. He died at the age of 53. The three stages of his literary 
life had been marked by the study of three historic problems connected with 
(1) the Greek Novel, (3) the Chronology of Greek Literature, and (8) Greek 
Religion. His treatment of all three was marked by thoroughness of research, 
and clearness of exposition'. 

The medical literature of Greece was criticised and expounded by Karl 
Gottlob Kuhn ([754—1840) and Friedrich Reinhold Dieti 
(1804 — 1836), professors at Leipzig and Konigsbei^ respec- d t 

tively. KUhn's edition of the Greek medical writers, publL'Jied 
in 1811-30, extends to twenty-six volumes, including a Latin translation, with 
critical and eiegetical commentary and indices. Galen stone iills twenty 
volumes, and the rest are devoted to Hippocrates, Aretaeus, and Dioscorides, 
this last being edited by Kurt Sprengel (1766—1833), professor of Medicine at 
Halle. Dietz, after editing 'Hippocrates on epilepsy' (1817), collated many 
medical MSS in foreign libraries, but did not live to make use of more than a 
small part of bis collations, which are now preserved in the library at Konigs- 
berg. Another short-lived scholar, wbo was also an adept in Natural Science, 
was Julius Ludwig Ideler (1809 — 1841), who wrote on Greek 
and Roman Meteorology (1831), and edited Aristotle's Me- idelor 

Itorolegica (1834-6), and the Pkysici el Medici Griuci mtnoni*. 

' Friedrich Craaa-a, Karolitu v. Giinderedt (1896). 

* W. Schmid in Biagr. fahrb. 1899, 87^1 14 (with bibliography); and 
biographical Essay by O. Crusius, 196 pp., with portrait (rgoi); also 
E. Weber in Deutscher Nekmlog, vi (1904) 450 — 465. Kleine Schriften in 
1 vob., ed. Fr. Scholl, 1901- 

* Bursian, ii 931 f. 




The study of the Latin poets has already been represented 
by Lachmann, Haupt, and Ritschl'. Ritschl was 
succeeded at Leipzig by one of the earliest of his 
pupils, Otto Ribbeck (iSz; — 1898), who studied in Berlin and 
Bonn, and, on returning from a tour in Italy, held scholastic 
appointments in Germany. After filling professorships at Bern 
and Basel (1856-62), he was successively professor at Kiel 
(1863^72), Heidelberg {1872-7), and Uipzig (1877-98). 

His work was mainly limited to the history and the criticism 
of the earlier Latin poets. He published an important collection 
of the Fragments of the Latin Dramatists', as well as an edition 
of Che Miles Gloriosus, a work on Roman Tragedy in the age of 
the Republic*, and a valuable History of Roman Poetry in three 
volumes*. He also published a comprehensive critical edition 
of Virgil, in five volumes', as well as a smaller edition of the 
text. His work on Virgil had been preceded by his text of 
Juvenal', and was succeeded by his Epistles and Ars Poelica of 
Horace, in both of which he evinced an inordinate suspicion 
of textual interpolations. His numerous minor papers included 
an important treatise on Latin Particles (1869). 

His study of the Latin dramatists led him to their Greek 
originals. He accordingly published a lecture on the Middle 
and the New Attic Comedy (1857), discussed Greek and Roman 
Comedy in his Alazon, a work including his German rendering 
of the Miles Gloriosus (1882), and wrote on the early cult of 

1 Chap. xxK. ' 1855-5; ed. 1, 1871-3; ed. 3, 1897-8. 

iSs^-fiS. abridged ed. 1895. 

iSjg. Cp. Dcr ecklt »nd der anechte Juvenal (1865). 



Dionysus in Attica (1869). The story of his life has been partly 
told by the publication of his Letters, while his own Life of 
Ritschl is itself a monument of learning, enthusiasm, and good 

Lucian Mullet (1836—1898) was educated at Berlin under 
Meineke, Moritz Seyffert, and CMesebrecht, and 
studied at the university of Berlin under Boeckh Maier 
and Haupt, and at Halle under Bemhardy. After 
living for five years in Holland (mainly at Leyden), and for three 
at Bonn, he was appointed professor of Latin Literature at 
St Petersburg, where he worked for the remaining twenty-seven 
years of his life. 

While he was still a student in Berlin, he produced a 
dissertation on the Latin abridgement of Homer bearing the 
name of Pindarus Thebanus. In 186 1 he published his treatise 
De re metrUa, on the prosody of all the Latin poets except 
Plautus and Terence, an original work of wide learning, which 
was only marred by a bitterly polemical spirit A compendium 
of the same appeared in 1878, tt^ether with a summary of Latin 
orthography and prosody, followed by a text-book of Greek and 
Latin Metres'. His critical acumen was attested in his editions 
of Lucilius (1872) and Phaedrus, and in the Teubner texts 
of Horace, and of Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius. In his 
edition of Horace he adhered closely to the mss, while he 
admitted some of the best modern emendations, and assumed 
the existence of interpolations. He also edited the Odes and 
Efodei with German notes, and produced a text of Namatianus 
and Porfyrius, as well as papers on the Latin Grammarians, on 
the Tragedies of Seneca, and on the Latin Anthology. His 
edition of Lucilius was followed by a sketch of the life and work 
of that poet, ending with a restoration of a number of scenes 
from his Satires (1876). In 1884 he wrote a work on Ennius, 
and published the remains of Ennius, and the fragments of 

' Olio Ribbtck, Ein Bild seines Leiens aus seinen BrUfen (1846-98, mainly 
to relations and friends, including six to Ritschl), ,;5i pp. with two portraits by 
Paul Heyse (1901); Rfdm und VorlrSge, 1S99; cp. Bursian, ii 713, 84of; 
Deutsche RuHdschau (Dec. 1898, W. Dilthey), (Feb. 1901, A. Hausralh). 

= 1880 ; ed. 5, 1885 ; tiaiisl. into French. Italian, Dutch, and Engliib. 




Naevius' epic on the Punic War. In the following year he 
edited the fragments of the plays of Livius Andronicus and of 
Naevius, and published a work on the 'Saturnian Verse". The 
fragments of the old Roman poets led him to Nonius, and he 
accordingly produced in 1888 an edition of that grammarian and 
lexicographer, extending over 11 27 pages, the index alone filling 
55, This led him to write a treatise on Pacuvius and Accius 
(1889 f), followed by two works of general interest on the artisUc 
and the popular poetry of the Romans (1S90). After that date 
he prepared three important works: (i) an enlarged edition of his 
De re metrica (1894); (2) an annotated edition of the Satires sxvA 
Epistles of Horace for the use of scholars (1891-3); and (3) a 
similar edition of the Odes and Epodes, posthumously published 
in 1900. His ' Life of Horace' had appeared in 1880. 

As a child, he had lost the sight of one of his eyes, and was 
very short-sighted ; as a boy, he repeatedly read through Zumpt's 
larger Latin Grammar and made himself the best Latinist in 
his school. During his brief experience as a school-master, he 
proved an inefTeclive disciplinarian ; his head-master, in the hope 
of improving the discipline of the boys, solemnly told them that 
they 'did not deserve to be taught by so learned a master', and 
repeated this remark to Miiller, who replied, ' YeS ! that is exactly 
what I have told them myself. He held that, for a great scholar, 
it was essential that he should have, not only wide learning and 
clear judgement, but also a strong power of concentration on a 
definite field of labour. It was this that led to his own success 
in the province of latin poetry. But he was far from neglecting 
Greek, for he also held that, without Greek, a fruitful study of 
Ladn was impossible. He was a skilful writer of Latin verse, and 
insisted on the practice of verse composition as a valuable aid 
towards the appreciation of the Latin poets. He was impressed 
with this fact during the prepararion of his ' History of Classical 
Philolc^y in the Netherlands' (1865), and he returned to the 
point in his biographical sketch of the life of Ritschl {1877-8), in 
the course of which he urged that it was, on the whole, more 
important for an eminent classical professor to train first-rate 
school-masters than to turn out classical specialists'. 

■ Biogr.Jahrh. 1899, 6j -86 ; cp. Bursian, ii 934-6. 




One of Lucian MilUer's rivals as an editor of Latin poets was his former 
pupil at Bonn, Emil Baehrens (18+8— 1888). He owed much, 
not only to the leaching of L. Muller, but also to that of Jahn 
and Usener; he afterwards studied for a year under Ritschl at Leipiig. In 1871 
he visited the Italian lihraries, remaining six months in Rome. In 18J3 he 
settled for a time as * privat-docent' at Jena, hnt in the next year he was 
already working in the libraries of Louvain, Brussels, and Paris, and, in 1S75, 
in those of Paris, London, and Oxford. In 1877 be was appointed professor of 
Latin at Gioningen, and, being unfamiliar with Dutch, delivered in Latin an 
inaugural address on the History of Scholarship from the Revival of Learning. 
He was professor at Groningen for the remaining eleven years of his life. 

He began his literary career with a dissertation at Jena, on the Satire 
ascribed lo Sulpicia. This was followed by his Analecta Catulliatia, and his 
editions of the Panegyrid Lalini and Valerius Flaccus; his text of and com- 
mentary on Catullus (1876— 1H85) ; and bis editions of the Silvat of Stalius, 
and of Tibullu5. In 1878 he produced his Mis<sllama Critiia, a little-known 
volume of 300 pages including emendations on Q. Cicero, Propertius, Horace's 
Ars Pottica, and the Agticola of Tacitus. His principal work was his edition 
of the Poiliu Lalini Minores in five volumes (1879 — 1883). In the laborious 
preparation of this work he examined more than 1000 MSS. It was supple- 
mented by his Fragmenla Poetarum Romarurrum (t886). Meanwhile, he was 
editing Propertius, and the ZVafo^r of Tacitus, proposing as many as 125 con- 
jectures in the 41 chapters of that work, and, lastly, a text of his favourite 
Classic, the (?r/aT>ji» of Minucius Felix. The mere titles of all that be produced 
in the last eighteen years of his life would fill four and a half pages of print. 

He was a most industrious scholar, and an excellent teacher, especially in 
the case of the more diligent students ; and he did much 10 improve the 
pronunciation of Latin in Holland. But many of his works were marred by 
over-haste. He saw one of the principal MSS of Catullus for the first time in 
March, and the other in May, and completed his edition of the text in 
September. Similarly, the Commentary, for which he had long been making 
collections, was prepared for the press in less than eleven months. Among 
his other defects were an exaggerated self-assertion, and an unduly polemical 
spirit. He excluded himself from society, and accordingly did not know how 
lo 'give and take'. In his Commentary on Catullus, as well as in his criticisms 
of the Roman renderings of Aratus, he very seldom quotes from the Alexandrian 
poets, — an omission which has been attributed to a very superficial knowledge 
of Greek'. 

For the textual criticism of Terence a firm foundation was 
laid in 1870 by the critical edition prepared by Franz 
Umpfenbach (1835 — 1885), who, after studying at his 
native place, Giessen, and also at Gottingen under K, F. Hermann, 

' Halbertsma in Biosr. Jahrb. 18^, 7 — 46 ; cp. Baisian, ii 936-8. 



at Bonn under RitschI, and in Berlin under Boeckh, spent 
two years in Italy collating the Mss of Terence (1863-5). He 
began by publishing all the scholia of the Bembine ms, during 
his five years' stay in Munich'. 

The expenses of his seven years' preparation for his edition 
made it necessary for him to take school-work for three years at 
Frankfurt, followed by eleven years of similar work at Mainz. 
A man of good breeding and good manners, he found his later 
years clouded by his failure to obtain any university appointment, 
and by his increasing deafness. In the end his brain was 
touched, and his powers of speech failed him'. 

Tibullus is the poet specially associated with the name 
of Eduard Hiller (1844 — 1891), who was educated 
under Classen at Frankfurt, and studied under Ritschl 
and Jahn at Bonn, and under Sauppe and E, Curtius at Gottingen. 
He was a ' privat-docent ' at Bonn (1869-74), and a professor 
at Greifswald (1874-6) and Halle (1876-91). His early work 
was connected with the Greek Grammarians, and Eratosthenes; 
he also prepared a new edition of Fritzsche's Theocritus and of 
Bei^k's Poeiae Lyrici, as well as an Anfhologia Lyrica. He 
edited Tibullus in the Teubner texts, and in Dr Postgate's Corpus 
Poetarufn Laiinorum (1890)*. 

Among the successors of Haupt and Ribbeck, as editors of \'irgil, menlion 

may here be made of Philipp Wagner (1794 — 1B73) who 

broughl out a new edition of Heyne's Virgil, followed by a 

brief commentary. A commentary, followed by a critical lent, was published 

by Theodor Ladewig(i8i3 — iS;8). An excellent Ladn com- 

Qota^u n«ntary on llie Aeneid alone was first produced in 1846 by 

Gottfried Wilhelm Gossrau (1810— 1888), who was educated 

at Schulpforta, studied at Halle, and was a leacher at Quedlinbui^ from 1835 

to 1875. One of the best of his other works was his Lalriruscki SprachUhre^. 

The editors of the text of Horace fall into three groups, 
characterised as (i) conservatives, (2) more or less 
■n^Hoider moderate liberals, and (3) radicals. The first group 
is represented by Otto Keller (b. 1838), now pro- 
fessor at Prag, and by Alfred Holder (b. 1840), librarian at 

' Hermei, 11337—401. ' Biogr. Jahrb. 1886, t— lO. 

' Bio^. Jahrb. 1891,83—113. 

* 1869; ed. 1, 1880. Bio^r, Jahtb. 1888, 107-118. 



Karlsrahe, in their joint edition of 1864-9'. The second, by 
Meinelte, Haupt, and Lucian Miiller ; the third, by 
Lehrs and Octo Ribbeck, and by Gustav Linker "h™^ 

(1827 — 1881), formerly professor at Pr^ in his 
edition of 1856. Among commentaries on Horace may be 
mentioned that in Latin by Wilhelm Dillenburger'; and those in 
German, on the Odes and Epodes by K. Nauck and H. Schiitz ; on 
the Satires and Epistles by G. T. A. Kruger (1793— 1874), and 
A. T. H. Fritzsche. In 1854 f a bulky edition of the Satires was 
produced by Karl Kirchner (1787 — 1855), Rector of Schulpforta. 
The early quotations from Horace were industriously collected 
in the Analecta of Martin Hertz'. 

The textual criticism of Ovid was promoted not only by 
Alexander Riese (b. 1840)*, Otto Korn (1842 — 1883)*, and 
Hermann Peter {b. 1837)', but also by Rudolf 
Merkel (1811 — 1885), who produced at his own 
university of Halle his earliest work, the Quaestiones Ovidianae 
Criticae. He had proposed to qualify for an academic career in 
that university, but the part he played in certain political dis- 
turbances led to his being imprisoned in Berlin. In prison he 
went through a severe course of study, borrowed mss from 
Leyden and Gotha, and worked through the letters of the Dutch 
scholars and the materials left by N. Heinsius, with a view to the 
preparation of an edition of Ovid. On his release (which was 
apparently due to the absence of sufficient proof of his guilt), he 
remained in Berlin and there produced his edition of the Tristia 
(1837). He was afterwards a school-master at Schleusingen and 
elsewhere. In 1841 he published the Fasti, probably his most 
important work (including information as to the Calendars and 
the Religious Antiquities of Rome, with the fragments of Varro 
on that subject); followed, in 1852-4, by his two editions of 
Apollonius Rhodius. In 1863 he visited Italy, and his 'transcript' 

' Ed. mittor 1878 ; cp. Keller, in Rhein. Mus. xix 11 1 f, and Epilegomena 
{1879 0- In this ed. Ihe Codices Blandinii of Cruquiua are r^jarded as of 
minor importance ; cp. Schanz, Rom. Lilt, g 363. 

> i8«; ed. 6, 1875. '1876-80. Bursian, ii 943 f. 

» Ed. of Sauppe's Met. i— vii, and ed. of viii— xiv (1876). 
« Ed. ^3j/i(i874; ed. 3, 1879). 



of the Laurentian ms of Aeschylus was afterwards printed by the 
Clarendon Press {1871). Meanwhile he had produced two papers 
on Aeschylus (1867-8), and an edition of the Ptrsae. He held 
a mastership at QuedUnbui^ until 1879, when he removed to 
Dresden, where he spent his time in the study of Aeschylus and 
Archaeology. He edited the Metamorp/ioies in 1874. Many of 
his conjectural emendations are excellent'. 

Among the imitators of Vii^it, Valerius Flaccus was edited, not oaXj by 
Georg Thilo and by Emil Baehrens, but also by Karl SchenkI (1S7O; 'n 
explanitory edition was the latest work of Peter Langen (1896-7). The 
ancient scholia to Lucaji were published by H. Usener from mss at Bern 
(1869), and the text was edited by C. Hosius (1891) ; the MSS o( Sitius Ilalicus 
were carefully discussed by Hermann Blass'; the textual criticism of the 
Thibais and AckilUis of SlatJus was advanced by Otto Miiller and Philipp 
Kohlmann ; the AchilUh was edited by Alfred KloK, and the Silvae by Kloli 
(1900) and, wilb a commentary, by Fr. Volhner (1898). 

Persius was edited in 184] and 1851 by Otto Jahn, and Juvenal in 
1851, a.nd both (ti^ethei with the Satire of Sulpicia) in 1868; Martial, bj 
Schneidewin (1^43-53). and Friedlander (1886); and Claudian, by Ludwig 
Jeep {1876-9), and Theodor Birt (1891). 

The Mosilla of Ausonius was edited in 1845 by Eduird Biicking ([801— 
1870), who was bom at Trarbach on the Mosel, and was pro- 

Priper^ fessor of Law at Bonn from 1835 to his death ; it has since 
been edited by Hosius (1894). The text of the whole was 
revised in 1886 by Rudolf Peiper, and in 1883 by Karl SchenkI of Vienna. 
Peiper (1S34 — 189S) studied at the university of Breslau. and, from 1861 to his 
death, was a master in the local gymnasium, but his real interest liy in 
scholarly research. One of his ambitions was to produce a Ccrfiut of the 
mediaeval Latin poets. Me collected evidence as to the study of PIbuius and 
Terence', and of Catullus', and wrote an important paper on 'prolane 
comedy'", in the Middle Ages. In addition to his Ausonius, he edited the 
tragedies of Seneca, as welt as Boelbius and the Heptateuch of the Gallic poet, 
Cyprian. His mediaeval texts included Waltharius, Walter of ChStillon, and 
the Carmina Buraita, but the first of these was superseded by the editions of 
W. Meyer, A. Holder, and P. Wiolerfeld. In 1883, when he received an 
honorary degree from the university of Breslau, he was described as 'de 
litlerarum per extrema pereuntis antiquitatis saecula studils augendis ac pro- 
pagandis bene merit us''. 

' Georges in Biogr.Jakrb. 1885, loo-l. 

* ^akTb. f. Philol. Suppl. viii 159. 
' Rkein. Mus. xxxii 516—537. 

* Beilrdge, 1875. ' ArckivfUr Lit. v 493 — 541. 
' Traube in Biogr. fakrh. 1901, (4— »7. 



In the MoHumeala Cermaniae Hhtoriia the third volume of Ihe Po'Hae 
Latitti aaii CatBlini' was ably edited in 1886-96 by Ludwig 
Traube (1861 — 1907), Born in Berlin, he was coniiecled, for "" 

priictically the whole of his academic career, with the. university of Munich, 
where B call to Giessen in 1902 led to his being specially retained as professor 
of ihe Latin Philology of the Middle Ages. He was an eager and able 
pioneer in an obscure and intricate region of classical learning, and by his 
independent research he acquired a profound knowledge of mediaeval palaeo- 
graphy, and of the history of the survival of the Latin Classics*. In con- 
nexion with the literature of the early Middle Ages, he edited the Orations of 
Cassiodorus*. and elaborately investigated the successive changes in the text of 
the Rule of St Benedict*. It is deeply to be regretted that most of the memo- 
rials of his erudition have to be sought in academic and periodical publica- 
tions', and that he never produced the comprehensive History of the Latin 
Literature of the Middle Ages, which was once announced under his name- 
But his work as a teacher is perpetuated by his pupils, some of whom have 
contributed to the important series of Qutllen und Untinuikungai* which he 
instituted only three years before his lamented death'. 

From verse we turn to prose. An edition of, Cicero in eleven 
volumes (1850-7) is the best known work of 
Reinhold Klotz {1807— 1870), professor at Leipzig Nobb^" 
from 1832 to his death; while a widely popular 
edition in a single folio volume" had been produced some thirty 
years previously by Karl Friedrlch August Nobbe (1791 — 1878) 
who studied under C. D. Beck and Hermann at Leipzig, where he 
was for fifty years Rector of the NicolaiSchule. 

A far higher fame as an editor of Cicero was won by Karl 
Fehx Halm (1809—1882), who was bom and bred 
in Munich, and studied at the university of his 

' Cp. KarvHngischt Diehltaigen utttersuehl, i6[ pp., Berlm, tSSS ; also O 
Rama noiilis, in Abhandl. of the Munich Acad, xix ii, 1891, 199 — 395. 

' E.g. Ueberlteferungsgesckkktc, in S. Ber. id. 1891, Heft 3 ; on Suetonius, 
in Niues ArMv, 190J, 266 f ; on Ammianus, in Mel. Boissier, 1903. 

* Mon. Germ. Hist. 1894. * AiAandi. of Munich Acad. 189S. 

" E.g. OTi /'erroHa Sealtervm, in S. Btr. 16. Dec. 1900; and on Seduliusof 
IMgK, ni Abhandl. 1891 ; also faria libamaita critua, Mutiich, 1883-9!. 

' E.g. E. K. V.iaA, fohaane! Siatlus ; S. Hellmann, Sedulius Seottus. 

'' Cp. Ludwig Traube zum Gedacklnis (Seven Funeral Orations, Munich, 
11 May, 1907, with portrait) ; P. Marc and W, Rieiler in Betlage aur Allge- 
tneine Ztilung, it, ii May, p. 133 ; and W. M. Lindsay in CI. Rev. xxi 188 ; 
biblit^aphy by P. Lehminn. 

' AUo in 10 small Tauchnitz vols. Biogr. JoHrb, i8j8, ig. 


native place. After fifteen years' experience as a school-master at 
Munich, Speyer, and Hadamar, he was in 1849 appointed Rector 
of the newly founded gymnasium at Munich, and in 1856 director 
of the public library and professor in the university. During 
forty-eight years of active life, he did much towards extending 
an interest in Classics among his pupils. His editorial labours 
were mainly limited to the field of I^tin prose. 

His early papers on the orator Lycurgns, and on Aeschylus, 
his elementary work on Greek Syntax, his Greek Reader, and his 
J^ctiones Stobe/ists, were followed by editions of Cicero, /^o Sulla 
RnApro Sestio (1845) and in Vatinium (1848). On the death of 
Orelli in 1849, he joined Baiter in completing the second edition 
of the whole of Cicero'. Meanwhile, he had begun the preparation 
of the first edition of seven Select Speeches with German notes 
(1850-66), followed by a text of eighteen (1868). He also 
published a critical edition of the Rhdores Lalini Minora and 
of the Institutio Oratorio of Quintilian. He further edited 
Tacitus and Florus, Valerius Maximus, Cornelius Nepos and 
Velleius Paterculus. In connexion with the Vienna Corpus of 
the Latin Fathers, he examined the Swiss mss, and himself edited 
Sulpicius Severus, Minucius Felix, and Julius Firmicus Matemus. 
To the Monumenta Germaniae Hiiforica he contributed an edition 
of Salvianus and of Victor Vitensis. 

His previous work on Greek authors was resumed in his Aesop, 
and in his papers on the Rhetoric of Anaximenes and the minor 
works of Plutarch. To the History of Scholarship he contributed 
many biographies of German scholars*. As librarian, he organised 
the preparation of the great Catalogue of mss, and himself took 
part in the Catalogue of the Latin mss. 

His early career had been a noble example of triumphing over 
difficulties. The son of an art dealer, he lost his father as an 
infant, and had only passed through the lower divisions of his 
school, when he was sternly compelled by his step-father to enter 
a grocer's shop, where he had to work from six in the morning till 
nine in the evening, and could only read his favourite Classics in 
the dead of night. He was only released from this drudgery on 

' Speeches, 1854-6; PhUosophical Works, 1861. 



promising that, as soon as he had completed his education at 
school, he would maintain himself. It was during the two quiet 
years at Hadamar (1S47-9) that he had the leisure for preparing 
his edition of the speeches and philosophical works of Cicero. It 
was not until he had reached the age of 70, that he resigned his 
professorship '. 

The criticism of Latin authors, as well as Latin Inscriptions, 
Roman Antiquities and Roman History, formed part 
of the wide field of learning traversed by Theodor MomnnVn 
Mommsen (1817 — 1903). Born in the province of 
Schleswig and educated at Altona, he studied law and philology 
at Kiel, travelled in Italy and France from 1845 to 1847, and 
was appointed 'extraordinary' professor of I_aw at Leipzig in 
1848. The part that he played in the political movements of the 
time led to his being exiled from Saxony in 1850. Together 
with Jahn and Haupt, he left for Zurich, where he held a 
professorship for an interval of two years (r852-4). On his 
return to Germany, the four years of his professorship at Breslau 
(1854-8) were followed by his call to Berlin, where he was 
professor of Ancient History and a member of the Academy for 
the remaining forty-five years of his life. 

In the field of I-^tin literature, Mommsen did much for the 
study of manuscript evidence. He transcribed the palimpsest 
of part of Livy discovered by Mai at Verona, and edited 
Books III — VI with the readings of other important mss'. In 
conjunction with Studemund, he contributed to the textual 
criticism of the third decade in the Analecta Liviana of 1873. 
His edition of Solinus had meanwhile appeared in 1864'. Those 
of Cassiodorus', lordanes', and the Chronica Minora^, were con- 
tributed to the Monummta Germaniae Hutoriia. He produced 
important papers on Cluvius Rufus as an authority for the early 
part of the Histories of Tacitus', on the Life of the Younger 
Pliny' (with the historical index to Keil's lai^er edition), and 

' Butsian, ii 949 — 951, and in Biogr. fahrb. 1881, i — 6; bibliogfaphy in 
Wolfflin's Gtddchlnissrtde, i88j, 33 f. 

' Berlin Acad. :868. ' E<1. 1, 1895. 

* Ckron. 1861; Varia, 1894. ' 1881. ' 1891—1898. 

' Hermts, iv 395 f. * i*. a\ 31—139 (Hist. Schrift. i 366—468). 



on the chronology of the Letters of Fronto', besides many 
contributions to the Transactions of the Academies of Saxony 

and of Berlin". His important works connected with Latin 
Inscriptions and Antiquities and History will be mentioned on a 
later page'. 

The Commentary of Asconius on Five Speeches of Cicero was edited in 
187s by Adolph Kiessling*, in conjunction with Rudolf Scholl 
■ ' (1844—1893, son of Adolf Scholl of Weimar), who studied 

at Goltingen and Bonn, and held professorships al Greifswald, Jena, Strasstmrg, 
and Munich. I^le was specially interested in the Public Law of Athens and 
of Rome. His earliest work was a Dissertation on the Laws of the XII Tables. 
His edition of the ATozielliu, begun in 1880, was compUled byW. Kroli (1895). 
To the volume in honour of Mommsen he contributed a paper on certain 
extraordinary magistracies al Athens, and other pa|>ers on the Public Antiquities 
of Athens were among his later works. At the time of his death he had made 
extensive preparations for a new edition of Phrynichus''. 

The textual criticism of Cicero's Letters 'Ad Familiares' was much ad- 
varvced by the critical edition published in [S93 by Ludwig 
Mendelssohn (1851 — 1896), who studied under Sauppe and 
C- Wachsmuth at Gollingcn and nnder Ritschl al Leipzig. His earl; trori 
was connected with the literary chronology of Eratosdienes, and the Roman 
decrees quoted by Josepbus. After qualifying as a teacher in Leipzig, he 
visited Italy with a view to collating Mss of Cicero's Letters and of Appian 
and Arisleas. His edition of Appian was the first to mark a real advance on 
that of Schweighanser ; he also edited llerodian and Zosimus. His edition of 
the Letter of Aristeas, a document of importance in connexion with the 
history of the Septuagint, was completed by Wendland ; and the materials he 
had collected on the subject of the Sibylline Oracles were handed over to 
Hamack. His most successful work was his edition of Cicero's Letters, in 
which a new weight was assigned to the evidence of MSS other than the 
Medicean. The last twenty years of his life were spent at the Russian uni- 
versity of Dorpat. The decline of German influence in that university cast a 
gloom over his later years, and he was hoping to transfer bis home to Jen*, 
when he met his end in the waters of the Embach at the early age of 44^ 

For the textual criticism of the Latin historians and 

grammarians much was done by Martin Hertz 

(1818 — 1895), who was born in Hamburg, and 

educated in Berlin. After studying under Welcker at Bonn, he 

' ib. viii 198 f, * Bursian, ii 951-4. 

' p. 235- * P- l85™/ra. 

» Siagr, Jahrb. 1897, 9—40. 
• Goetz in Biegr. Jahrb. 1898, 49—60. 



returned to Berlin, and worked under Boeckh and Lachmann. 
He was a ' privat-docent ' in that university in 1845, went 
abroad to examine Mss for his editions of Gellius, Ptiscian, and 
the scholia to Germanicus, until 1847; and was professor at 
Greifewald from 1855, and at Breslau from 1858 to his death, 
thirty-seven years later. 

He produced the standard edition of Priscian in 1855-9; he 
also edited a text of Gellius, prior to his great critical edition 
of 1883-5, Meanwhile he had edited Livy. He also wrote 
papers on the grammarians, Sinnius Capito and Nigidius Figulus, 
and on the annalist, Lucius Cincius, and his namesake, besides 
delivering popular lectures on ' Writers and the Public in Rome ', 
and on ' Renaissance and Rococo in Latin Literature ', a subject 
suggested by his study of Gellius, 

After completing his edition of that author and collecting his 
Opuicula Gtlliana (1886), he returned to the literature of the 
golden age. . He had contributed to the criticism of Cicero, pro 
Seslio, had traced reminiscences of Sallust' (and of Gellius*) in 
the pages of Ammianus Marcellinus, and (in his Anaketa) had 
followed the traces of the study of Horace down to the sixth 
century. In 1892 he edited Horace with short critical notes, 
including much that was not to be found elsewhere. Georges 
dedicated the seventh edition of his Latin lexicon to Hertz, who 
had contributed to its pages. From 185S, when the proposal for 
a Thesaurus of the Latin language was first made at Vienna, 
Hertz never left the scheme out of sight, but it was not until 
he was president of the Congress at Gorlitz, that he publicly 
proposed that such a work should be undertaken by the German 
Academies. A conference followed in 1890, and in the following 
year Hertz drew up the report'. 

His interest in archaeology at Greifswald may be traced to 
the influence of Welcker; his lectures on the general scheme 
of classical learning' to that of Boeckh. Similarly his interest 
in the Roman historians was due to Niebuhr, and that in the 

' 1874. " Opmi. GelUana. 

' BerichU n\ Berlin Acad. 1891,671—684. 

* Cp. his paper Zur Eruydepddie der PhilologU in the Mommsen Comm. 
507-517 {1877). 



Latin grammarians to Lachmann. His bic^aphy of Lachmann 
is a masterpiece of its kind {1851); he also wrote several articles 
on Boeckh, and gave an excellent lecture on the early humanist, 
Eobanus Hessus. His work was marked by minute and con- 
scientiotis accuracy ; and, in his own person, he was characterised 
by a strong sense of justice towards others, and an exemplary 
mildness of manner, even towards his opponents. He will be 
remembered as the erudite editor of Priscian and of Gelliiis, 
and as the unwearied promoter of the scheme for the Thesaurus 
Linguae Latinae^. 

Sallust was edited in a cumbersome form in 18*3-31 ''7 ^ •^- Getlach 

('793— '876), professor and librarian a1 Basel, who also 
3«lluit° edited Nonius in 1S41 in conjunction with his colleague, 

Karl L. Roth (1811— iSlSo). The historian's diction was 
specially studied in the editions of J. F. Krili, a school-master at Erfurt 
{i79»— 1869), and E. W. Fabri (1796— 184s). In that produced by 
K. H. Frolscher, the head-master of Freiberg (1796—1876), the test was 
taken from Kortte and the notes from Havercamp, The Mss were discussed 
by K. L. Roth, and a critical edition published in 1859 ''X ^- l^ietsch (1814 — 
1875), head-master of Grimma. 

A critical edition of greater importance was produced in 186G (ed. I, l8;6) 
I . by Henri Jordan (1833 — 1886), a professor at Konigsberg, who 

had been a pupil of Haupt in Berlin and of Ritschl at Bonn, 
and was a friend and ally of Mommsen, and a son-in-law of Dioysen. He 
also edited the historical and oratorical wnrksof the elder Calo, with 109 pages 
of Prolegomena (i86o). He visited Rome for the first time in 1861, and 
produced several valuable works on Roman topc^aphy (1871 — 86), and on 
the ancient religion of Rome, as well as critical conliibutions to the history of 
(he Latin language (1879). In 1864 he published a critical edition of the 
Siriptons Histuriae Augiis(ai, the first that had appeared in Germany for 

76 years*. The joint editor of this work was Franz 

Eyssenhardt (1838 — 1901), who (like Jordan) had been bom 
in Berlin and had studied under Boeckb and Haupt. In i866-;i Eyssentiardt 
edited Martianus Capella, Phaedrus, Macrobius, Apuleius, the Historia 
Miialla. and Ammianus Marcellinus. After completing these editions, he 
devoted much of his lime to studies in the history of civilisation. He had a 
remarkably ready pen. Two of his popular lectures were on Homeric poetry, 
and on Hadrian and Florus. He also wrote a biographical Essay of 186 pages 

' Biogr.Jahrb. rgoo, 43—70; cp- Bursian, ii 955 f; Tkes. J p. iii, 'causae 
ancipili ac situ quodam pressae sua contentione et commendatione favorem 

■ Biogr. fakrb. 1886, 117 — 149 (with biblit^raphy). 



on Niebuhr. He spoke seven languages Huenllj', and travelled widely, 
especially delighting in his visits to Italy, but also extending his joumeys 
as lar as Scotland, while he kept up a constant correspondence with Lucian 
Mullet in St Fetersbu^'. 

Commentaries on Caesar (1S47), Nepos (1S49), and Tacitus (1851), were 
published by Karl Ludwig Nipperdey (1811 — 1875)1 who was 
a professor *al Jena in 1855 ; an acute critic, who had a fine k^JJJ^''' 
taste in Latin prose, and gave proof of his familiarity mlh Dobereni 
Roman Antiquities by his treatise on the Ltget Anitales\ 
Caesar, De Belle GaUice, and De Bella Civili, were edited with German notes 
by Friedrich Kraner (i8ii — 1863), Rector at Leipiig, and by Altierl Dobereni 
(181 1 — 1878), Director of '^t gymHosium at Hildburghausen. 

Materials for the textual criticism of Livy were supplied in 1859-46 
by the editions of Books t — x, xxi— xxiii, and xxx by s \. r ■\,' 
K. F. S. Alschefski (1805—1851). A higher critical faculty K^J^.tig 
was displayed in the complete edition of J. G. Kreyssig WeiBsenborn 
('779 — '854)t a master at the Saxon School of Meissen. 
The best commentary with German notes was that first published in 1S50-1 
by Wilhelm Wcissenborn (1803—1878), for more than forty-three years a 
master at Eisenach* The Syntax of Livy was laboriously set forth in 1871 
by Ludwig Kuhnast (181,^—1871), a school-master at Marienwerder- 

Tacitus was edited, not only by Orelti, Halm, and Nipperdey, but also, in 
and after 1834-6, by Franz Ritter (1803 — 1875), for many 
years professor in Bonn, who produced editions of Horace ^'??*' 

(1856-7) and of Aristotle's treatise on Poetry (tSjg). The Hereeus 

Annals and Agricola were edited in 1868-g with German 
notes by A- A- Diager (iSio — rSgs), who studied at Leipzig, and was 
Director of the gymnasium at Aurich. He was also the author of a useful 
work on the 'Syntax and Style of Tacitus', followed by a comprehensive 
volume on the 'Historical Syntax of the Latin language''. Among good 
editions with German notes may be mentioned chat of the Hislories by 
Karl Heraeus (r8i8— 1891), who studied at Marburg and Gottingen, and 
was for the last thirty-four years of his life a master at the Westphaliaji 
Gymnasium of Hamm"; the Dialogui by G. Andiesen ; the Agricola by 
F. K. Wex (1801—1865), F- Krilz, and Karl Peter. Critical texts of the 
Agricela were produced by K. L. Urliclis, and of the Dialcgut by Adolf 
Michaelis. The Gemiania was edited by Milllenhoff, Schweiier-Sidlet, 
A. Baumstark,and A- Holder. The LtxUon rof('/«<m {1830) of W. Boetticher 
(A. 1850) has been superseded by the exhaustive work of A. Gerber of Glilck- 
stadt and A. Greef of Gottingen {'903). — Of the other historians, Curlius was 

' Biogr. Jakrb. 1901, 100 — 137 (with bibliography). Cp. Bursian, ii 958 f. 

' Abhandl. of Saxon Acad. v. Cp. Bursian, ii 761. 

» Biogr. Jakrb. i8;8, 33—38. * Biogr.Jakrb. \%t^, 91-4. 



edited bj E. Hedicke and Tb. Vogel ; Justin by Jeep; and Eulropius by 
W, Haitel and Hans Droysen^. The more important worlts on Cicero and 
t^intitiaa have been already mentioned'. 

Amonj; the above-mentioned editors of the Germaaia of Tacitus aplace of 
special honour a due to Heiniich Schweizer-Sidler (1S15 — 

Sidler ' '^94)' *''° studied at Zurich and Berlin. For forty of the 
more than (illy years of his work at Zurich, he taught at the 
local school as well as at the university. He had studied Sanskrit under Bopp, 
and he was frequently visited by Muir and by Henry Nettleship. His Latin 
Grammar of 1869 was recast in r888, and attained a wide recognition. Hia 
study of German Antiquities led him to lecture on the Gtrniania, which he 
repeatedly edited with Gertnan notes. He also prepared an elaborate revision 
of Orelli's edition of the treatise'. 

The discovery and collation of the Bamberg MS of the elder Pliny in i8s»» 
by Ludwig von Jan (1807— 1869), then master at Schweinfurt and ultimately 
Reclor al Erlangen, had an important influence on Sling's edition of 1853-5. 
The criticism and explanation of Pliny were afterwards pro- 
■' " ' moled by Karl Ludwig von Urlichs (1813-1889), a native of 

OsnabrUck, who was educated at Aachen, and studied under Welcker at Bonn 
(1819-34). After spending live years in Rome, as tutor in Bunsen's house, 
and doing much for the study of Roman topography', he returned to Bonn in 
1840, remaining there until his call to Greifswald in 1 847. In the same year 
he visited the British Museum, and there discovered an important aneaioUn on 
the literary activity of Varro'; was in the Prussian Parliament from 1849 to 
185J, and professor at WUrzhui^ from 1855 to his death, thirty-four years 

From 1847 to 1S55 he was mainly occupied with Pliny and the History of 
Ancient Art. This wort bore fruit in his Vindiciae Pliniamu (1853-66), his 
Chrtslomalhia Pliniana (1857) and his conspectus of the authorities for the 
books of Pliny on the History of Art (1878)'. The text of Pliny was edited 
in 1860-73 ^1 ^- Detlefsen ; and von Jan's edition of 1854-65 has been 
edited anew by C. Mayhoff in t875-i9o6. 

The best editions of the text of the younger Pliny were those produced in 

„ 1853 and 1870 by Heinrich Keil (1831—1894), "•>" studied 

at Gottingen and Bonn, and spent two years in Italy (1844-6), 

taught at Halle (1847-55) and Berlin (1855-9), ^i"! was appointed professor in 

1859 at Erlangen and 1869 at Halle, where he resided for the remaining 

twenty-five years of his life. His earliest work was his critique on Properlius 

' Bursian, ii 964 f. ' p. '95 f. 

' Biagr. Jahrb. 1898,96—13]. 

' He took part in the Beichreibung, and published the codex urbis Roniae 
tofi^grafiinis {iSti}, etc. 

' Ritschl's Ofuse. iii 411 f. 

' Wecklein in Bicgi: Jakrh. 1893, 1 — 15, and H. L. Urlichs in Pref. to 
Iwin Mtitler's Handbuch, i (1891). 



(1843), followed by his texts of 1850 and 1867, During his slay in Italy, and 
in France (1851). he collated many mss for his friends and for himself; he 
supplied Merkel with the scholia to Apolloniua Rhodius, and O. Schneider 
with those on Nicander, and his collations, though less extensive than those 
of Bekker, were more accurate. At Halle Tie edited the Commentary of 
Probui on the Eileguii and Georgia. His vast edition of the Grammaiici 
Latini was published in 1857-80, five of the seven volumes being edited by 
himself, and the two volumes of Prrscian by Herli. Of his other works the 
most Important were his elaborate editions of the agricultural works of Cato 
andVarro (1884-94), with Tenbner texts of both (1889 and 1895)'. 

Vilruvius was edited, in 1867, by Valentin Rose and Hennann MUller- 
Strilbing' on the basis of the MS of the ninth century collated by the latter in 
the British Museum. An Index was produced in 1876 by Kohl. 

Among modern Latin lexicographers a place of honour must be reserved 
for Karl Ernst Georges (1806—1895), who Spent nearly the 
whole of his life at Gotha. It was originally intended that he 
should succeed his father as chief-glazier to the local Coart, aitd he was even 
removed from school for that purpose ; but, at his earnest entreaty, he was 
allowed to continue under the tuition of Doering and Wuestemann, and the 
fiammarian and leucographer, V. C. F. Kost. Being la delicate health, he 
was sent for a change of air to Noidhausen, where he received mach 
encouragement from the lexicographer, Kraft. He afterwards studied at 
Gottingen and Leipzig, where he helped in revising a new edition of Scheller. 
His German-Latin lexicon was completed in 1833' and accepted at Jena in 
lieu of a dissertation for his degree. In 1E39-56 he was one of the higher 
masters at Gotha, but a weakness of eyesight, and a desire for further leisure, 
led to his retiring on a pension, and devoting all his time to his lexicc^aphical 

The series of excellent Latin-German lexicons had been begun by that of 
Scheller (1783). On the death of Luenemann in 1830, the preparation of a 
new edition of Scheller was taken over by Georges, whose name appears on 
the litle-page of the edition of 1837. Of the seventh edition in two volumes, 
filling 6,088 columns, 15,000 copies were printed in and after 1879. This work 
was confessedly founded on those of Gesner, Foreellini, and Scheller, as well 
as on his own extensive collections. It was warmly eulogised by Wdlfflin, the 
editor of the Arckiv and the otganiser of the new T/usaums; and, on the 
completion of 60 years of lexicographical labour in 1888, the indomitable 
veteran was congratulated by English scholars in the following terms :— 

' Id scilicet laudamus in Lexieo luo Latino, multo labore et adversa 
interdum valetudine condito, quod artem ita adhlbutsti criticam, ut 
inter omnia huiusmodi opera linguae Latinae studiosis sit utilissimum'*. 



Geor^s also b^an a Titiaurus, conlioued by MUhlmann down 10 the 
letter K. In his later years, when his sight began to fail, he prepared a 
useful lexicon of Latin Word.forms (1890). By 1891 six editions of his small 
Latin-German and German-Latin SanduiarUrhuih, and five of the corre- 
sponding Schuhwrlerbttck, had been published. His German-Latin lexicon 
was the foundation of the English- Latin work of Riddle and Arnold- lie 
was a constant correspondent of scholars in England, as well as France and 
Germany, and liberally placed his stores of Uaming at the service of others. 
His little world was his library, enriched with a complete set of the Corput 
Inscripttonum Lalinarum presented by the publishers, and adorned with 
portraits of his fellow-labourers in the field of Latin lexici^raphy. His small 
and neat round hand resembled that of Fr. Jacobs. Even bodily pain never 
prevented him from going quietly on with his life-long work. It was only in 
his biogiaphical notice of Wuestemann and in a Latin Gnomolegia that he 
deserted the domain of Latin lexic<%raphy '■ 

In connexion with Latin lexicography, two names may here be added. 
Karl von Paucker (1810—1883) "as the author of the 

RSnic" Addenda Uxkis Laixnis, b^un in 1871- After studying at 

Dorpat and Berlin, he returned to the former univeraily as 
professor in 1861. Towards the close of his life he began to collect his 
scattered lexicographical papers in a comprehensive volume of Supfileaitnta, 
which was unfortunately left unfinished'. His Viirarbtilfn for the history of 
the Latin language were, however, published soon after his death by Hermann 
Riinsch (1811— i888t, the learned author nMttda and Vatgatd'. 

' R. Ehwald in Btogr. Jakrb. 1896, I43— 150; Wiilfflin's Archiv, 1895, 
6i3fi G. Schneider in ///. Ztitung, 1897, lagf. In 1880 he gratefully ac- 
cepted Prof. Mayor's dedication of his ed. of Book iii of Pliny's Letlets, stni 
indefasB, Latirtai linguat lexkographsrum quolguot kodic vivutit Nestari. 

* Ronsch in Biogr. Jahrb. 1883, 93 — 96. 

» 1869 i ed. 1, 18JS ; ib. 1889, IS9— 17-4- 




V*'*v»^ //f./ ■*^y^/? 

Franz Bofp. 
1 the fronlis[iieee of the Life by Lefmann (Reimer, Berlin, 1891)- 

[To face p. 505 "/ l^"'- ■///■ 




The founder of the comparative study of language in Germany 
was Franz Bopp (1791— 1867). Born at Mainz, and 
educated at Aschaffenburg, he hved in Paris from 
r8i2 to 1815, studying Arabic and Persian under Silvestre de 
Sacy, and teaching himself Sanskrit with the help of the Grammars 
of Carey (1806) and Wiikins {1808), and the translation of the 
Bhagavadgita by the latter, and that of the R&m&yana by the 
former. In the university of BerUn he was an 'extraordinary 
professor' in 1821, and full professor for the last forty-two years 
of his life'. From the publication of his earliest work on the 
comparison of the conjugational system of Sanskrit with that 
of Greek, Latin, Persian, and German (1816) to the very end 
of his career, he was engaged in the unremitting endeavour to 
explain the origin of the grammatical forms of the Indo-Germanic 
languages. This was the main object of his 'Comparative 
Grammar' (1833). But his endeavours were regarded with in- 
difference or distrust by the leading scholars and grammarians, 
such as Hermann' and Lobeck'. The method and the results 
of comparative philology were also attacked, with more wit than 
wisdom, by the Greek archaeologist, Ludwig Ross*. This lack of 
appreciation was not so much due to any limitation of vision on 
t^he part of the scholars of the day, or to an excess of conservatism, 
or a contempt for their contemporaries. It was mainly prompted 
by the uncertain and tentative methods of the earlier pioneers, 
by their imperfect knowledge of the languages with which they 

' Lefmanr, F, B., sein Lehen u. stint iVinenscha/l {Berlin, 1891-6}. 

" Prcf. 10 Ada Soc. Graaae, quoted in vol. i p. 11 n. 5. 

* Pref. lo Pathol, p. vii ; but even Lobeck would have been ready to 
study Comparative Philolt^, had life been long enough foi the purpose 
{ParaUp. ,,7). 

' Italiker und Graikta ([858 f.). 



were concerned, and by their indifference to the rules of classical 
syntax. This distrust has, however, passed away. Its departure 
is due to the labours of those who have taken up the science 
created by Bopp, supported by Jacob Grimm', and developed 
by Pott' and Kuhn' and Schleicher' and others, and who have 
applied its method to Greek and Latin, and have thereby laid a 
sure foundation for the new fabric of the Etymology of those 

Foremostamong these was TheodorBenfey (1809 — 188 1), whose 
father, a Jewish merchant in the kingdom of Hanover, 
taught him the Talmud and aroused in bim an interest 
for language. It was at Frankfurt that the son prepared a trans- 
lation of Terence, and also (under the influence of Foley) devoted 
himself to the study of Sanskrit. In 181 7 he settled at Gottingen, 
and, with the exception of a year at Munich (1827-8), he there 
abode for the remaining sixty-four years of his life. In 1848 he 
left his ancestral faith for that of Christianity, and was in the same 
year appointed to a poorly paid 'extraordinary' professorship; it 
was only for his last nineteen years that he was a full professor. 

In the introduction to his 'lexicon of Greek roots', which 
was the first scientific treatment of Greek Etymology (1839-42), 
he drew up a scheme for a series of works treating of Greek 
Grammar in the light of Comparative Philology, but this scheme 
was never carried out. Its author devoted most of his subsequent 
career to the study of Sanskrit Grammar, and to researches in 
the Vedas. He, however, published many articles on subjects 
connected with Greek and Latin Grammar in the Transactions 
of the Gottingen Academy, and in his quarterly review, Orient 
und Occident (1861-6). His principal works were an edition of 
the Sdmaveda (1848), a complete Sanskrit Grammar (1852), the 

' 'German Gramnutr', iSig'-ii*. On Rask and Veraer, see chap, xxxviii. 

' ' Eljmoli^cal Investigalions', 1833-6. 

" On Adalbert Kuhn ([811—1881), cp. Biegr.Jahrh. 1881, 48—63. 

* p. 109 infra. Cp-, in general, P. Giles, Manual of Comparative Phile- 
'''!?>■ (i8!)s)§§ 39-44- 

' Bursian, ii 971 f. Cp. Delbriick, Einltitung in das SfrachstuditiTH, 
cap. i ; Benfejr, Gisch. der Sprackuiissensckafl, 370-9, 470—515 ; and TJiow- 
sen's Spregvidenskabtns Hislnrii (Copenhagen, 1901); a brief sketch in J. M. 
Edmonds' Comparative PMlohgy (Cambridge, 1906), 189 — joa 




Fanischaiantra (1859), and the History of the study of language 
and of oriental philology in Geraiany {1869)'. 

Benfey's pupil, Leo Meyer (b. 1830), on his appointment as 
professor of Comparative Philology at Dorpat in 
1865, had just completed the second volume of his 
Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin*, dealing only with the 
doctrine of sounds and the formation of words. Meanwhile, he 
had published a brief comparison between the Greek and Latin 
declensions (1853). His Grammar remained unfinished, but he 
investigated the Greek aorist {1879), and published a number of 
minor papers on the diction of Homer*. He has since resided as 
an honorary professor at GOttingen. 

The recognition of the comparative method among Greek and 
Latin scholars and school-masters was mainly due 
to Georg Curtius (1820 — 1885), the younger brother 
of the historian of Greece. Bom and bred at Liibeck, he studied 
at Bonn and Berlin, and, after spending four years as a master 
at Dresden, and three as a ' privat-docent ' in Berhn, he was 
professor for five years at Prag, for eight at Kiel, and, for the 
remaining twenty-four years of his life, at Leipzig. In his 
inaugural lecture at this university he stated tfiat it was his pur- 
pose, as professor, to bring Classical Philology and the Science 
of Language into closer relation with each other*. His zeal 
and success in carrying out this purpose were attested, not only 
by his own works, but also by the ten volumes of ' Studies ' on 
Greek and Latin Grammar produced by his pupils {1868-78), by 
the papers connected with the Science of Language published in 
his honour in 1874, and by the five volumes of 'Leipzig Studies', 
edited by himself and three other professors in 1878-82. The 
principal works produced by himself were his 'Greek Grammar for 
Schools' (1852), his 'Principles of Greek Etymology' (1858-62), 
and his treatise on the 'Greek Verb' {1873-6). The first of 
these was published at Frag, while Curtius was a professor in 

' Bezienberger in Biogr. yahrb. 1881, 103—107 ; Delbrtlck, 36; Bursian, 

' 1 vols., 1861-S ; ed. » of vol. i, in two parts, 1170 pp., 18S1-4 ; Benfey, 
591. ' Bursian, ii 97s f. 

* Philoiegit und Sfrathiuiisttischafl, 1861 (also in A7. S^hr. i) ; cp. Die 
SpTochvtr^eichung I'lt tArtm Vtrhdllitiss lur cl. FhHalagit (i848>), E. T. 
Oxford, 1851. 1^ i,^ iiA.OOQlC 


that university. It was primarily intended for use in the Austrian 
schools, then in course of reorganisation under the guidance 
of Bonitz, and, notwithstanding the bitter and violent opposition 
of K. W, Kriiger', it was widely accepted in the schools of 
Germany', It was followed by a volume of 'Elucidations' for 
the use of teachers'. His early work on 'Greek and Latin 
Tenses and Moods in the light of Comparative Grammar' (1846) 
was the precursor of his important work on the 'Greek Verb". 
His 'Principles of Greek Etymology' reached a fifth edition in 
1879°. The first Book contains an introductory statement on 
the principles, and the main questions, of Greek Etymol<^ ; the 
second deals with the regular representation of Indo-Germanic 
sounds in Greek, exemplified by a conspectus of words or groups 
of words arranged according to their sounds ; and the third 
investigates the irregular or sporadic changes'. . ' Curtius was not 
a student of language, availing himself of the aid of Latin and 
Greek to attack the general questions of linguistics, but a classical 
scholar studying the languages of Greece and Rome in the 
light of comparative philology". 

The leading representative of the study of language in its 
psychologiml A%^&X was H. Steinthal (1823 — 1899), 
who studied in Berlin (1843-7) ^^^ Paris (1852-5), 
and was professor of the Science of Language in Bertin from 
1863 to his death. He wrote on the origin of language", the 
classification of languages', the developement of writing; also a 
work on grammar, If^ic, and psychology, their principles and 
their mutual relations (1855), which was expanded in his Intro- 
duction to the Psychology of the Science of Language (1871); 
and lastly, a History of the Science of Language among the 
Greeks and Romans, with special reference to Logic". 

' p. 119 ja/ra. ' Ed. 11 (Gerlh); E. T. 186;. 

' 1863 ; E. T. 1870. * E. T., Wilkin3 and England, :88o. 

» E. T., Wilkins and England, 1875-6; ed. 1, 1886. 

' Bursian, ii 975-8 ; cp. Angennann in Beizenberger's Bcilragt, x ; 
E. Curtius in vol. i of his btolhei's Kleine Schrtflen ; and Windisch in Biogr, 
Jahtb. 1886, 75—118 : also E>elbruck, 39 f. 

' Wilkins in Class. Rev. i 163. 

' 1851 ; ed. 3. 1877. 

» 1850; ed. 1, i860; cp. Benfey, 787 f, 

'" 1863 ; ed. 1, 1890-1 ; cp. Bursian, ii 980. ,-, , 



August Schleicher {1821 — 1868), who was born at Meiningen 
and educated at Cobuig, studied Theology at 
Leipzig and Tubingen, and Philology under Ritschl 
at Bonn. In 1845 he became ' privat-docent ' at Bonn, in 1850 
extraordinary professor in Prag, and in 1857 honorary professor at 
Jena, where he died in 1868. In his ' Compendium of the Com- 
parative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic languages", he stated the 
results of all the recent investigations on the vocal changes in a 
series of 'laws of sound". 'With all his wide linguistic attain- 
ments', he was not a classical scholar, either in the first or even in 
the second place. ' He was at heart a Darwinian botanist, who 
handled language as if it were the subject-matter of natural and 
not of historical science". 

The series of Indo-Germanic Grammars, published by Breitkopf 
and Hartel in Leipzig, included a volume on the physiology of 
sound by Eduard Sievers (1876)', an Introduction to the history and 
method of the comparative study of language by Delbriick (1880), 
and a Greek Grammar (1880) by Gustav Meyer (1850 — 1900)°. 
A Latin Grammar has been produced by Sommer (Heidelberg). 

' The physiology of sound does not suffice to enable us to 
attain a clear conception of the work of man in the 
province of speech.. ..We need a science that takes Grtmmariiiin 
c(^nizance of the psychic factors, which enter into 
the innumerable movements and changes of sound, and also into 
all the workings of analogy'. Such is part of the programme of 
the New Grammarians, as it is unfolded by its most active repre- 
sentatives Hermann OstholT of Heidelberg, and Karl Brugmann 
of Leipzig". The outline of such a science had been already 
drawn in Steinthal's Essay on assimilation and attraction in their 
psychological aspects'. Other representatives of the New School 
are August Leskien' of Leipzig and Hermann Paul' of Munich. 
■ i86[ ; ed. *, 1866; E.T. 

* Bunian,ii9;8f; BenfeyiSSyf; Lefmann'siiiW (1870); Delbriick, 41-56. 
' Wilkins, in CI. Rev- i ^63. ' Ed. 4, 1893 {Grumhuge der Fhenelik). 
° Biegr. Jakrb. 1901, I — 6. 

' Osthofl and Brugmann, pref. lo Morphcl. Untersuchungen, i {1878). 

' ZeUschr.fiir Vdlterfsycholagit, i 93 f. 

' Dtcl. im Slavistk-Ulauischm u. Gtrmatihehen (1876). 

* Printifitn der Sprachgtiehicku (1880 etc.). 

S. III. h, l-rll>,(b4(.")0<^IC 


The principles of this school are (i) that all changes of sound, 
so far as they are mechanical, are under the operation of laws 
that admit of no exception^ and (2) that the principle of analogy, 
which plays an important part in the life of modern languages, 
must be unreservedly recognised as having been at work from 
the very earhest times. 

The first of these principles has been opposed by the later 
followers of Benfey, especially in the periodical 
edited by A. Bezzenberger of Konigsberg'. — One 
of the representatives of the New School, August Fick, formerly 
professor at Breslau, and the author of a 'Comparative Dictionary 
of the Indo-Germanic languages", produced an excellent work on 
the formation of Greek names of persons (1894), showing that 
originally all names of persons among the Indo-Germanic peoples 
were compound words formed from two roots, and that from 
these compound words names including a single root were formed 
either from the first or the second of the two elements. The 
names thus resulting were Kosen-namen, or 'names of endearment". 
The principles of the New School are set forth in H. Paul's 
'Principles of the History of Language", and far more fully in 
Karl Brugmann's ' Grundriss of the Comparative Grammar of the 
Indo-Germanic Languages". An estimate of the movement has 
been given in the above-mentioned 'Introduction' by B. Delbrijck, 
the author of a 'Comparative Syntax of the Indo-Germanic 
Languages' {1893 ()■ 

Among the workers in this field who have already passed 
away was Ludwig Lange (1825 — 1885), professor at 
Leipzig from 1871'. Twenty years previously he 
had given a lecture at Gottingen, in which he had insisted on the 
importance of the historic method of investigation, and had 
illustrated it by the use of the prepositions in Sanskrit and 

' Beilragt sur Kunde der indegerm. Sprackcn. 

' 1870-1; ed. 3, 1874-6; ed. 4, 1891 f. ' Bursion, ii 999. 

* Eng. adaptalion by H. A. Strong, 1888. See also Paul's Grundriss, i 
(:89i etc.). 

» i886f {E.T. i888r); ed. 1, i89;fi 'Short Comparative Grammar', 1904. 

" Biogr. Jahrb. 1886, 31—61, 

' Bursian, ii looi. 



The first to attempt to set forth the history of sounds in 
Latin, in the light of the new science of language, was 

Albert Agathon Benary {1807 — 1860)'. Abundant 
materials for the historic grammar of the Latin language wer^ 
subsequently supplied by the researches of RitschI, Mommsen 
and others, on Plautus, on the early Roman inscriptions, and on 
the remains of the old Italic languages. These materials were 
applied with considerable acumen and independence, and with 
constant regard to the results of the comparative study of 
language, in the investigation of the changes of the Latin con- 
sonants and vowels by Wilhelm .Corssen (1820 — 
1875). Bom at Bremen, he studied in Berlin 
{1840-4), and was a master at Schulpforta {1846-66), living after- 
wards in Berlin, and, from 1870, in Rome. His principal work 
was on the ' Pronunciation, Vocalisation, and Accentuation of 
the I^tin language", a work dealing with the orthography, pro- 
nunciation, and prosody of Latin in connexion with the old 
Italic dialects, and in the light of comparative philology'. It 
was partly supplemented by the work on the vocalisation of 
vulgar Latin published in 1866-8 by Hugo Schuchardt (b. 1842), 
formerly professor at Graz. 

The general results of Comparative Philology were incorporated 
in Kiihner's larger Latin Grammar, and, more systematically, by 
Heinrich Schweizer-Sidler*, in his outline of the elements and 
forms of I-atin for schools {1869), and by Alois Vanicek (1825 — 
1883)', formerly professor at Prag, in his elementary Latin 
Grammar (1873), and his Etymological Dictionary of the Latin 
language (1874), followed by his Greek and Latin Etymological 
Dictionary (1877). A Comparative Dictionary of Latin, Greek, 
Sanskrit, and German, published at Vienna in 1873 by Sebastian 
Zehetmayr, was expanded in 1879 into a comprehensive etymo- 
logical Dictionary of all the Indo-Germanic languages*. A Greek 
Etymolf^cal Dictionary has since been published by Prellwitz'. 

' Die rSmische Lauthhre, tprathvergleichind dargistelll CEttyva, 1837). 
' 1858-9 ; ed. 2, 1868 — 70. For his oiher works, see p. 141 f siipra. 
' On Corssen, cp. Ascoli's Kritkche SludUn, p. ix (Delbrilck, 41). 
* p. 101 sttpra. ' Bisi^. "Jahrb. :884, jfif. 

' Bursian, ii 1003-6. ' GStlingen, ed. 1, 1905. 

Karl Otfried Muller. 
a drawing by Ternile lilhographed by WUdt. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 



Down to the time of Winckelmann and Heyne the in- 
vestigation of the political, social, religious, and 
artistic life of the ancients had occupied a subordi- muiim™ 
nate position in comparison with the study of the 
Greek and Latin languages. The new impulse then .given had 
been carried forward by Niebuhr' and by Boeckh', while, among 
their immediate successors, the most brilliant and versatile, and 
the most widely influential, was Karl Otfried' Miiller (i 797—1840). 
Bom at the Silesian town of Brieg, he studied at Breslau, where 
the perusal of Niebuhr's ' History of Rome ' prompted him to 
concentrate his enei^ies on historical subjects. In Berlin, under 
the influence of Boeckh {1816-7), he acquired a new interest in the 
history of Greece, and it was to Boeckh that he owed the earliest 
successes of his literary and academic career. He began by pub- 
lishing a monograph on the ancient and modem history of Aegina*. 
Part of this work was on the Aeginetan Marbles, which had been 
discovered in i8ir", and had recently been purchased (in 1812) 
by Ludwig, the Crown Prince of Bavaria. At that time Muller's 
sole authority for these works was a description by the sculptor, 
J, M. Wagner, with criticisms on the style by F. W. J, Schelling 

1 p.77rj«/ra. ' p.^ifmfra. 

' His original name was simply Karl. To distinguish himself from the 
many Karl Mullers, he added the name of Gottfried, which, on Buttman's 
advice, he changed to Otfried in :Bi7 (aflei the publication of his first work). 
The form Ottfried is incorrect. 

* Atginilamm liber; scripsH Carolus MuiUer, Siksius {l%\^^). 

' By Cockerel! and Foster, in conjunction with Mailer von Hallerstein, 
and Linckb. Cp. Michaelis, Die archMegiichtn Enldickungm (1906), 31 f. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


(1817). It was not until his appointment to a Chair of Classical 
Allerthumswisunschajt at Gottingen in the summer of 1819 that 
he was able to study some of the actual remains of ancient art at 
Dresden. At Gottingen in 1820 he gave a course of lectures 
on Archaeology and the History of Art ; two years later he 
enlarged his knowledge by visiting the collections in Paris and 
London, and he continued lecturing on the above subjects with 
ever increasing success until the end of the summer-term of 1839. 
In September of that year he left for Italy and Greece, and on 
the first day of August, 1840, he died at Athens of a fever 
contracted while he was copying the inscriptions on the wall 
of the Fcribolos at Delphi. A marble monument marks the spot 
where he was buried on the hill of Colonos. 

At Gottingen he lectured repeatedly on Mythology and the History of 
Religion, on Greek Antiquities, Latin Lileratnre, and Comparative Grammar, 
and also on Classical authors, such as Pindar, Aeschylus, Herodotus, 
Thucydides, Tacitus, Persius and Juvenal. His early work on Aegina was 
followed, three years later, hy thai on ' Orchomenos and the Minyae" ; in 
1814, by ihe two volumes of the 'Dorians'"; in the next year, by his 
' Prolegomena to a scientific Mythology '■[ and, in 1818, by his 'Etruscans'*. 

Five years later, he published his edilion of the Euinenidts, with a German 
rendering and with two Dissertations, (1) on the represenlalion of the play, 
(i) on ils purport and composition'. In the preface to this work, he was 
prompted by Hermann's attack on Dissen's Pindar' to describe Hermann as 
' the distinguished scholar, who has long been promising us an eililion of 
Aeschylus, and who is ready to allack all who write on thai poet before 
proving that he possesses a clear conception of the connexion of thought 
and the plan of a single play, or indeed of any work of ancient poetry''. 
While MuUer poured contempt on the professional scholars of the day, he 
added that another race of men had already arisen, men who were asking the 
old world deeper questions than could be answered by any mere Notm- 
gtUhnamkeit. Hermann naturally protested, pointing out that MUller's 
attitude was ' mislaken ' as well as ' presumptuous '. This review, severe as it 
was, did nut prevent the just recognition of Miiller's Eunienides as a dislinctly 
useful edilion. The editor had set special store by his translation, and Ihe 
accuracy of that portion of the work was not contested by his great opponent, 
while the first of the two dissertations certainly threw new light on the Greek 
theatre and led to further research on that subject. 

' 1844". ' E. T. 1850. • E. T., Leitch. 

* 1877 ed. Deecke. ' E. T. ed. ], 185J. 

« Ofusc. vi. 3-69- 

' ib. vi (i) ri ; Muller and Donaldson's Gr. Lit. I xxiv ; Bursian, ii 675. 


In the same year as the firsi edition of the Eumeniiia, Muller published a 
critical edition of Varro, De Lingua Latina (1833). He had been drawn in 
this direction by his Etruscan studies. Following in the lines laid down 
by Spengel, he introduced many corrections into the text, but he left much to 
be done by his successors, and Spengel himself relumed to the work of his 
youth and prepared a new edition, which was published by his son. Mullei 
also emended and annotated the remains of Feslus, tt^ether with the epitome 
ofihe same by Faulus (1839, i868>). 

An invitation from the London Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge led to his undertaking a ' History of Greek Literature ', which he 
began in 1836, but left unfinished on bis departure for Greece. The iirst 
Iwenty-lwo chapters were translated by George Comewall Lewis, to whose 
suggestion the work was due, and the rest by Dr Donaldson in 1S4O, when the 
greater part of the work was published. The work was subsequently com- 
pleted by Donaldson, who wrote chapters 38 — 60 for the edition published in 
three volumes in 1858'. The original author's aim was to show 'how those 
illustrious compositions, which we still justly admire as the classical writings of 
the Greeks, naturally sprang from the taste and ihe genius of the Greek races 
and the constitution of civil and domestic society as established among them '*. 

Mllller had naturally been led 10 study the archaeology of art by the duties 
of his professorship. In (his domain he produced a considerable number of 
separate treatises, as well as a comprehensive cpnspectus of the whole field. 
The former included his papers on Ihe Delphic tripod, the cult and temple of 
Athena Polias, and the life and works of Pheidias. The latter is embodied in 
his well-known 'Handbook of the Archaeott^y of Art''. Illustrations to 
this work were supplied in Muller's Dentmaltr (1831), continued by his pupil, 
Friedrich Wieseler. MUller also wrote on Hesiod's Shield of Htraclts, Ihe 
Apollo of Kanachos, the date of the temple at Bassae, the vases of Vulci, the 
topc^aphy of AnlitKh, the frieze of the temple of Theseus, and the 
fonifications of Athens*. His account of the Museums of Athens was the only 
part of the results of his visit lo Greece that was published by his fellow- 
traveller, Adolph Schiill (1S43). 

' As a classical scholar, we are inclined (says Donaldson) to prefer 
K. O. Miiller, on the whole, to all the German philologers of the nineteenth 
century. He had not Niebuhr's grasp rf original combination, he was hardly 
equal to his teacher, Bockh, in some branches of Greek. ..antiquities; he was 
inferior to Hermann in Greek verbal criticism ; he was not a comparative 
philolc^r, like Grimm and Bopp and A. W. Schlegel, nor a collector of facts 
and forms like Lobeck. But in all the disttuclive characteristics of these 

' MLiiter's German text was published, from the rough drafts, by his 
younger brother in 1841; ed. 4 (E. Heitz), 1881-4. 
» i I ed. Donaldson (i8j8). 

* 1830; ed. 3 (Welcker) 1848; ed. 4, 1878; E. T., Leitch, 1850. 

* Klane dnitscht Sckrifien, vol. ii, 1848. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 


eminent men, he approached them more nearij than most of his con- 
lemporaries, biiJ he had some qualifications lo which none of them attained. 
In liveliness of fancy, in power of slyle, in elegance of lasle, in artistic 
knowledge, he far surpassed most, if nol all, of them'*. 

While K. O. Miiller, even in his study of ancient mythology 
and art, mainly followed the historical method of 
research, the poefic and artistic side of the old 
Greek world had won the interest of his predecessor at Gdttingen, 
Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker {1784 — 1868), who was born thirteen 
years before him, and survived him by no less than twenty-eight'. 
The son of a country-clergyman in Hesse, he worked by himself 
at Giessen, where he afterwards lectured, first on theolc^ical 
subjects, and next on Plato's Symposium, and the Prometheus. 
In 1806-8 he visited Italy, holding a tutorship in Rome in the 
family of Wilhelm von Humboldt. In Rome he came under 
the influence of the able Danish archaeologist, Zoega, subse- 
quently writing his life, and translating and publishing his works'. 
In 1809 he became a professor at Giessen ; in 1814, a volunteer 
in the war against Napoleon; in 1816, a professor at Gottingen, 
and in 1819 at Bonn, where he was also librarian and director 
of the Museum of ancient Art, the earliest institution of the 
kind. At Bonn he continued to live for nearly fifty years, the 
last seven of which were spent in retirement owing to failing 
eyesight. During his long tenure of office in that university, he 
spent two years travelling in Greece', Asia Minor, Italy and 

His lectures at Bonn covered a wide range, including Gieek and Latin 
poets, Greek mythology, and the history of ancient art. His audience was 
profoundly impressed by his noble personality, and by a fulness of thought, 
which was nut accompanied by any remarkable richness or clearness of 
language'. ^ 

1 On the Life and fV.ilings of K. O. Miiller, p. XKxi, in Hut. of tki Lit. 
of atieienl Grerce. I xv— xxxi (with portrait) ; cp. LeliensHld by K. F. Ranke 
(Berlin, Gymn. Prop., 1870) : Erianerungen by E. MUUer, and F. Lliclte ; 
Briefauchsel with Boeckh (Teubner, 1883) ; and Bursian, ii 1007 — 1018 ; also 
K. Hildebrand in Fr. transl. of Gk Lit., 1S65, 17 f; E. Curtius, Alt. u. 
Cegeiiwarl, ii'i^yf; Hertz, Breslau, 1884 ; K. Dilthey, Gottingen, 1S98. 

' On Muller and Welcker, cp. Michaetis, Die areh. Bntd., 153. 

* Chap, xxxviii infra (Denmark). < TagAmk (1S65). 

° Classen, quoted by Kekul^, I74f. 



His eeneral aim was to realise and 10 represenl the old Greek world under 
the three aspects of Religion, Poeliy, and Art. His researches in Greek 
mylhology were embodied in the three volumes of his Grieehische GSlUrlchre 
{1857-61). This was supplemented by his edition of Hesiod's Theegony, with 
general introductory essays on Hesiod, and a special dissertation on the 

In the earlier part of his career he had been attracted bj (he Greek lyric 
poets and Aristophanes. He translated the Clouds and the Frogs, with 
explanatory notes; wrote a paper on Epicharmus*, and several on Pindar'; 
collected the fragments of Alcman and Hipponax, Erinna and Corinoa ; and 
repeatedly defended the character of Sappho*. In an edition of Theognis, he 
arranged the poems according to his own views, adding critical and explanatory 
notes and full prolegomena. He also pubKshed a Sylhge of Greek Epigrams, 
and criticised Hermann's proposals for restoring the text. His works on the 
tragic poets began with a treatise on the Aeschylean trilogy of Prometheus, 
which was attacked by Hermann, and defended by Welcker in a treatise on 
the Aeschylean trilogy in general. The most extensive of his works on the 
drama was that on the ' Greek Tragedies in relation to the Epic Cycle '*. As 
a preliminary to this he had produced a work on the Epic Cycle itself. In 
the department of Greek prose authors, he supplied Fr. Jacobs with 
archaeological notes on the Philostrati and Callistratus ; he also wrote papers 
on Prodicus', and on the rhetorician Aristides^ 

His main strength as an archaeolc^st lay less in the hiilory of art than in 
its inlerprelalien. At Gotlingen, the greater part of the single volume of the 
Zeilschrifi on the history and interpretation of art was wiillen by Welcker 
alone {1818); and at Bonn, he published an explanatory catalogue of the 
Museum of Casts'. He was a member of the ' Roman Institute for 
Archaeological Correspondence' from its foundation in 1819, and frequently 
contributed to its publications, and to other archaeoli^ical periodicals. The 
most important of his papers were collected in the Ave parts of his Alle 
Dcnkmalir (1849-64), which had been partly preceded by the live volumes of 
his Ktdnt Schriften (1844-67)". 

While Welcker's interests traversed the literary as well as the 
artistic sides of the old Greek world, a narrower 
field was covered by his friend and fellow-labourer, 

' Kliinc Sckriflin, i 171 — 356. • ii 169 — 114, v 151 f. 

' i 110 — iJj, and esp. ii 80—114; cp. iv 68, v iiS — 14*. For papers on 
other lyric poets, cp. i 89, 116; ii iij, 356. 

* 3 vols, 1839-41. * 1835 ; ed. a, 1865 (pan ii, 1849, ed. 3, i88j). 

* Kl. Schr. ii 393— 541. ' iii 89—156. 
^ 1817; ed. 1, 1841. 

* Uursian, ii 1018— 1046; cp. Life by Kekul^, with portrait (1880); Cone- 
spondence with Boeckh, in Max Hoffmann's Boeckh, iji — 108) also Wilamo- 
witi in Eur. Her. i' 139 f. 

h, i.MiA.OOt^lc 


Eduard Gerhard (1795 — 1867), who regarded archaeology as 
' that part of the general science of the old classical world which 
is founded on the knowledge of monuments ', and claimed for it 
an independent place by the side of ' philolc^y ' in the narrower 
sense of that term. Born at Posen, he studied at Breslau and 
Berlin, but was compelled by weakness of sight to abandon 
the work of teaching that he had begun at Breslau and at the 
place of his birth. He visited Italy in 1819-20 and 1822-6, and 
again in 1828-32, and in 1833 and 1836. In 1837 he became 
director of the Archaeological Museum in Berlin, and was a full 
professor from 1844 to his death in 1867, 

It was hi9 first visit to Italy that inspired him with his earliest enthusiasD) 
for ancient art, and during his long residence in that land he hecame familiar 
with archaeologists ol other nations, such as Btiindsted {1780— 1841), the 
representative of Denmark, and Slackelberg (1787—1834), llie Esthonian 
nobleman, who was then preparing his two great works on the Temple of 
Bassae {iSi6), and on the Graves of (he Greeks (1837). Stackelberg had 
fallen under the spell of Creuzer's Symbolii, and it was owing lo the influence 
of Stackelbei^ that Gerhard was led to believe that the woiks of art found 
in ancient lambs were connected with the cult and the mysteries of Dionysus. 

In 1813 Gerhard was joined by Theodor Panofha (1801—1858), who 
entered the university of Berlin in 1819, and, after promoting 
the interests of the international Archaeological Institute in 
Rome and in Paris, returned tn Berlin, where he became a Member of the 
Academy, and, for the last fifteen years of his life, an 'extraordinary' 
professor. A man of wide but rather confused learning, he had an undue 
fondness foi discovering mythological explanations of works of ancient art', 
for finding traces of allegory in the most unimportant objects, and for indulging 
his fancy in matters of etymology, as well as in the interpretation of works of 
art or handicraft*. 

The influence of Panofka is apparent in Gerhard's Venus Proserpina, in 
his Rami aniike Bildtoerie^, his Prodromus to the mythological interpretation 
of art, and his Hyperboreiscke-romischt Studien. Ilis views were not 
materially altered in his Berlin* papers, or in the two volumes of his 'Greek 
Mythology' (i8s4-5). 

• Vcr/egme Mylhen (1840) ; cp. Bursian, ii 1049 n. 3. 

' Among his more valuable works are his Res Samionim (t8li), his 
Bilderatlas antiken Lebcns (1843), his Crieckinnen uiui Criechm ttach Atitittn 
(1844), and his descriptions of the terra-cottas in Berlin and Naples, and in 
private collections elsewhere. 

' In Plainer and Bunsen's Besehreibung der SlaiU Rom, i 177 — 334. 

* GesammiUe Akad. Abhandlungen {with 4to vol. of Plates), ilt66-8. 


Gerhard had a remarkable aplilude for classifying andent monuments, a 
maiTellous memory Tor all the known representatives of each class, and an 
ample store of illustrative classical learning. Even his weakness of e;esi);ht 
did not interfere with a rapid apprehension of the silieot points, and the 
general style, of any work of ancient art. This is exemplified in his 
descriptive catalogue of the Vatican Museum, and in bis unfinished account of 
the works of ancient art in Naples. Apart from his catalogues of the 
collections in Berlin, his best-known works were his four volumes on Greek 
vase-paintings', his descriptions of Etruscan mirrors', and his numerous papers 
on the mythology and cult of the Greeks'. 

During his third slay in Kome {182S-31), Gerhard, in conjunction with 
Bunsen and Kestner, look in hand the foundation of the ' International 
Institute for Archaeological Correspondence'. Gerhard, Kestner. Fea, and 
Thorwaldsen met at Bunsen's official residence, the Palazzo Caflarelli on the 
Capitol, on the anniversary of the birth of Winckelmann, the glh of December, 
to draw up a scheme for the new Institute, which was to be founded in 1819, 
on April 11. the traditional date of the founding of Rome. Its publications 
subsequently included a monthly BuUetino, annual volumes of Annali and 
Manumenli, and, in and after :87i, the Ephemeris Epigraphka. 

The success of the Institute in Rome was largely due to the ability of its 
secretaries. Bunsen was general secretary in 18S9-38, and was aided, al first, 
by Gerhard and Panofka, and (on Gerhard's departure) by Ambrosch, and by 
the chaplain of the legation, H. Abeken, and the Danish scholar, 0. Kellermann 
(18051—1838). The last of these was the first to propound a great scheme for 
a critical colleclian of Latin inscriptions. 

When Gerhard returned to Rome in 1833, he was accompanied by an 
able amanuensis, August Emil Braun {1809 — 1856), who was 
bom at Gotho, and had studied classical archaeology in 
Gottingeti, Munich, Dresden, and Paris, and who acted as secretary of the 
Institute until his death. Braun was an authority in mailers of archaeology, 
but in later years he developed an inordinate repugnance to the use of ancient 
literature in illustration of the remains of ancient art*. 

As secretary, Braun was associated with the celebrated Egyptolc^sl, 
Richard Lepsius, and with Wilhelm Abeken (1813 — 1843), the author of a 
work on the early inhabitants of ancient Italy, and Wilhelm Henzen (1816— 
1887), Welcker's pupil and fellow-traveller in Greece, who afterwards (under 
the influence of Mommsen) devoted most of his energy to the Corpus Inscrip- 
lienum Latinarum^. 

' AuserUseiu Gr. VasmUlihr (i840-£S). ' 4 parts (1843-68). 

' Life by Otto Jahn in Gerhard's Abhandlungtn, \\ i — 111 ; cp. Uriichs in 
A. D. B., and Bursian, ii 1046 — T06G. 

* His chief works were Antike Marmorwerkt (1844); XII Basrelie/s 
(1845); Cr. GStterlekrt (1854); VarsckaU der KumtmytMegie (1854). Cp. 
(A. Michaelis), Gesch. des deutschen ArchSal. last. 53 f, lOi f, liif, Hj f. 

* Biagr.Jahrh. 1888, 135—160. 


Gerhard's biographer was the able and scholarly archaeologist, 
Otto Jahn (1813— 1869), who studied at Kiel, 
Leipzig, and Berlin; was a ' privat-docent ' at Kiel 
in 1839, professor at Greifswald in 1841-7, and at Leipzig from 
1847 to 1851, when he was dismissed on political grounds and 
found a city of refuge in Ziirich. For the last fourteen years of 
his life he was professor at Bonn, and, in 1869, he died at 

An adept in music, he found his chief interest in classical scholarship, and 
in the scholarly study of classical archaeology. Under the influence of 
Nitzsch al Kiel, and Lachmanu in Berlin, he hecame an eager sludent of the 
Greek and Latin poets. His earliest interest in archaeology was aroused by 
his visits to Paris in 1837 and Rome in 1838, when he came under (he influence 
of Emit Braun. Greek vases were the thetne of a lai|^ number of his papers ; 
he also wrote an introduction to their study in his Descriplion of the Collection 
in the Munich Pinakothek (1854). Shortly after his return from Italy, he began 
his career as an academic teacher. That career was only interrupted by his 
political activity at Kiel in 1848, by the enforced leisure of 1851-5, ^i"^ by ihe 
illness that immediately preceded his death. 

His well-equipped series of text-books for univer^ly lectures included the 
Story of Cupid and Psyche from Apuleius, the Descriplion of the Athenian 
Acropolis in Pausanias', the Eleetra of Sophocles, the Symposium of Plato, 
and the treatise on the Sublime'. All except the last were emheilished with 
illustrations from works of ancient ait. His annotated school-editions 
included the Btutus and the Oralur of Cicero'. His critical recensions 
comprised Persius (1843} and Juvenal (1S51), followed by a new edition of 
both (1868)) also Florus, and Censorinus, and the Perioehat of Livy, 
together with Julius Obsequens. One of the best of his papers was that on 
the Subscriptiones at the end of MSS of the Classics*. 

His work in archaeology, apart from Ihe Introduction to Greek Vases 
already mentioned, includes a large number of masterly monc^aphs. The 
Bubjecti of the earlier group included Telephus and Troilus, the paintings of 
Polygnolus, ' Pentheus and the Maenads ', ' Paris and Oenone ', with discourses 
on Ancient Tragedy and Goethe's IphigenU, on Welcker and Winckelmann, 
and on Hellenic Art, as well as an essay on the Palhidium', and the collected 
papers entitled Archaologischc Aufidlzt ixA Seilrage {tS^^-j}. 

At Leipzig he published numerous papers in the transactions of the local 
Academy, including one on the art'criticisms of the elder Pliny*, and on 

' i860; ed. 1 (Micbaelis) rSSo; ed. 3, 1901. 
' 1867 ; ed. 3 (Vahlen), 1905- 

• 1849-si ; ed. 3, 1865-9; ed. 4of/?™Cm, 1877. 

* Sa^it. Berichte, iii (1851) 337 f. * Fhiielagus, i 55 f. 
" Satis. BtrichU, ii 105 f. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


scenes from Gieek poets on Gteek vases*. He also contributed to the publica- 
tions of the learned societies of Munich, Vienna, Zurich, Bonn, and Rome. 

His lectures at Bonn were lucid and unadorned in style, and while the 
salient points were brought into clear relief, there was a perfect mastery of all 
the details. He lavished his resources on (he collection of a splendid library, 
which enabled him to acquire a minute familiarily with the remotest comers of 
ancient lire, a ramiliarity eiemplified nol only in his learned commentary on 
Persius, but also in his elaborate paper on the ancient superstition of the 

It was at Bonn that he delivered his two discourses on the general position 
of Classical Studies in Germany (1859-61)*. Even in his years of failing health 
he produced much of the worit that appears in his ' Popular Essays * (1868). 
His latest work, that on Ihe Greek inscribed reliefs of mythologtcal and 
historical scenes, was edited after hJa death by his distinguished nephew and 
paful, Adolf Michaelis*. 

A new life vfas given to the Archaeological Institute by 
Henzen, and by Heinrich Bninn (i8ij — 1894), a 
pupil of Welcker and Ritschl at Bonn, where he 
submitted for his degree a dissertation on the sources of Pliny's 
chapters on the History of Art (1843). He resided in Rome 
from that date to 1853, the year of the publication of the first 
volume of his well-known ' History of the Greek Artists ' *. After 
a brief interval at Bonn, he lived once more in Rome from 1856 
to 1S65, when he became professor at Munich, holding that 
position with conspicuous ability for nearly thirty years. 

Many of his published papers were preparatory to a comprehensive 
' History of Greek and Roman Art ', the early portions of which were printed 
in 1893-7. A volume of Essays entitled Grtichische Gollirideale was 
published by himself (1893)1 '"^ minor works have since been collected in 
three volumes' ; and a series of fine reproductions of ' Monuments of Greek 
and Roman Sculpture', liegun in his life-lime, has been continued since his 
death. His style as a teacher was marked by simplicity and clearness, by 
enthusiasm for his subject, and by a complete absence of rhetorical adornment. 
Not content with giving results, he also pointed out Ihe strictly scientific 

" Abhandl.\\\^^i. 

» Sikhs. Btrkhti, vii (1855) 18— iJO. 

* Winckelmann, Hermann, and Ludwig Ross are admirably treated in his 
Bu>gnjfAiscki Au/sdize {ed. i, iS6ti). 

* BildenhroniJun (1873). Cp. Michaelis in A. D. B., and Arch. Enid. 
154; also Bursian, ii 1070-80, esp. the quotations on p. 1075; Vahlen, i8jo, 
J4 pp.; Momrosen, in RiJen und Aufsdtst, 458 f. 

* "853-9 f ^- *> '889. * 1898— 1905-6, with portraits. 




method by which Ihey had been atlained'. Among his numerous discoveries 
may be mentioned his recognition of the so-called ' Leucothea' of the Munich 
Glyptothtk as the ' Eiiene and PUitus' of Cephisodotus'; and his identiliC3tion 
of a series of scattered works of sculpture (all beloriging to a Roman find of 
■5 [4) as the remnants of the four groups of figures set up by Attalus 1 on the 
Acropolis of Athens to commemorate the battles of the Peti^amenes against 
Ihc Gaiatians, of the Athenians against the Persians and the Amazons, and of 
the Gods against the Giants'. The relations Iwtween the literature and the art 
of Greece are exemplified in his paper on the indications of artistic inspiration 
in Greek idyllic poetry'. The discovery in modem times of many works of 
ancient art unreci^nised by Pliny or Pausanias has led to a more independent 
study of Greek sculpture for its own sake, and to a closer attention to the 
analysis o/ artistic slyle. The pioneer in this new movement was Heinrich 

Brunn's successor as secretary at Rome was Wolfgang Helbig 
(b. 1839), a pupil of Jahn and Ritschl, who is best 
known as the author of two volumes on the wall- 
paintings of Pompeii, proving that nearly all of them were repro- 
ductions of Hellenistic works (1868-73), ^1^*^ "'^'^ °^ ^ volume 
in which the Homeric poems are illustrated by the remains of 
ancient art (1884). His guide to the Roman Museums was 
published in 1891. 

Immediately after the Institute had become an Imperial insti- 
tution, a branch was opened at Athens (1874). The first secretary 
at Athens was Otto Liiders, a pupil of Welcker, and author of 
Du dionysiscfun Kunstler (1873)'. He was suc- 
ceeded by Ulrich Kohler (1838 — 1903}, for many 
years editor of the Mittheilungen and of several volumes of the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Ailicarum'. 

1 G. Korte, in Berl. Philel. IVoch. 1899, 88j f. At Bonn, in 1843, Bninn 
had maintained that 'he would rather err tailh method, than hit upon truth 
wilAout '. 

* 1867 ; A7. Sehr. ii ji8 — 340; cp. Michaelia, Arch. Enid. (1906) 267. 

' 1870; Kl.Schr.ii ^ti — 430; cp. E. A. Gardner, Cii ii:ii^i'»r(, 457 — 460- 

* 1879; A7.i'c4r.iii 117—318. 

* Cp- Michaelis, Arch, Enid. (1906) 36a f. On Brunn, cp. A. Emerson in 
Amir. Journ. of ArchaeeUgy, ix (1894) 36a — 371 (with two portraits) ; on his 
pupils, cp. Bursian, ii lo88. 

' See, in general, (A. Michaelis), Gesch. dts lUulschtn archaal. /nsliltUi, 

' Deutscher Nrkrclog, tgoj; Biogr. Jahtb. igo6, ta—sg (with bibliography). 
On Dittenherger (d. 1906) and Furtwangler (d. 1907) see Addenda. 




Among the represeniatives of the 'slatistfcal' type of archaeologists, who 
(like Gerhard) aimed al collecting alt ihe exlant remains of 
ancient art and inlerpieling Ihem in the light of literary and 
artislic evidence, a foremost place must he assigned to Friedtieh Wieseler 
(1811 — 189]). After studying at Giitlingen and lietliii, it was at the former 
university thai he passed through all the successive stages of a professorial 
career extending over Ihree and fifty years. In his earliest works he discussed 
the text and the plot of several Greek plays', besides writing on the ThymeU, 
and publishing an illustrated folio volume on Ihe Greek and Roman Theatre 
(iSji). He produced numerous papers on archaeology, and on mythology in 
an'. He is best known for his continuation of Milller's Denkmdttr^. 

Another archaeologist of the same general type was Ludolf Stephani 
(1816 — 1887), who studied at Leipzig under Hermann and 
W. A. Becker, and published in 1843 Ihe topographical and 
epigraphical results of his (our in Northern Greece. In 1846 he was called to 
ihe university of Dorpat, where he continued the study of Greek inscriptions ; 
and, in 1850, was made a Member of Ihe St Petersburg Academy, and Keeper 
of the coins and other antiquities in Ihe Hennitage. To the publications 
of the Academy he contributed a number of exhaustive monc^raphs'. He 
also prepared, on a scale of unprecedented magnificence, the reports on the 
archaeological exploration of the Crimea', and Ihe twenty volumes of the 
Cempln-rendus of the Imperial Archieolc^cal Commission, It^ether with 
the descriptive catalogue of the vases in the Hermitage, and of the antiques in 
ihe palace at Pawlowsk'. 

Among those who conlribuled to the study and appreciation of Greek 
arcbileclure were Karl Friedrich Schinkel (i;8i— 1841), a 
practical architect, whose design for the erection of a royal 
palace on the platform of the Athenian Acropolis was happily never carried 
out; Leo von Klenie (1784— -1864), Ihe author of a work on the temple of 
Zeus at Agrigenlum (1811) ; GoEtfried Semper (1803— 1879), the author of an 
imporlani volume on archilectural style'; and Karl Boetlicher (1806—1889}, 
the author of the Ttklettik dtr HelUntn\ Johann Heinrich Sirack 
(1805 — 1880) wrote a monograph on the ancient Greek Theatre (1843), and 
brought about the complete excavation of Ihe Theatre of Dionysus at 
Athens (1861)*. Richard Bohn (1849 — 1898) was among the architects em- 
ployed in Ihe exploration of Olympia and Pergamon '°. 

> Eum. (1839), P. V. and .4iwj (1843) etc. > Bursian, ii \o^i note. 

* Biogr. Jakrb. 1900, 9^41 (with bibliography). 

» Der ausruhende Herailii (1854) ; Nimbus und SIraklenkrans (1859) etc. 

• Antiquith du Boiphare Ciaimlrita (1854) ; also Antiquith dt la Scythit 
(i8«, ,873). 

< Biogr. Jahrb. 1886, 138—^63 \ Bursian, ii 1091-5. 

' 1860-3; ^' '. '878-9; Biogr. Jahrb. 1879, 49—831 Bursian, ii iio7f. 

' '843-51 ; ed. I, [873-81 ; Biogr. Jakrb. 1890, ;i — 81. 

» Biogr. Jakrb. 1885, 96^16*. ■» Conie in A. D. B. xlvii 81. 

h. i."ii,Cooglc 


Archaeoli^ical research in man; lands was promoled by ihe excavations 
initiated by Heinricli Schliemann (iSai — 1890). The son 
of a German pastor, he had often heard his falher lell Ihe 
story or the Trojan war, and, at the age of eight, he resolved on excavating 
the site of Troy. At (he age of fourteen, as a grocer's apprentice, he heard a 
miller's man, who had known belter days, recite a hundred lines of Homer, 
and he (hen prayed thai he might some day have the happiness of learning 
Greek. At the age of twenly-live, he founded an indigo business at 
St Petersburg, and by the age of thirty-six had acquired a sufficient fortune to 
be able lo devote himself entirely to archaeoli^y. He had then been studyii^ 
Greek for two years, not having dared to do so before, for fear of falling under 
Ihe spell of Homer and neglecting his business. In his earliest work, that on 
' Ithaca, Peloponnesus, and Troy' (1869), he inferred from Pausanjas' that ihe 
graves of the Atreidae at Mycenae must be sought iHside the wall of the 
citadel, and he supported the opinion that the site of Troy was on the hill of 
Hissarlik. The hil! was excavated in 1870-73, and the results published in 
1874-5. His exploration of Mycenae (1874-6) was (ally descrilied in 1877. 
Resuming his work at 'Troy' (1878-9), he published his results in /iias 
{1S80). After excavating ihe 'treasury of Minyas' at Orchomenos (1880-1), 
he returned to Troy, and published 7r0/<i (1884). An imperfect exploralion 
of the ' mound of Marathon ' was followed by successful work at Tiryns (i88j). 
In the island of Cytbera he discovered the ancient temple of the Uranian 
Aphrodite (t888), and on that of Sphacteria the o!d fortilicatians mentioned 
by Thucydides'. 

He had a palatial house at Alhens inscribed with the words lAIOT MEAA- 
dPON ; the floor was adorned with mosaics representing vases and urns from 
' Troy ' ; along the walls ran painted friezes with epic landscapes, and Homeric 
quotations. The porter's name was Bellerophon, the footman's Telamon, and 
Schliemann himself would be generally engaged in reading some Greek 
Clas^iic He had married a Greek wife, who was as enthusiastic as himself in 
the exploration of Mycenae ; he called his daughter Andromache, and his son 
Agamemnon. When the archaeological world was looking forward lo his 
proposed exploralion of Crete, he died suddenly in Naples. He was buried at 
AthetB in the Greek cemetery south of the Ilissus. His desire that his body 
should there rest in the land of his adoption was carried out by Dorpfeld, who 
had taken a leading part in the excavations at Tiryns, and who afterwards 
published an important work summing up the results of the exploration of Troy, 
which was finally completed by Doipfeld alone'. 

' ii 16, 4. 

' ivji, 1. 

' Traja tind Ition (1901). Cp. in general, Schuchardt, SchlUmanm 
Amgrabungen (1890), E.T. (with bit^raphy); also Bulsian, ii 1113-9; Joseph 
(Berlin, 190J') ; 'SitxTin, Kl. Schr. iii 179 — tSt; and Michaelis, Arch. Enid. 


All the provinces of archaeological research, — the history 
of archaeology, the history and interpretation of 
ancient art, as well as mythology, antiquities and 
historical topography, were traversed in the professorial teaching, 
and in the published works, of Karl Bernard Stark (1824 — 1879). 
After studying under Goltling, Hermann, and Boeckh, and 
travelling in Italy, he settled at Jena in 1848, and, in 1855, was 
called to Heidelberg, where he held a professorship for the last 
twenty-four years of his life. Meanwhile, he had produced his 
first important work, that on Gaza and the Philistine coast 
(1851), followed by his monograph on Niobe {1863). He spent 
his latest years in preparing a comprehensive Handbook to the 
Archaeology of Art, and the first part, including the general 
survey of the subject, and the history of its study, was post- 
humously published in 1880. His Lectures and Essays on 
Archaeology and on the History of Art were published in the 

Another short-lived archaeologist, Karl Friederichs {1831 — 
1871), was the author of a full description of the 
Berlin Museum of Casts {1868; ed. 2, 1885), and 
of works on Praxiteles and the Philostrati, 

An important history of ancient sculpture' was published 
by Joannes Overbeck {1826 — 1895), a native of 
Antwerp, who was educated at Hamburg and who 
studied at Bonn, and was professor of Classical Archaeology at 
Leipzig from 1858 to his death. All the Greek and Latin texts 
on ancient art are conveniently collected in his SchriftqueUen 
{1848). Mythology in art is the sphere of his great series of 
illustrations connected with the heroes of the Theban and the 
Trojan Cycle (1853), and with the gods of Greece (1871 tf. His 
standard work on Pompeii {1856), written before he had visited 
the place, was afterwards repeatedly enlarged and improved. 

Conrad Bursian (1830 — 1883), who has done due honour to 
archaeology in connexion with the history of classi- 
cal philology, received his early education under 
Stallbaum at Leipz^, where he continued his studies under Haupt 

Biogr.Jahrb. i8j9, 40 — +5 ; Bursian, ii 1100-2. 
i857f ; ed. 4, 1894. " Bursian, i 

S. III. 



and Jahn. He also worked for a short time in Berlin under 
Boeckh. After travelling in Greece (1852-5), he held professor- 
ships of Classics and Archaeology at Leipzig, Tubingen, Ziirich, 
and Jena, and for the last nine years of his life was a professor 
at Munich. 

Apart from papers on Greek geography and archaeology, 
his early works included an edition of the elder Seneca (1856). 
It was at Tiibingen that he completed the first volume of his 
important 'Ge<^aphy of Greece' {1867), reserving the second 
for publication in three parts in 1868—72. Its completion was 
delayed by his comprehensive monc^raph on Greek Art in ' Ersch 
and Gruber'. His interest in Greek Geography was further shown 
in his editions of several of the minor Greek Geographers. In 
1877 he founded an important periodical for the annual survey 
of the progress of classical learning'. He spent his last ten 
years on the crowning work of his life, his * Histor}' of Classical 
Philology in Germany". 

Otto Benndorf (1838 — 1907), who studied at Erlangen and 
(under Jahn) at Bonn, was successively professor 
of archaeology at Ziirich, Prag, and Vienna, where 
he was placed at the head of the Austrian Archaeolc^cal Insti- 
tute on its foundation in 1898. He began his brilliant career by 
producing at Bonn in 1865 a well-known dissertation on the 
Epigrams of the Greek Anthology relating to works of art In 
conjunction with R. Schoene he described the ancient sculptures 
of the Lateran Museum (1867); he also published a work on 
Greek and Sicilian vases (18691), and a monograph on the ' 
metopes of Selinus {1873), He was associated with Conze and 
Hauser in the second Austrian expedition to Samothrace (1875), 
with Petersen in the exploration of the heroon of Giolbaschi near 
Myra in Lycia (1881 f ), and with Heberdey and Wilberg in the 
excavations at Ephesos {1896)'. 

Another pupil of Jahn, Friedrich Mati (1843—1874), begin his brief 
career with a paper in which he took up a posidon belween 
that al Karl Friederichs, who had attacked, and IleinKch 

' Jahrethtriekt iibtr die Fortichrilte dtr dassischea Alterlkunisiaissenschaft. 
« 1171 pp. (:883); Biogr.JaJirb. 1883. i— ri. 

* Cp. Bursian, ii 10S5, and Michaelis, Ar^h. Entd. gSf, ijSf, i64f; 
Forschun^n in Epkesos, vol. i (Vienna, 1907). 


Brann, who had defended the authenlicily of the pictorial descriptions of the 
two Philostrati (1867), 

Among the earliest of the Germans who took part in the 
topographical exploration of Greek lands were 
Friedrich Thiersch', and Ludwig Ross (1806 
— 1859), the explorer of the Greek Islands (1840-52) and the 
author of a work on the Attic Denies {1852)'. 

Peter Wilhelm Forchhammer (1801—1894), who was educated at LUbeck 
and studied at Kiel, travelled in Italy, Greece aud Asia Minor 
from 1830 to 1836, and was a professor at Kiel for the 
remaining nriy-eight years of his life. The observations made during his 
earlier Greek travels appeared in his HtUenika (1837). During his second 
tour of 1838-40, he visited the Troad with the English naval officer, 
T. A. B. SpratI, whose map was published with Forchhammer's 'Observations 
on the top<^raphy of Troy' (1843-50). He also wrote on the topography of 
Athens (1841), and, nearly forty years afterwards, on the linds at Mycenae. 
In his numerous mythological papers he contended that Mytholt^y had its 
origin in natural phenomena, especially in those connected with water. 

In the earliest of his archaeological publications he rightly maintained, 
against Boeckh, thai cases of homicide were not removed from the jurisdiction 
of the Areopagus by (he reforms of Ephialles ; and, in his work on ' Socrates 
and the Athenians', he paradoxically represented Socrates as a revolutionist 
and the Athenians as prompted by their reverence for the law in condemning 
him to death*. After Kiel had been incorporated with Prusaa, Forchhammer 
became a Member of Parliament. He lived to be more than ninety, and was 
a keen student of mythology and of art to the very end. His abiding interest 
in the old Greek world was proved by bis discussions of school-reform in 1882, 
and his paper on 'mind and matter' in 1889'. 

A life of far shorter duration was the lot of another native of Northern 
Europe, Heinrich Ulrichs (1807—1843), who was born at 
Bremen, and, during his stay in Greece, explored E>elphi and 
Thebes and the intervening district, as well as the harbours of Athens. He 
was professor of Latin at Athens in 1834, and died there nine years later'. 

The whole of the Orbh Vtteribiis Nolut was traversed in the course of the 
life-long labours of Heinrich Kiepert ([818 — 1899). In his 
native city of Berlin he attended the lectures of Boeckh and 
of Karl Ritter, began his travels in Asia Minor in 1841, was appointed 
Director of the Geographical Institute at Weimar in 1845, and, after returning 
to Berlin in 1855, was successively elected a Member of the Academy (1855), 
'extraordinary' professor (1859) and 'ordinary' professor of Geography 

» p. Ill supTi. » Jahn, Biogr. Au/s. 133—164. > p. 74 sufra. 

* Biogr. Jahrb. 1897, 41 — 63 (with bibliography). 

" Life in vol. ii of his Reisen und Forschttngot (1840-63), ed. Passow. 

h. I .^s-t^ooglc 

H. Ulrichs 


(1874). He gave lecluies in all these capacities. Apart from many separate 
maps of the highest degree of excellence, the publications by which he is best 
known are his comprehensive and hieid tenl-book of Ancient Geographj 
(i87fi), his Alias Antiquus (iSsg) and his Atlas von Hellas (1871). His 
Alias Antiquus has attained a twelfth edition, and the publication of his 
Forntat Orbis Antiqui has been continued since his death'. 

In Greek topography a wide field was covered by the com- 
prehensive work of Bursian', and also by the 
ElTuttiuV ^^"^^ labours of Ernst Curtius (1814— 1896). 
Bom and bred at LiJbeck, where his father was 
the Biirgermeister of that ancient Hanseatic town, he had no 
sooner come to the end of his I^hrjakre at Bonn and Gottingen 
and Berlin than he began his four years of Wanderjahre in Greece 
(1836-40). His travels and researches bore fruit in an admirable 
work on the Ptloponnesos (1851-2). Meanwhile, he had taken 
his degree at Halle, and had begun his distinguished career in 
Berlin (1843). He was a professor at Gottingen from 1856 to 
1868, when he returned to Berlin, and was one of the ornaments 
of that university for the remaining- twenty-eight years of his life. 

His History of Greece was published in 1857-67', while he was still 
at Gottingen, It has justly been regarded as a brilliant achievement. The 
author's travels had enabled him I0 give a vivid impression of the gei^raphical 
characteristics of the country. The narrWive was lucid and interesting, and 
literature and art found due recognition in its pages'. 

A lecture on Olympia, delivered in 1844 in the presence of the King of 
Frassia, led to his being appointed tutor 10 the Crown Prince Friedrich, whom 
he accompanied to the university of Bonn, and whom he inspired with an 
interest in ancient and modern art. He was thus enabled in after years to 
secure high patronage for the exploration of Olympia', the successful com- 
pletion of which was largely due to his influence. His study was adorned 
with a copy of the Nike of Faeonius, the first-fruits of the rich harvest of the 
Olympian plain. His own marble bust, the gift of his admirers, was also 
there, and a replica of the same was appropriately placed in the Museum at 
Olympia. His light hair, his sparkling eyes, and the clear cut profile of his 

' Autobiography in Globus, 18Q9, no. 19. 

> p. T.-A supra. ' Ed. 6, 1888 ; E. T. by A. W. Ward, 1868-73. 

* His theory that the mainland of Greece was colonised by the lonians of 
Asia Minor, long before Asia Minor was colonised by a reluming wave of 
colonists from Greece, was first proposed in a paper of 1855, Die /enter vtir 
tier uniscken IVanderung, energetically opposed in A. von Gutschmid's 
Beilrdge of 1858. 

" 1875—1881; Ergtbttisse, 1881-37. 




face, as well as his charm of manner, made him a singularly a.ltraclive 
personality. He had a sirong physique and enjoyed excellent health. Al the 
age of eighty, he once stood for an hour, delivering without note an admirable 
discourse on the hereditary priests of Olympia. In his old age, however, his 
failing eyesight compelled him to submit to several operations for cataract. 

Apart from his early work on the Pelofoniusoi, and the 'History' of his 
maturer years, we have the fruit of his old age in a comprehensive and 
well-ordered 'History of the City of Athens' (1891)'. His occasional 
discourses on ancient and modern topics have been collected in the three 
volumes entitled AlUttkum und Gegmwart (iSjs-Sp), and his more learned 
papers in two volumes published in 1894. A special interest attaches to the 
articles which he wrote in memory of Colonel Leake, as well as of Boeckh, 
K. O. Miiller, and his younger brother, Geoi^ Curtius'. His bust has been 
already mentioned ; his portrait was painted in oils by Koner for the National 
Gallery in Berlin, and also by Reinhold Lipsius*. 

The first volume of Die Sladt Alhen im Allerthum (1874-90) was dedicated 
to Curlius by Curt Wachsmulh (1837 — 190s), profes! 
Marburg, Gottingen, Heidelberg and Leipzig, who in 
published the first two volumes of an important edition of the Anlheiogium of 
Stobaeus, followed in 1895 by his excellent Introduction to the study of 
ancient history*. 

The exploration of Olympia during the first two seasons (1875-7) "as 
entrusted 10 Gustav Hirschfeld {1847—1895), who had 
studied in Berlin under Curtius, whom he accompanied on a 
tour in Asia Minor, besides working at archaeology during his own travels in 
Italy and Greece. In 1S77-8 he was at work on the Greek Inscriptions of the 
British Museum, his edition of which was published in 1893. He look a 
prominent part in the discussions as to the authority of Pausanias ', and as to 
the date of the foundation of Naucratis and the antiquity of the early Greek 

' The Sitbai Karten zur Topagrapkie van Atktn {1868) were followed by 
Curtius and Kaupert's ..4/^ij von Athen (1876) and Karten van Altiia (1881- 
94), and by Milchhofer's Uebersicklskarte von Ailika (1903). 

' Allerth-um und Gegettwart, vols, ii, iii. 

■ Gurlitt, in Biogr. Jahrb. 1901, irj — 144; cp. Ein LdemHld in Brieftti 
(1903); also Bursian, ii iii9f, mfii; Brotcher, in Preuss. Jahrb., 1896, 
581—603; Kekule's^tat, 1896; Keep, in ^././•.xix 111— 137; T. Hodgkin, 
iuProc. Brir.Aead. ii (Feb. 1 905), 14 pp.; and (A. W. Ward) £din. Xeviejo, 
1904 (i) 403 — 431 ! A. Michaelis, in Deutscher Nekrelog, (1897) s6 — 88. 

* F. Marx, in Deutscher Neirolog, (1907) 4I f. 

' Arch. Zeitung, 1SS1, gj—iy> ; /tiMri. /. il. Pkihl. 1883, 769 f. 

• v(<:*i'n«>'. 9 July, 10 Aug. 1887; 4 Jan. 1890; Rkein. Mus. XLII (1887) 
logf; Rtv. des Hudes grecques, 1890, m f. Cp. Bisgr. Jahrb. 1898, 65—90 
[with bibliography). 




Hirschfeld was the fiist to ui^e the impoitance of the eicavalion of Peiea- 
man ; but it was owing to Ihe energy of Alexander Conze, who had left 
Vienna for Berlin in 1877, that the explorations begun in 
um«nn ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ilumann {1839—1896) were successfully con- 

tinued in 1878 by that eager excavator and his colleagues. The exploration 
of the acropolis and its precincts, completed ia t886, has disclosed a new 
chapter in the history of Greek Sculpture and of Greek Architecture'. 

The erudite historian, Max Duncker (i8ir — 1886), was bom in Berlin, and 
studied philosophy al Bonn under Brandis, and hislory under 
Loebell. He began his literary career with a Latin disserta- 
tion on the various methods of treating history (1834). The part that he 
played in a political movement among the students at Bonn led to his being 
condemned to imprisonment for a term of six years, reduced by (he royal 
favour to six months, which he spent in strenuous study. During his 
eighteen years at Halle, he passed from the early history of the Germans to 
that of the Indo-Germanic peoples, publishing in 1851-7 the four volumes of 
the first edition of his GeschUkte des Alterthuim. The work was ultimately 
expanded into nine volumes, but its concluding portion, the History of Greece, 
goes no further than Ihe age of Pericles. 

His political opinions led to his resigning his position at Halle ; and, after 
two years at Tubingen (1857-59), he left for Berlin, where his interest in 
politics was unabated. For seven years (1867-74} he was the 'general director' 
of the Prussian archives, and he subsequently published several important 
papers on Greek history. Imprisoned in his early career for the crime of 
being in advance of his lime;^, he lived to see his Pan-Germanic opinions 
approved by Prussia, to be (he rect^ised exponent of modern history at the 
military academy of Berlin, and even to become the official historiographer of 
the house of Brandenburg. His tomb in Berlin lies between (hose of (he two 
historians, Ni(zsch and Droysen'. 

Gustav Droysen (1808 — 1S84) studied in Berlin, where he remained until 
184O. In 184O he became professor of History a( Kiel, in 
1851 his political opinions compelled him to leave for Jena ; in 
1859 he was called to Berlin, where he held a professorship for the rest of his 
life. In the early part of his career he was keenly interested in the Greek 
poets, publishing a translation of Aeschylus', and (in 1S35) a free and vigorous 
rendering of Arislophanes, which attained the honour of a third edition. His 
earliest historical work, that on Alexander the Great (1833), was followed by 
his well-known hbtory of the successors of Alexander {:836-4i). In Iheir 
second edition, these works were fused into the three volumes of the ' History 
of Hellenism' (1877-8). Besides important works on modern history, he 
publbhed papers on the Athenian generals, on the trial for the mutilation 

' Cp. Michaelis, Anh. Enid. 140-8, 305, and i 153' n. 3 sapra. On 
Humann, see Come, in Deulschtr Nekrolog, 189;, 369 — 377. 
* Biop-.Jahrb. 1886, 147— 174, ' 1884*. 


of Ihe Hermae, and on the coinage of Athens and of Dionysius I, He was a 
born teacher, and continued lo lecluie with unabated spiiit foi more than half 
a century '. 

The whole range of Greek history has been covered by the meritorious 
labours of Guslav Herliberg {b. i8j6), who in 1851 began his 
long career at Ilalte. The (irsi volume of his ilistory of 
Greece ( 1S31) ended with the invasion by Roger of Sicily, while the third and 
fourth (old the slory of the Greek Revolution. His outline of Greek History 
down (o Ihe beginning of the Middle Ages appeared in Ersch and Gruber. 
He has also written three volumes on Greece under the Romans (1866-75), 
and four on the period beginning with Justinian and ending with the present 
day (1876-9)*. In part of his labours he has had the advantage of being pre- 
ceded by Carl Hopf, the author of an important History of Greece from Ihe 
beginning of the Middle Ages to the year i8* 1 '. 

The able historian of Sicily and Greece, Adolf Holm (1830 — igoo), was, 
tike Ernst Curiius, born at Lubeck. Educated at the local 
school under Fr. Jacob and Classen, he was hardly seventeen 
when. he entered Leipzig, where he studied under Hermann and Haupt and 
Olto Jahn. From Leipzig he went to Berlin, where he studied under Boeckh, 
Lachmann, Curiius, Kanke, and Ritter. His work under Trendelenburg 
resulted in his producing a priiC'disaerlation on the ethical principles of the 
Polilici of Aristotle. 

His first appoiolment was a mastership in French at his old school at 
Lubeck ; he accordingly studied the language strenuously in I'aris, but he 
made a far greater impression on his pupils when he took them through the 
sixth Book of Thucydides a year or so before the publication of the first 
volume of his own 'History of Sicily'. In 1857 he carried out his long- 
cherished plan for visiting Rome and Naples. 

In 1863 he paid a second visit to Paris, this time with a view to studying 
the Due de Luynes' collection of the coins of Sicily and Magna Graecia. In 
1866 be was busy with the topography of Sicily, while his former pupil, 
Schubring, who had lived at Messina, became one of his colleagues at 
Lllbeck. The year 1870 saw the result of (he labour of fifteen years in the 
publication of the first volume of his ' History of Sicily'. In the winter he 
paid his first vi»t to the island, and it was noticed (bat he actually knew his 
way about the country even better (ban the local guides. The second volume 
(1874) brought the history down to the ere of (he first Punic War. In 
1876-7 he spent (he winier in Sicily. His Florentine friend, Amari, had 
meanwhile become Minister of Education, and, owing to this fact, Holm found 
himself invited, a( the ^e of 46, to be professor of History at Palermo. The 

1 Max Duncker, in Siogr. JtUirb. 1884, 110—118; Giesebtecht, Munch. 
Akad. 1885, 108— tig; Kkine Schri/ien, 1893 (including his paper on Ihe 
spuriousness of the documents in the Dt CBrana). 

- Bursian, ii 1148. ' In Ersch and Grubei, vols. Ss, 86. 




offer was accepted, and ihe six years of his professorship (1877-8J) mark the 
zenith of his career. In tSSi he visited England 10 examine the Greek coins 
in Ihe British Museum, and this visit led to a closer study of English history 
and to 1 better appreciation of the merits of Grote. In 1883 he produced, in 
conjunction with Cavallari. a great archaeolc^cal work on Ihe topi^raphy of 
Syracuse. In 1883-96 he held a professorship at Naples, spending most of 
his lime on his ' History of Greece ', which he hnally brought down to Ihe 
Battle of Aclium'. His historical work in general gives proof of the influence 
of Ranke and Classen, while his artistic skill as a writer reflects the teaching 
of Fr. Jacob. He has himself said, in one of his reviews: — 'even works 
of learning ought to be works of art ; unhappily they seldom are'. Freeman 
has spoken of ' the sound judgement of Holm ' as a historian of Sidly, and an 
English review of his History of Greece justly commends its 'conciseness ', ils 
'sound scholarship', and its 'conscientious impartiality'. In Ihe spring of 
1897 he left Italy for Freiburg in Baden, where, a[ the close of the year, he 
wide the preface to the third and last volume of his 'History of Sicily', 
published four and twenty years after the second. It includes no less than 
joo pages (with plates) on the coinage alone, and it gives us an instructive 
comparison between Cicero's accusation of Vcrrcs and the modem impeach- 
men! of Warren Hastings, a comparison doubiless inspired by Holm's visit lo 
England. Towards the end of his life in the South he gave a new proof that 

Liibeck, v 

the sanest 


Halle, wh 
traversed (. 
A laboi 
oratoTB. li 
(o the hisi 
Attic law c 
Ephelae ' { 
the Greek 



Pollux. About 1893 he resigned his professorship. His inlerest in art and 
archaeologj' led lo his residing in Dresden, where he wrote his autobiography'. 

An excellent Handbook of Greek Constitutional Antiquities was published 
in 1881-5' by Guslav Gilbert (1843—1899), the son of a nubiTt 

Hanoverian pastor, who was educated at Hildesheim, and 
studied at Gotlingen, Leipiig. and Berlin. It was prnbably at Sauppe's 
recommendation thai, in 1871, he was appointed to a mastership under 
Marquardc at the gymnasium of Gotha, and he held that position lo the end of 
his life. Some ot his earliest works related lo the primitive conslhutionai 
history of Sparta and Athens. These were followed by his ' Contributions to 
the internal history of Athens during the Peloponnesian war ' (1877). It was 
the success of this work thai led lo his being inviled by its publisher jTeuhner) 
lo prepare the ' Handbook ' which was the principal literary achievement of 
his life. It supplies a clear outline of the subject with the original authorities, 
and references to the modem Mteialure, at the fool of each page. The second 
edition of the volume on Sparta and Athens (1893) includes an e>;cellent 
monograph on the 'Afl?ji'ofwi' troXiTtia^. Of his later publications the most 
valuable is that on 'the history of the developement of Greek law and legal 
procedure' (1896). His favourite authors were ?Iomer, Horace, and Goethe ; 
and his characlei has been aptly summed up by a life-long friend in the 
words : — er tear ein Ehrenmann, trru wie Giild,/rti und edtl gisinnt*. 

The study of Roman History in the critical spirit of Niebuhr was continued 
by Albert Schwegler (1819 — 1857), professor at Ttlblngen, 
the three volumes of whose History ended with the Licinian 
Ri^ations; and by Karl Peter (1808^1893), for many years 
Rector of Schulpforta, who brought his History down to the death of Marcus 
Aurelius'. He is well known as the author of the ' Chronolc^cal Tables of 
Greek and Roman History''. In i8j8 he edited Cicero's Orator, in 
conjunction with Christian GoltlobWeller( 1810— 1884), a pupil o/ Hermann, 
who was for many years a master at Meiningen' : this was followed by Peter's 
edition of (he Brutus (1839). Towards the close of his life, while he was 
honorary professor at Jena, he produced two editions of the Agricola of 
Tacitus (1876-7)'. 

Of those who have treated a limited period, we may here notice Wilbelm 
Drumann (ij86— 1861), professor at Konigsberg. who pro- 
duced in 1834-44 a history of the transition from the Republic ^""^" 
to (he Empire, dealing with Pompey and Caesar, and jj^ 
handling Cicero with singular severity. The history of Rome 

' BiBgr.Jahrb. 189s, 156-176- ' Ed. », 1893 ; E. T. of vol. i, 189^. 

' This volume was translated into English (1895) by E, J. Brooks and 
T. Nicklin (with a prefatory note by J. E. Sandys). 

* Dr R. Ehwald, in Gotha program, March, (899, 54—17, with list of his 
conlribotions to PhiM. ^aAJakrb.f. kl. Philel. ' 1853-69 etc 

• 1835-41 etc. ; E. T. of the Greik Tables (Cambridge, 1883). 

' Biegr.Jahrb. 1884, 64. ' ib. 1895, 110—151. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


Theodok Mommsen. 

From ihe original drawing by Sir William Richmond (i8go), now in the 
pos^ssion of Fiof. Ulricli von WilamowiiZ'Moel lender If. 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 


rrom ihe decline of ihe Republic to the age of Conslantine was treated in 
IhiM volumes (1841-50) by Karl Hoeek (1799 — 1864), professor at Marhurg. 
Wilhetm Ihne (1S11--1901), professor at Heidelberg, published in 1868-90 a 
History in eight volumes' founded on a critical study of the authorities, and 
avowedly written for the general public rather than for specialists. The 
eighth volume ends with the battle of Acdum. 

A far wider range of historical and antiquarian research was 
traversed in the memorable career of Theodor 
Mommsen (1817^1903), the outline of whose life 
has been traced on a previous page, in connexion with his work 
on Latin texts'. He had begun by making his mark in the 
study of Roman Law. At Kiel, in 1843, he had produced his 
two earliest works: — (i) his dissertation on the law de scribis 
et viaioribm, and (z) his pamphlet on the Roman Collegia and 
Sodalicia. In the following year, he published a treatise on 
the Roman ' tribe ' in its administrative relations. Having thus 
given proof of his legal learning, he next produced his two 
linguistic works, his 'Oscan Studies' (1845-6), and his ' Dialects 
of lower Italy' (1850). During his absence in Italy (1845-7) 
he had studied inscriptions with the aid of Borghesi and Henzen, 
and he now began a series of papers on that subject in the 
Transactions of the Leipzig Academy, besides preparing his 
'Inscriptions of the Kir^dom of Naples' (1852). In that work 
he showed a consummate skill in applying the results of epi- 
graphical research to the elucidation of the constitutional history 
and the law of the Italian communities. He also presented to 
the I^ipzig Atademy a valuable treatise on Roman Coinage^ 
which, in its expanded form, became an authoritative history of 
that subject*. 

Such were the preliminary studies that paved the way for 
his 'Roman History', a work in three volumes (1854-6)', ending 
with the battle of Thapsus. It was a history, not of Rome alone, 
but also of Italy, from the earliest immigrations to the end of 
the Roman Republic The plan of the series unfortunately pre- 

* Ed.a of vols.i, ii, 1893-6; vols, vii, viii, mainly by A. W. Zumpt. Eng. 
ed. TS7r-8i, five vols. 

* p. r97 supra. ' Sachs. Abhand/., ii (1850) tti — 417. 

* r86o; Fr. T. i86s-;s- 

» Ed. g, 1903-4; E. T. 1861, new ed. 1894-j. 

1. iiA.OOgIc 


eluded the quotation of authorities, and points of detail were 
attacked by Karl Wilhelm Nltzsch (1818— 1880), professor of 
History in Berlin', by Karl Peter', and by Ludwig Lange (1825 
— 1885)', professor at Leipzig, and author of the three volumes 
of an elaborate work on Roman Constitutional Antiquities 
(1856-71). Mommsen's critics desired to revert to the view of 
Roman History that had been held before the time of Niebuhr, 
and to accept the tradition of the Roman annahsts, and of the 
other writers who uncritically transcribed, or rhetorically adorned, 
the work of their predecessors. Mommsen afterwards took up 
the History of Rome at a later point, by publishing a work on 
the Roman rule of the Provinces from Caesar to Diocletian*. 
In connexion with his Roman History he had meanwhile pro- 
duced a ^ork on Roman Chronology', his aim being to justify 
certain of his own opinions, and incidentally to refute those of his 
brother, August'. The controversy excited by this work served to 
stimulate a renewed activity in the field of chronological investi- 
gation. One of the leading explorers of that field was G. F. Unger, 
professor at Wiirzburg, whose papers appeared in the ' Philologus ', 
and in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy. 

Many of Mommsen's papers on Roman history and chronology 
and public antiquities, and on the criticism of historical autho- 
rities, were collected in the two volumes of his ' Roman Re- 
searches". While the absence of quotations from authorities 
was one of the characteristics of the widely popular ' History of 
Rome', students and specialists found an abundance of learned 
details in the work on 'Roman Public Law", which takes the 
place of the corresponding portion of the Handbook of Roman 
Antiquities begun by W. A. Becker and continued by Joachim 
Marquardt (1812 — i88z), the Director of the gymnasium at 
Gotha, who had studied under Boeckh and Schleiermacher at 

' JaAri./.il. FAihi.ixxiiiT 16 (,U\vi^og(; Die !-l>/ais.:AeAtina!isiii{jSji). 

' Sludien (1863) ; p. 133 lUfira. > Biogr.Jakrb. 1886, 31—61. 

* i88s (with 8 maps)! ed. 5, 189+ ; E. T. 1886. ' 1858; ed. 1, 1859. 

' b. iSji ; author of RUmisihe Dalen (1856), articles in Rheiit. Mus. xii, 
xiii, Pkilol. xii, N. Jahrb. Suppl. 1856-9; Gr. Heorlologie (1864); Gr. 
ChranoUigic (1883). 

' Riimische Forsckuitgm ^lS6■i-^tf). 

" Romisches Staatsrecht, 1871-88; Fr. T. 1887-96 ; Abriss, 1893. 



Berlin, and under Hermann at Leipzig. The revision of this 
Handbook by Marquardt and Mommsen made it practically a 

The early preparations for a Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 
are associated with the name of August Wilhelm Ztimpt (1S15 — 
1877), who aimed at little more than extracting and reananging 
the inscriptions that had been already published. His papers on 
inscriptions' brought him into frequent conflict with Mommsen, 
who laid his own scheme before the Academy in 1847'. This 
scheme, which ensured a strictly scientific exploration of the 
whole field, was approved, and its execution was entrusted to 
Mommsen, whose great powers of work and capacity for oi^anisation 
ensured its complete success'. An excellent selection of inscrip- 
tions was published in 1873 by G. H. C. Wilmanns (1845—1878), 
whose early death prevented his completing his work on the in- 
scriptions collected in Tunis and Algiers {1873-6). 

Mommsen's edition of the Digest (1868-70) formed the larger 
part of the subsequent edition of the Corpus iuris civilis (1871 
etc.)^ He also edited the Monumentum Ancyranum\ the Edict 
of Diocletian (1893), and the Codex Theodosianus (1904-5)'. Some 
of his texts of Latin authors have been already mentioned*. A 
volume of his Speeches and Essays was published in 1905 ; the 
series of his Collected Writings, beginning with three volumes 
on Roman Law (1905-7), already includes the first of the 
volumes on Roman History (1906). 

Mommsen was the greatest of German scholars since the time 
of Boeckh. Beginning with Roman jurisprudence, he applied to 

' Vols. 1 — iii were prepared by Mommsen ; iv — vi (on Roman administra- 
tion) and vii (on private life) by Marquardt. 

' Collected in Conim. Epigrafihicae, 1850-4. 

" Reprinted in Harnack's 'History oflbe Berlin Academy', ii (1900) S'^f' 

* The volumes containing the early Latin (i), oriental (iii), and central 
and southern Italian (ix, x) inscriptions were edited by Mommsen ; the inscr. 
of Spain (ii) and Britain (vii) by Hiibner; those of S.Gaul by O. Hirschfeld ; 
of Pompeii etc. (iv) by Zangemeisler ; of N. Itaiy (ni) and Rome (vi) by 
Bormann, Henzen and Huelsen. 

' Including Imlilutiotus, ed. P. Krilger. 

■ 18651 ed. 3, 1883; Ft. T., i88s. 

' In conjunction with P. M. Meyer. * p. tgj sufira. 



the investigation of Roman History the strict intellectual training 
that he had derived from the study of Roman I^w, Equally 
skilful in negative criticism, and in the art of the historic recon- 
struction of the past, he brought to bear on the science of history 
a singular mastery of the science of language. He combined 
breadth of learning with a lucid and a lively style, and vast 
powers of work with a genius for scientific oi^anisation'. 

Latin Epigraphy and Archaeology were the special province 
of Emil Hiibner {r834 — 1901), who was the son 
of an accomplished artist at Dusseldorf. After his 
early education at Dresden, be studied at Berlin and Bonn, 
and travelled in Italy, Spain, and England. Meanwhile he had 
settled in Berlin (1859), where he was appointed to an 'extra- 
ordinary' professorship in 1863, and was a full professor for the 
last thirty-one years of his life. His travels in Spain resulted 
in his volumes on the 'ancient works of art at Madrid', on the 
Inscriptions of Spain', and on the 'Monumenta linguae Ibericae'. 
His travels in England were undertaken with a view to the 
Latin Inscriptions of that country'. In recognition of this work 
in particular he received an honorary degree at Cambridge in 
1883, and, to the end of his life, he had a most friendly regard 
for England. He was for many years an editor of Hertrus 
(1866-81), and of the Arehdologische Zf//wff^ (1868-72). Among 
his most useful works were his elaborate and comprehensive 
Outlines of the History of Roman Literature', of Latin' and 

' Bibliography in Zangemeisler, T. M. ah SckriftslcUer (1887), completed 
by E. Jacobs, 188 pp. (1905). Biographical notice? by Bardt (1903); 
K. J. Neumann in Mht, Zrilsckr. 1904, 193—338; E. Schwartz in CeU. 
Naihr., 1904! Gompen, Essays, 133—143; Hamack, Kedi (1903); Huelsen, 
in Mitt, dfulsch. archnal. Imt. xviii 193— Jj8; C. Wachsmnth, in Sachs. 
Ctsell. d. Wiss. 1903, 153— J73; L. M. Hartmann, in Biegr. Jahrb. u. 
Dtulschir Nekrolog, ix (1906) 44'— 5'5- Portrait in Ces. Schr. i, and two in 
Rtden. The portrait by Ludwig Knaus represents the historian in his study, 
with a bust of Julius Caesar ; the drawing by Sir William Richmond is repro- 
duced on p. 134; a characteristic photograph, taken by Mr Dew-Smith, is 
published by Messrs Hefier, Cambridge. The Cambridge Address Gtrnianiat 
suae novo Varroni (written by Prof. Mayor) is printed in Lileraiure, 18 Dec. 

« C. I. L. vol. ii. » C. I. L. vol. vii. 

' 1869 etc., ed. Mayor, 1875. » Ed. 1876 etc. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


Greek' Grammar, and of the History of Classical Philolc^', 
including an excellent biblic^raphy, which has often been of 
service in the preparation of the present work'. 

The History of Rome in the Middle Ages was written by 
Ferdinand Gregorovius (1821 — 1891), who was 
bom on the eastern borders of Prussia. He once 
said that he should never have written on mediaeval Rome, if 
he had not spent his boyhood in a mediaeval palace of the 
German knights. It was on a day in 1855, as he stood on 
the Ponte Sant' Angelo, looking 'across the Tiber at the former 
Mausoleum of Hadrian, that he was first inspired with the 
design of writing the History of Rome in the Middle Ages. 
He had already written on Hadrian (1851), and was to return 
to this theme at a later date (1884). The publication of the eight 
volumes of his History of Mediaeval Rome extended from 1 859 to 
1872', and was followed by that of his two volumes on Mediaeval 
Athens (1889). Rome was his head-quarters from 1852 to 1874, 
and the remaining seventeen years of his life were spent in Munich, 
On leaving Rome he wrote : — " I can say with Flavius Blondus : 
' I brought into being that which was not already there ; I threw 
light on eleven dark centuries of the city, and gave the Romans 
the History of their own Middle Ages'". In 1876 the Senate 
of the new capital of Italy enrolled him as an honorary ' citizen 
of Kome', and, when he publicly dechned all congratulations 
on completing his seventieth year in Munich, he signed his name 
with no other title than Civis Romaniis'. The interest of the 
historical works already mentioned, as well as that of the five 
volumes of his Wanderjakre in I/alien, his Capri and Korju, his 
poem of Pompeii {Euphorion) and his 'Graves of the Popes', 
is enhanced by the charm and the clearness of his style. 

Passing from mediaeval Rome to prehistoric Greece, we may 
assign a foremost place among modern works on 
Greek Mythology to the classic treatise' of Ludwig 

' Ed. 1883. * 1876; ed. I, 1889. 

' Seeesp. Gildersleeve, in A.J.P. xxii 113. 

' Ed. 5, 1903 ; E. T. by A. HamiUon, 

" Biogr.Jakrh. 189J, 106 — 113. 

* i8j4 ; ed. 4, witli excellenl Indices, by Carl Robert, 1SS7-94. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 


Preller'. Pteller, like Heyne and Welcker, regarded the oldest 
and the most important of the Greek myths as myths of Nature, 
as representations of ' the elementary powers and processes of 
Nature, the sunshine and lightning, the falling rain and the 
flowing river, and the growth and ripenii^ of vegetation". His 
Roman Mythology, a work of less note, appeared in 1858, 

Comparative Mythology, in connexion with Comparative Phi- 
lology, was well represented by Adalbert Kuhn 
(i8iz— 1881), Rector of one of the schools in 
Berlin'. Comparative Ethnology was the dominant interest in 
the mythol(^cal works of J. W. E. Mannhardt 
(1831 — 1880), who laid the foundation for the future 
fabric of a Mythology of the Germanic nations by a complete 
collection of the folklore of tillage and harvest in his great 
work on forest and field-cults'. Ancient Mythology, which is 
little noticed in the first part of this work, holds a prominent 
place in the second, where the primitive cults are explained in 
the light of the traditions of Northern Europe'. 

We have lingered long in the lands united by the common tie 
of the German language, but we have seen far less of Austria and 
of German Switzerland than of Northern and Southern Germany. 
No part of those lands has been so prolific in classical scholars as 
the protestant North, It is true that the birthplace of Boeckh was 
in Baden, but the principal scene of his learned labours was 
Berlin. Classical education was reorganised in Bavaria by Thiersch, 
in Austria by Bonitz, both of them North Germans bom beside 
the same stream in Saxony. German Switzerland has been repre- 
sented partly by Baiter and Orelli ; Austria by Karl Schenkl and 
the cosmopolitan Otto Benndorf. Theodor Gomperz and Wilhelm 
von Hartel are happily still living. From our survey of ' Germany,' 
in the widest sense of the word, we now turn to the latest fortunes 
of the land which was the earliest home of the Revival of Learning. 

' p. i-}^sufira. 

= Gr.Atyth. p. i; q^ Bursian, ii 1196-7; Block mjahresb. vol, 114, 419 f, 

' Bursian, ii 1100-2, * Wald- vnd Fcldkulti, 1875-7. 

» Bingr.Jakrb. 1881, 1—6. 




EftRLY in the nineteenth century one of the foremost scholars 
in Italy was the learned Jesuit, Angelo Mai (1782 — 
1854). Born in the province of Bergamo, h6 be- 
came Librarian of the Ambrosian and Vatican Libraries, and was 
raised to the dignity of a Cardinal in 1838. 

As Librarian in Milan (1811-9), ^^ published, frooi uss formerly at 
Bobbie, tegmenls of six Speeches of Cicero', the correspondence of 
M. Aurelius and Fronto, portions of eight Speeches of Symmachus, fragments 
of the Vidttlaria ai Plautus, as well as siiolia and pictorial illuslralions from 
the Ambrosian MS of Terence (1814-5). His publications from Greek MSS 
included a lai^ addilion to the Speech of Isaeua De Aireditale Clamymi, 
a hitherto unknown portion of the Reman AnliquilUs of Dionysius of Hali- 
camassus (1816), and an ancient fragment of the Iliad (with illastralions) as 
well as scholia on the Odyssey (1819) ; he also took part in an edition of the 
newly discovered Armenian version of the Eusebian Clironicle (l^l^)- ^i' 
Rome he polilished from a Vatican palimpsest large portions of Cicero's lost 
1reatiseZ>f^<7)tfj/if'a( 1811), collected the remains of the prae-Justinian Civil 
Law (1813), and summed up his wonderful work as an editor of hitherto 
unknown texts by producing from the MSS of the Vatican three great series, of 
ten volumes each, the Sifipioritm veterum nova colUctia (1815-38), the Classici 
auclons (1818-38) and the Spicilegium Romanum (1839-44), After an interval 
of eight years the Spicilegium was followed by the Palrum nova colUclio o( the 
last two years of his life (1851-4)'. 

Cardinal Mai died at the age of 72. The age of 85 was 
attained by an able but less productive worker in 
the same field, Victor Amadeo Peyron (1785 — 1870), **™'' 

formerly a professor at Turin. His best-known work is an edition 
of new fragments of the Speeches pro Scauro, pro TulHo and In 
Ciodium, and of the remains of the fro Milone, from the Turin 

' Pro Scaufo, Tullio, Flacco, in Ciodium el Curionan, dt atre alieno 
Milonis, and dtregi AUxaadrino (1814; ed. 1, i8ij). 

* Life etc. by B. Prina (Bergamo, iSSi) ; G. Polelto (Siena, 1887). 
S. III. I,. I ., II, H&KV^IC 

242 . ITALY. [cent. XIX. 

and Milan mss formerly at Bobbio, together with an inventory 
of the Bobbian mss made in 1461 (1824). He also published 
fragments of Empedocles and Parmenides {1810), a commentary 
on the treatise on prosody by Theodosius of Alexandria {1817) 
with a new fragment of the latter (1820), and an account of the 
Greek papyri at Vienna (1824) and Turin (1826-7)'. 

Beyond the bounds of Italy the Turin professor, Tommaso 
ValIauri{i8o5 — 1897), was best known as the oppo- 
nent of the principles maintained by RitschI in the 
textual criticism of Flautus. His edition of four of the plays' 
was followed by a critical text of the whole (1873). Ritschl's 
discovery that the true name of the poet was T. Maccius Plautus' 
was opposed in i868 by Vallauri, who adhered to the traditional 
name of M. Accius Plautus. He also wrote a critical history of 
Latin literature {1849), and edited a large number of school-texts 
of Latin Classics'. 

Comparative Philology has been well represented by Pezzi 
and Ascoli. Domenico Pezzi was professor of the 
Comparative History of the Classical and Romance 
Languages at Turin (1844— 1906). His principal work, Latingua 
greca antka (1888), begins with a historical sketch of the study 
of Greek, followed by a systematic account (i) of the phonology 
and morphology of the language, and (2) of the 
Greek dialects'. Graziadio Ascoli (1829 — 1907), 
who was appointed professor of Comparative Philology in Milan 
in i860, was the founder of the 'Archivio Glottolt^ico Italiano' 
{1873). His lectures on Comparative Phonology and his Critical 
Studies have been translated into German, and bis edition of the 
'Codice Irlandese' of the Ambrosian Library (1878) is an im- 
portant aid to the study of Celtic*. 

' Sclopis, in Aiti di accad. diTerita, 1870, 778^807- 

" AuL,Milis, Trin., Men. (1853-9). 

" Parerga, 9—43 ; Ribbeck's Jiilichl, ii 100. 

* Autobiography (1878) ; Bursian, ii 824 n, 1, II39. 

' CI. RtB. iii J09 f. His earlier work, Glottologia Aria Ricintissima 
{1877; E. T. by E. S. Roberts, 1879), practically ends with Ascoli's discovery 
of the 'velar' gullurals (1870). 

• A. de Gubematis, Did. Internal., s.v. ; Alhena^um, 1 Feb. r907, p. 136 ; 
JfivisladiFil.i^Tiao.i; Bursian's jfiAre/*. Ivi 168(1 GWes, Comf.Phil.%^i. 



The study of Greek has for obvious reasons been less promi- 
nent in Italy than that of Latin. Plato has, 
however, been translated by the Italian statesman, 
Ruggero Bonghi (1828— 1895), who is also known as the author 
of a History of Rome', and of a work on Roman Festivals^ 

Among Latin scholars, a place of honour is due to Vincenzo 
De-Vit (iSio— 1892), who was educated at the 
Seminary of Padua, was Canon of Rovigo and 
Librarian of the local Academy (1844-9), became a member of 
the Institute of Charity founded by Rosmini at Stresa (1849-61), 
and, after a year, in Florence, spent the rest of his life mainly in 
Rome- His revised and enlarged edition of Forcellini, begun 
before 1857, was completed in 1879. This was supplemented by 
his Onomaslicon, extending from A to O (1869-92). His earliest 
work was on the Fragments of Varro (1843); he also collected 
the Inscriptions of the region of Adria (1853), and wrote lexico- 
graphical articles on Latin inscriptions, besides discussing the 
Britons and the Bretons', and the inscriptions and the historic 
associations of the Lago Maggiore and the Valley of the Ossola. 
It was in the College of the Rosminists at Domodossola that he 
spent the last few months of a life consecrated to the duties of a 
priest and a scholar'. 

Forcellini has also been edited anew in 1864-90 by Fr. Corra- 
dini(i8zo — 1888). This edition, founded to a con- 
siderable extent on the work of Reinhold Klolz', 
was completed by Perin, who (like Conadini and De-Vit, 
and Forcellini himself) was an alumnus of the Seminary of 

Among other Latin scholars may be mentioned Giovanni 
Battista Gandino (1827 — igosX professor of Latin 
at Bologna, who (apart from a number of successful 
school-books) published studies on ancient Latin {1878), contri- 

' Vol. 1, 1888 ; Lectures on Ancient History, 1879. 

* UFaURonume, 1891; Germ. T., [1891]. 
» Opae, vol. X (ed. 1889). 

■ * ErmaDQO Ferrero, in Btogr. Jahrb. 1899, 16 — 30- 

• Cp. Geoi^es, in Bursian's Jakrab. ii 14J6, ui 1 70, and Phtlol. Ata. iii 

., (^,-tfoo^ic 


buted valuable articles to the Rivista di J^ilologia\ and produced 
an excellent work on Latin style (1895)'. 

No account of Classical Scholarship in Italy would be 
complete without the name of the Italian Senator, 
Domenico Comparetti, who was bom in Rome 
(1835) and became professor of Greek at Pisa and Florence. He 
produced a critical text of Hypereides, pro Euxenippo, and of the 
Funeral Oration {1861-4). He is widely known as the author 
of the standard work on 'Virgil in the Middle Ages", He 
subsequently produced an important edition of the 'Laws of 
Gortyn' (1893), and a text and translation of Procopius. Among 
his numerous papers may be mentioned those on the papyri of 
the Villa of the Pisos at Herculaneum*. He was the founder of 
the ' Museo Italiano d' antichitk classica' (1884 f). 

Classical Archaeology has been studied in Italy with ever 
ArchKoioeisis '^Creasing success. In the first half of the century 
one of the foremost authorities on ancient archi- 
■""' tecture was Luigi Canina (1795 — 1856), who 
studied in Turin and, in 1818, left for Rome, where he produced 
in 1844 the second edition of his classic work in twelve volumes, 
entitled V architeitura aniua'. He wrote besides on the exploration 
of Tusculum and Veii, and on the topography of Rome. Rome 
was also the scene of the archaeoli^cal work of Guattani (d. 1830) 
and Fea (d. 1 836), the representatives of Italy among the founders 
of the Archaeological Institute in 1829. Bat the Italian interest 
in archaeology was far from being confined to Rome. In the first 
half of the century there was no country in Europe that could 
vie with Italy in the number and the variety of the separate 
Academies for the study of local archaeology. That study assumed 
divergent forms in Naples, Rome, Florence, Turin, Modena 
and Venice, while the most distinguished archaeolc^ist in all 
Italy, Bartolommeo Borghesi (1781 — 1860), whose 
archaeological correspondence covered every part 
of the peninsula, spent the last thirty-nine years of his life in 

' V 101—160 (Gen. in -as) ; vi 453—4.73 (termination of the comparative). 

s A. de Gubernatis, Dul.s.v. ' 1873; ed, j, 1896 {E. T. 1895). 

* A. de Gubernatis, j. v.\ esp. in Comparetti and De Petra's Villa Eno- 
(lanwif, folio (1883). 

° 'Luigi Caninas phantasievollen Arbeilen' (Michaelis, Arch. EntJ. 117). 



the smallest of the Italian States, as citizen and podest^ of the 
still-independent Republic of San Marino. His activity was 
mainly devoted to the study of coins and inscriptions. He pro- 
duced two volumes on the new fragments of the Fasli Consulares 
(1818-20), and his collected works filled nine volumes (Paris, 
1862-84)'. The Corpus Inscrtptionum Latinarum owed much 
to his friendly aid. The study of coins was long 
represented at Modena by Don Celestino Cavedoni 
(179s — 1865), the author of 'Observations on the coins of the 
Roman gtntes' (1829-31)'. 

In Naples Francesco Maria Avellino (1788 — 1850) was pro- 
fessor of Greek, and (in and after 1839) director of 
the Museo Borbonico. He wrote on the acs grave 
of the Museo Kircheriano, and the inscriptions of Pompeii, and 
contributed largely to the Bullettino Arckeologico NapoHlano, which 
was founded by himself, and continued to the end (i86i) by 
Minervini (1825 — 1895)'. Naples was the birth-place of the 
learned Jesuit, Raffaele Garrucci (1812 — iS85),who 
published the first edition of his Graffiti di Pompii 
shortly before the thirty years of his residence in Rome. He pre- 
pared a Sylloge of Inscriptions of the Roman Republic (1875-7, 
1881); his latest work, that on the 'Coins of Ancient Italy', was 
published in Rome in the year of his death. The antiquities of 
Etruria were fruitfully studied by Ariodante Fabretti 
( 1 8 1 6 — 1 894), professor of Archaeolt^y and director 
of the Museum at Turin, the author of a Corpus of ancient Italian 
inscriptions (1867-78). Meanwhile, the antiquities of Sicily had 
been set forth in five folio volumes in 1834-42 by 
the Duca di Serradifalco with the aid of Saverio cavaUari 
Cavallari*, the able archaeologist who was asso- 
ciated with Holm in the great topographia anheologica di 

' Noel des Ve^rs on Marc Aurilt (Paris, 1860) ; Hcnzen, in Fleckeisen's 
^dAri. Ixxxisftg— 575- 

' NoliHe, Modena, 1867. 

» Biogr. Jahrb. 1900, 18—10. 

* 1809—1898; L. Sampolo, in fiu/Zi/Wiw of Palermo Acad. (1899) 41 f. 

' Palermo, 188 j; Germ. ed. B. Lupus (Stiassburg, 1887). 

■ h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


246 ITALY. [cent. XIX. 

The political union of Italy, begun in i860 and completed in 
1870, had an important effect on the organisation of 
archaeological research. On the expulsion of the 
Bourbons from Naples in i860, Giuseppe Fiorelli (1824 — 1896) was 
placed at the head of the great local Museum, and superintended 
the systematic excavation of Pompeii (1860—75) until he was called 
to Rome to become Director General of Museums and Excavations. 
The municipality of Rome had established an archaeological com- 
mission in 1872, and soon began the publication of a monthly 
BuUeltirm. At Bolt^na an important Museum was founded for 
the preservation of prehistoric, Etruscan, and other antiquities, 
and an Etruscan Museum was also founded in Florence. The 
revived interest in archaeology extended to the utmost limits of 
Italy, and antiquarian periodicals were published in many places, 
extending from Turin in the North to Palermo in the South'. 
But the centre of archaeological interest has remained in Rome. 
189015 the date of the discovery of the inscription commemorating 
the ludi saeculares and including the statement ; carmen composuit 
Q. Horatius Flaccus'. Since the end of 1898 the excavations in 
the Roman Forum have comprised the discovery of the site of 
the 'Lacus Curtius', the base of the colossal statue of Domitian 
described in the Silvae of Statins, the pavement on which the 
body of Caesar was burnt, the legendary tomb of Romulus, and 
the earliest of all Latin inscriptions. 

Latin inscriptions were among the most important of the anti- 
quarian interests of Luigi Bruzza and Giovanni Battista de Rossi. 
Bruzza (i8iz — 1883) was a Earnabite monk, who 
taught Latin and Greek in Piedmont and in Naples, 
and first made his mark as an antiquarian at Vercelli. Called 
to Rome by his Order in 1867, he incidentally produced an 
important monograph on the inscriptions on the marble blocks of 
the recently discovered Emporium on the Tiber (1870), and also a 
complete collection of the Roman inscriptions of Vercelli (1874), 
a work that won the highest praise from Mommsen", while the 
grateful citizens of Vercelli called their local Museum by the 
name of Bruzza and struck a gold medal in his honour. He was 
president of the Roman Society for the cultivation of Christian 
' Cp. Stark, 301-4. = C. /. L. vi 4 (a) p. 3141. » 1*. v 736. 

h. i., 11,1^.001^10 


archaeolc^ ; and it was while he was superintending the excava- 
tion of the crypt of St Hippolytus that he met with an accident 
which ultimately proved fatal. On his death, his services to the 
cause of archaeolc^y were warmly eulc^ised by de Rossi'. 

Giovanni Eattista de Rossi (1822 — 1894) was great in many 
branches of archaeology and especially great in 
Latin epigraphy. One of his most important achieve- 
ments in that department was the publication of all the early 
collections of Roman inscriptions'. He took part in collecting 
the inscriptions of Rome for vol. vi of the Corpus. He also did 
much for the study of Roman topography, including the ancient 
lists of the Regions of the City. In 1849 his methodical inves- 
tigations resulted in the discovery of the fragmentary inscription 
which led to his identification of the cemetery of San Callisto'. 
He is justly regarded as the founder of the recent study of 
Christian Archaeology in Rome', but De Rossi himself had a 
special reverence for the memory of 'the true Columbus' of the 
Catacombs, Antonio Bosio (1575 — 1629), the learned and indus- 
trious author of a far earlier Roma Sotterranea (1632). 

Late in the eighteenth century, Don Jos^ Nicolas de Azara 
(1731 — 1804), a friend of Winckelmann and Mengs, 
returned to Spain from Rome with a valuable col- p^r^gai^ 
lection of ancient busts, now in the Royal Gallery 
of Sculpture, Madrid'. Hiibner's visit in 1860-1 aroused in Spain 
and Portugal a new interest in Latin inscriptions and in works 
of ancient art". But the study of Greek has long been at a low 
ebb, and the modern literature of the subject is mainly limited to 

' Biogr. Jakrh. 1884, H1-4! and F. X. Kraus, Essays, ii (1901), 31 — 39. 

' Syltogt EinsidUnsis elc. in liner. Christimiae, vol. ii, pars i (i883), and 
in C./'. (1876-85). 

' Inscr. Chrisliatiae (i85;-88) ; Roma Sottirranea (1864-77). 

* Biogr. Jahrb. 1900, 1 — 17; BaiirnEarten, De fforn (Kdln, 1891!; Kraus, 
Essays, i (1896) 307—314. 

' llMhoKT, Die aniiken Bild-Bitrie in Madrid {t^j), ti)S. 

' Stark, 30J; Bursian, ii 1141. 

^ Apraiz, Apunl/s fara una historia de los atiidics heleniios en Espaiia, 
190 pp. (1876I, ad Jinem, reprinted from Jievisia de Espaiia, vols, xli — xlvij 
(cp. Ch. GrauK, in Revui Critique, \^ aaQt, 1876). 





The literary life of the industrious scholar, Jean Baptiste 

Gail (1755 — 1829), is equally divided between the 

eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries. During 

the eighteenth, his published works were connected with Lucian 

and Theocritus, Anacreon and the Greek Anthology, and the 


From a cast of the Medallion by David d' Angers. 



authors included in the fourteen volumes of his Scriptores Graeci; 
during the nineteenth, with Homer, Thucydides, and Herodotus. 
He also edited the speech of Demosthenes, Dt Rhodiorum 
Zibertate, and was the author of certain Observations grammaticalef 
au cilibre M. Hermann (1816). Appointed professor of Greek 
at the College de France in 1792, and Conservateur of the 
Paris Library in 1814, he edited during the next fourteen years 
of his life a classical periodical called Le Phihlogue. His 
numerous publications attained only a moderate degree of excel- 
lence, their main value depending on their collations from Paris 
MSs'. His contemporary, Simon Chardon de la 
Rochette (1753— 1814), Inspector of the Paris ^^ u*'r^'i." tte 
Libraries, published a notice of the Greek scholia 
on Plato (1801) and three volumes of Melanges on criticism and 
philology {1812)', 

A far higher reputation attaches to the name of Jean Francois 
Boissonade de Fontarabie (1774 — 1857), who suc- 
ceeded Larcher as professor of Greek in the uni- 
versity of Paris (1813), and Gail as professor at the College de 
France {1828). He began his classical career by editing the 
Heroicus of Philostratus (1806). In the course of nine years 
(1823 — 32), he produced the twenty-four volumes of his annotated 
series of Greek poets. A greater novelty characterises his publica- 
tion of the first edition of the Greek translation of Ovid's Metamor- 
phoses hy Maximus Planudes (1822), the editio princeps of Babrius 
(1844)^, the five volumes of his Aneedoia Graeca, and his Anecdota 
Nova. The larger part of his editorial work was connected with 
the later writers of Greek prose, e.g. the Letters of Aristaenetus 
(1822), and Philostratus (1842); and, in his prefaces to such 
writers, he was fond of modestly saying that the mediocrity of 
their genius was suited to the mediocrity of his own ability. But 
he also published an Aristophanes (1832), and spent many years 

^ Cp. Dader in Mim. de PAcad. des Inscr. ix 11 ; and BShr, in Etsch and 

• He was a friend of Koraes, whose Letters to Rochelle were published in 
1873-7; cp. Theteianos, KoraH, i 176 f. and/awiw; also preface to Didot ed. 
o\Attlk. Pal. 1 ix. 

* p. I J9 supra. 


2SO FRANCE. [cent. XIX. 

over a proposed commentary on the Greek Anthology. He con- 
tributed largely to the new edition of the Greek Thesaurus, and 
among his correspondents abroad were Wolf and Wyttenbach, 
»nd the Greek lexicographer, Edmund Henry Barker. It is said 
that the whole of his first lecture at the College de France was 
devoted to the exposition of the first three words of Plato's lon^; 
and his love of detail led him to si)end half-an-hour on the 
elucidation of the term adamas. In his lectures he also gave 
proof of his being a fluent translator, but he only once began his 
course with a general introduction on the life and works of the 
author whom he proposed to expound. The exception was in 
the case of Plutarch (1813). He seldom lectured on any author 
so late as Plutarch, while he seldom edited any author so early. 
It is to be remembered to his honour that, but for his editorial 
aid, many of the minor Greek authors might still have been 
buried in oblivion'. 

An edition of Longus was produced in i8ro by Paul Louis 
Courier (1773 — 1825), the brilliant writer and officer 
of artillery, who translated the Hipparchicus and 
De re equestri of Xenophon {1813), and the Asinus of Lucian 
(i8i8), besides annotating a new edition of Amyot's Heliodorus 
(1822), and leaving notes on the Memoraliilia, which were post- 
humously published by Sinner (1842). He completed the trans- 
lation of Pausanias (1814-23) by his brother-in-law, 6tienne 
Clavier (1762 — 1817). 

We may briefly notice Jean Louis Burnouf (1775—1844), 

the author of a celebrated Greek Grammar, and 

the translator of Tacitus; and Joseph Naudet 

(1786 — 1878), the editor of Oberlin's Tacitus, and of Catullus 

and Plautus, and the author of works on the 

postal organisation of the Romans, on the Roman 

Noblesse, and on the public administration from Diocletian 

to Julian. We next reach the notable name of the versatile 

' rbt'luitu xalpiw. 

' E^er, in M^ui. de lilt. am. 1861, i— 15; also nofices by Le Bas, 
Nandet, and Saint-Beuve ; some of hb Letters in the correspondence of 
P. L. Courier. 

' Father of EugJne Bnrnoiif (1801-52), the critic of Bopp (1833), and the 
lirst decipherer of 'Zend', one of the foremost orientalists of France. 



Victor Cousin (1792 — 1867), who was professor at the Sorbonne 

in 1815-22 and 1828-30, and Minister of Education 

in 1840. He is connected with Greek scholarship 

by his edi/io princeps of Proclus (1820-7), ^"^ by his French 

rendering of the whole of Plato {1S21-40)'. He threw new light 

on the less-known works of Abelard, and contributed to the 

elucidation of the history of the scholastic philosophy. 

Cousin's contemporary, Henri Joseph Guillautne Patin (1792 
— 1876), dean of the Faculty of Letters in Paris, 
and a member of the French Academy, is known as 
a translator and an exponent of Horace, as the author of a course 
of lectures on the history of Latin poetry, and a series of studies 
on the ancient Latin poets', and on the Tragic poets of Greece', 
— a work which has been justly characterised as admirable in its 
learning and in the soundness of its taste'. 

Latin lexicography is represented by Louis Marius Quicherat 
(1799^1884), who in 1849 received an appointment 
in the department of mss in the Bibliotheque Sainte- 
Genevi^ve, rose to be Conservateur of that library in 1864, and 
retired in 1882. 

His appointmeDt hnppily left him sufiRcient leisure for lileraiy work. For 
liis Thesaurus FeSicus Linguae Lalinae, lirsl published in i8j6, he worked 
through all the Latin poets, and, in Ihe course of its preparation, he incident, 
ally edited Virgil, Horace, Persius, Phaednis, the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and 
the Andria and Adelphi of Terence (1818-31). He also edited Nepos and 
Curtius, Ihe G/imania and Agrieola of Tacitus, and the Brutus and Somnium 
Seipianis of Cicero (1819-41). Except in the case of Nepos, the notes to these 
editions were in Latin, in accordance with the custom that slill prevailed 
in France. His Thesaurus Feiticus was followed in [844 by his Latin and 
French Dictionary, in which he was aided by A. Daveluy, afterwards Director 
of the French School at Athens. His Dictionary of Latin Proper Names 
(1846) included about 19,000 items, while his Addeniia Lexicis Latinis 
(1861-80) supplemented the existing lexicons with more than 1000 words. 
His French and Latin Dictionary of 185S filled as many as 1600 pages of three 
columns each, and passed through 16 editions. To hb three Dictionaries he 

> Ra>. de tintlr. Pubttque, 1867, 679; Naudet's Notice (Paris, 1869); 
portrait in Ihe ^cole Nariaale Supirteure. 

' itudes sur la Palsie laline, i vols. 1 868-9. 

' 4 vols. 1841-3 ; ed. 5, 1879. 

< Cp. Boissier and Legouve, Discours A tAcail., and Caro, Journal des 
Savants, 1876 (Reinach, Manuel de Phihlogie, inn. 1 1). 




devoted thirty j'cais of his life. The same department of leaming nas repre^ 
sented in his edition of the Latin lexici^rapher and grammarian, Nonius 
{tSjFj). During the next seven years he was engaged on the preparation of a 
new issue of his Thesaurus Peelicui, in the preface of which he laments the 
decline in the interest in Latin verse in France. His minor works were 
connected with French and Latin versification, white some of them gave proof 
of his special skill in Music. In r879 he published a collection of 3a of his 
articles under the title of MHangis di Philalogie. He regarded with suspicion 
certain reforms in Latin orthography suggested by Ritschl and his school, but 
he was no blind follower of the beaten track. In his own work he always 
insisted on going back to the original authorities. While he made his mark 
mainly as a Latin lexici^p-apher, and an editor of Latin Classics, it may he 
added that he produced editions of some dialogues of Lucian, the De Corona 
of Demosthenes, the Ajax of Sophocles, and the Iliad of Horaer'. 

An excellent Greek and French lexicon was produced by 
his contemporary Charles Alexandre (1797— 1870), 
who is also known as the editor of the Sibylline 
Oracles (1841-56, '69')*. The eminent French lextct^rapher, 
Maximilien Paul Emile Littre (iSoi — 1881), began 
his brilliant and varied career as a student of medi- 
cine. In 1839 he was elected a member of the Academy of 
Inscriptions. In the same year he commenced his celebrated 
edition and translation of Hippocrates, which was completed in 
ten volumes in 1861, and laid the foundation of the modern 
criticism of this author. 

The popular side of classical lite tature was represented by Desir^Jean Marie 
Napoleon Nisard (1806^1888), professor of Latin Eloquence 
at the College de France, the author of Studies on the Latin 
Poets of the Decadence (including Phaedrus, Seneca, Persius, Statlus, 
Martial, Juvenal, and Lucan)", and on the four great Latin Historians', and 
also of an ingenious essay on Zoilus'. Personally interested in ancient 
literature, be nevertheless had no pretensions to being a scholar, and he was 
less of a historian than a literary critic. In his Notts el Soieuenirs, he frankly 
confesses that he had no concern with erudition, which he regarded with 
suspicion as an importation from Germany. In his opening lecture at the 
Scale Normale he even warned lib audience against that form of leaming, 
notwithstanding the presence of the Director of the School, Guigniaut, whose 
own reputation had lieen made by his elaborate edition of Creuier's SyiiiboUk. 

> Emil Cbatelain in Biogr.Jahrb. 1884, 158—133. 

' Guigniaut, Acad, dts Inscr. xxix. 

' 1 vols. 1834, etc. ' 187+. 



Dtsiri Nisard was Ihe edilor of a popular series of French translations from 
the Latin Classics, while his younger brother, Charles Marie 
Nisard (1808—1889), contributed IQ the series a iranslalion of " " "' 
all (he elegiaj: poems of Ovid (except the Hereides), as well as Martial, 
Valerius Flaccus, and Forlunatus', with part of Livy and Cicero, and a 
separate volume of notes on Cicero's LetlersK The earliest of his works 
ostensibly connected with (he History of Scliularship was the study of ihe 
careers of Lipsius. Scaliger, and Casaubon, contained in his Triumvirat 
IMttraire au XVI siiiU (iSjiJ. In the preface he tells us how his MS of a 
complete index of persons and places in the I^tin Classics, which he kept at 
his office in the Tuiteries, perished in the flames in February, 1S48, when the 
MS of his Triumvirat Liltiraire happily escaped a similar fate. This work, so 
far from really being a chapter in the History of Scholarship, is mainly a study 
of literary manneis, teeming with amusing anecdotic details on the lives wid 
the quarrels of ihe scholars concerned. It is doubtful whether the author ever 
made any serious attempt to comprehend the chronological researches of 
Scaliger, the account of which fills a few pages borrowed from Haihim'. He 
deserves credit, however, for making the personages whom he studies live 
and move before the reader's eyes, and, if he says too little of their works, he 
is certainly familiar with their foibles*. Another work of Ibe same type, 
bearing the fanlaslic title of Les gladialeurs de la ripublique det Utins au 
XV~XVn siicUs (i8«o), contains studies on Filelfo. Poggio, Valla, 
Scioppius, and the elder Scaliger, and also on Fr. Garasse (1J85— [63i)< ^ 
Jesuit of Angoulfme, who violently attacked Ihe Calvinisis, Casaubon and 
Estienne Pasquier". Here again, as in the Triumvirat, he is absorbed in 
(he analysis of polemical pamphlets. Himself the most peaceable of men, 
he had almost a passionate interest in the literary quarrels of others. In 
1876 his election as a member of the Academy of Inscriptions in the place of 
Didot stimulated him to work on with renewed enei^ (o the age of So. In 
the year after his election, he published the correspondence of the Comte de 
Caytus, the Abb^ Barthetemy and P. Mariette, with (he Tbeatine priest. 
Paciaudi (t i757-(5!), a correspondence proving that Paciaudi had a conader- 
able share in the editing of the last live volumes of the Kecatil dAntiquiUs of 

' His papers on this poet were republished after his death by M. Boysse, 
with a bibliography on pp. 193 — leo. 

* Severely reviewed in x'bs Philotogische Wochmschrift 1883, 1156. 
» Hist. Lit. i sjo*. 

* The work is characterised by Bernays, J. J. Scaligtr, 19, as unworthy of 
mention from a scholarly point of view, and as having misled an able reviewer 
into believing (hat Scaliger was a trh franchtnient mauvais homme. 

' Cp- Mimoires de Garasst, ed. Ch. Nisard (18S0). 

* Nisard also wrote on (his subject in the Kivui de Frame. Cp. Stark, 
147-9, ""^ ^^P- S- Reinach, in Biogr.Jahrb, 1889, (53- 


254 FRANCE. [cent. XIX. 

In contrasl lo the biolhers Nisard, whose principal aim was the popular- 
ising of Ihe Classics, Iheir contemporary, Knigne Eoimanuel 
' " Clement Miller (iSll— 1886), was an unweaned student of 

MSS, uho found a greater delight in adding new words lo the Greek Thesauras 
than in setting forth Ihe merits or the masterpieces of the ancient world. In 
1H34 Miller entered the manuscript department of the Paris Library, and 
under the influence of K. B. Ilase, who had l>een in that department for 
nearly thirty yean, he was inspired, not only with a passion for Ihe quest of 
new words, but also with a keen interest in the exploration of the later Greek 
literature. In the course of his researches he became one of the most expert 
palaeographers in Europe. In iHj5 he was sent to Italy 10 examine the Ji'&)/j<> 
on Aristophanes. In 1839 he published an edition of Ihe minor Greek 
geographers, Marcianus,. Artemidoros, and Isidore of Charax, and in 1841 a 
new Greek version of Aesop- For five years (1840-5) he took a leading 
interest in the ahott-lived Rtvne dt Bibliographie Analytique. In 1843 he was 
sen! by Villemain to explore Ihe libraries of Spain ; his Catalogue of Ihe Greek 
diss of Ihe Escurial appeared in 1848, and his supplement to Iriarte's 
Catali^ue of ihe Madrid mss in 1884. Among the mss brought by 'Mynas' 
from Mount .Alhos in 1840, Milter fortunately identified part of the Phi- 
losBphumena of Origen, and edited il for the Clarendon Press (1851). 
Meanwhile, he had left the Library in the Rue Richelieu for that of the 
' National Assembly ', and he was the head of that Library from 1849 to 1880. 
In 1855-7 Ji* published the tSiO*" lines of the Byianline poet, Manuel Philes. 
After exploring the libraries of Russia, he found among the MSS of ihe Seraglio 
at Conslanlinople the work of the Byzantine hislorian, Crilobulus of Imbros. 
During his subsequent examination of more than 6000 MSS al Mount Athos, be 
paid a visit to Thasos, which led lo important discoveries connected with 
Greek inscriptions and Greek sculptures'. In 1868 and 1875 respectively, he 
produced his Milanges de lilleralure grecque, and dt pkilelogie et iptpigraphii. 
In the former he published, among many inedited texts, the Etymologicum 
Florinlinum and Ihe El. paiTum, with certain works of Aristophanes of 
Byzantium and Didymus of Alexandria. He also published Ihe historical 
poems of Theodoras Prodromus (1873}, ihe Greek historians of Ihe Crusades 
(i8;5-8i), and the Chronicle of Cyprus (i88j). He preferred exploring the 
avia loca of Byzantine literature to lingering amid the Classics of the golden 
age \ and probably no one since the days of Leo Allatius and Du Cange was 
more familiar with mediaeval Greek than Emmanuel Miller'. 

In 1867 Miller, in conjunction with BeuU and Brunet de Presle, was one 

of the founders of Ihe Association for the encouragement of 

Greek studies. Another of the founders was Gustave d'Eichlhal 

(1804—1886), a Sainl-Simonian, who represenled philosophy as well as 

philology, and who wrote on the doctrine of Socrates, as well as on the study 

' Cp. Michaelis, -4«^. £n/rf.'88. 

' Salomon Reiaach in Biogr. Jahrb. 1886, i 



of modem Greek. In 1S33 he spent nearly two years al Athens, and at that 
time, as well as thirty years later, advocated the adoption of a purified form of 
modern Greek as a universal language. In 1874. he wrote in favour of 
Lechevalier's view that the site of Troy was to be found on (he hills above 
Bunirbashi (1785} and not on Schliemann's mound of Hissarlik, pleading al 
the close ofhis article for the sanitation ofihe plain of Troy and the rebuilding 
of the 'palace of Priam ''. His paper on the religious leaching of Socrates 
(1880) was translated into modem Greek by Valettas. To Greeks residing in 
Paris, or passing through it, he was one of the two perpetual proxmi of their 
nation. The other was itmile E^er'. 

Egger (1813 — 1885) was of Austrian descent. At the early 
age of twenty, he became a Doctor of letters on 
the strength of his two theses on Archytas of 
Tarentum and on Roman education. He began his literary 
career by editing ' Longinus ' On the Sublime^ and Varro De 
Lingua Latina (1837), These were followed by the fragments 
of Festus and of Verrius Ilaccus (1839), by a prize essay on the 
historians of the rule of Augustus (1844), and by an edition of 
Aristotle's treatise on Poetry'. This last was originally appended to 
his excellent essay on the 'History of Criticism among the Greeks' 
(1850), which was republished separately after the author's death. 
His 'elementary notions of comparative grammar' (1852) was 
the earliest work of its kind in Europe ; and, under the title of 
'Apollonius Dyscolus' (1854), he published an essay on the 
history of grammatical theories in antiquity. He wrote much 
on Greek papyri^ and on Greek inscriptions, as well as on the 
language, history and literature of Greece and Rome. Many of 
his papers were collected in his Mkmoires of ancient literature, and 
of ancient history and philology (1862-3). In connexion with 
the History of Scholarship, he wrote on Polemon the periegetes, 
and on the Due de Clermont-Tonnerre, while (apart from his 
admirable essay on the History of Criticism) his most important 
and most popular work was his 'History of Hellenism in France' 
(1869). He was himself one of the first in France to assimilate 
the strict and scientific methods of German scholarship, and to 
clothe its results in the lucid and elegant style characteristic of his 

> Annaaire de e Astociaihn, 1874, 1—58. 

' Salomon Reinach, in Biogr. Jahrb. i8S(i. 14 — 19; Queux Saint-Hilaire, 
in d'Eicblhal's collected Mimoires d Notkes (1864-84), 1887. 
* 1849; ed. 1, 1S74. 


countrymen. In the last three years of his life, he was blind, and 
was compelled to avail himself of the services of a secretary. But 
he continued in all other respects to have perfect possession of 
his faculties, and, even in extreme old age, to retain the enei^y 
and the vivacity of youth '. 

The versatile scholar, Thomas Henri Martin (1813 — 1884), 
studied natural sciences as well as classical literature 
at the ^cole Normale, where he also attended the 
lectures of Victor Cousin. His career as a scholar began with a 
critical analysis of Aristotle's treatise on Poetry'. For more than 
forty years he was an active member of the Faculty of Letters at 

It was there that he prepared the two volumes of his studies 
on Plato's Timaeus (1841), including the text and explanatory 
translation, analysis and commentary, and a series 9f treatises 
showing a wide knowledge of ancient Music, Astronomy, Cosmo- 
graphy, Physics, Geometry and Anatomy. The work was crowned 
by the Academy, and, in conjunction with his edition of the 
Astronomy of Theon of Smyrna {1849), led to his name being 
widely known abroad. 

During his study of the Timaeus he formed a plan for a 
comprehensive history of ancient Astronomy and Natural Science. 
This prompted the publication of his second great work, the 
Philosophie Spiritualiste de la Nature in two volumes (1849), being 
an introduction to the ancient history of the physical sciences. 
The admirable survey of the study of the natural sciences among 
the Greeks down to 529 a.d. (included in his second volume) led 
to his election as a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy. 
He subsequently produced many important monographs on 
special portions of the subject of this work, e.g. on the writings 
ascribed to Heron of Alexandria, and on Cosmography and 
Astronomy. Thenceforth, his published works were almost ex- 
clusively devoted to the natural sciences, as studied by the 
ancients, and were very seldom connected with the Greek litera- 
ture that was the main theme of his public lectures. These 
lectures, however, suggested his writing papers on the Greek 

' Salomon Reinach. Biosr. /ahri. 1885, loS— III. 
» Caen, 1836. 



Aspirates (i860), and on the tril(^ of the Prometheus^. In his 
other writings his ideal was that of a Christian philosopher. His 
work on the Christian doctrine of a future life (1855) passed 
through three editions'. — In the next generation 
the history of Greek science was ably treated by 
Paul Tannery {1843 — 1904), the editor of Diophantus'. 

A history of medical science was published in 1872 by Charles 
Victor Daremberg (1817^ — 1872), the translator of 
Oribasius (1851-76), and of select works of Hippo- 
crates and Galen (1854-6), and the joint editor (with SagHo) of 
the celebrated Dictionary of Antiquities. 

The able Aristotelian, Charles Thurot (1823— 1881), was the 
son of Alexandre Thurot (1786 — 1847), the trans- 
lator of one of Heeren's historical works. After 
passing through the Acole Normak, he was a professor at Pau, 
Rheims, and Bordeaux, and finally, in 1849, ^^ Besan^on, where 
he formed a life-long friendship with the eminent Greek scholar, 
Henri WeiL From 1854 to i86i he was professor of Ancient 
History at Clermont-Ferrand; from 1861 to 1871, Maitre dt 
Confirences in Grammar at the £iole Normale; and, for the 
remaining eleven years of his life. Director of Latin studies at the 
Acole Pratique des Hautes-Atudes, as the successor of Gaston 
Boissier. He succeeded Villemain as a member of the Academy 
of Inscriptions, and was also a member of the Munich Academy. 

His scholarly labours were mainly concentrated on the 
philosophy of Aristotle, and on the history of Grammar. He 
published valuable papers on Aristotle's Rhetoric, Poetic, and 
Politics, and on the Animalium Historia and the Meteorologica*. 
He fiirther distinguished himself by his edition of the commentary 
of Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle de sensu et sensiNli'. 
He also supplied an introduction and notes to his uncle's' trans- 
lations of Epictetus and the eighth book of the Ethics (1874-81). 

As a Latin scholar, he was mainly interested in the History of 

■ Mhi. Jcad. Inscr. xxviii (») 1875. 

* Biegr.yahTb. 1884, 119 — 118. ' ib. 1906, 46 — 48. 

* ViM^y ia Rome Arckialogique, 1861-70; \\%\.m Biegr. Jctkrb.\%%i, 14^ 
' Nelites et Extrails, xsv (1), 1875, pp. 454. 

' Francois Thurot (1768—1831), professor at the Collige de France, 

S. III. ,..,■, 11. tyOOt^lc 


Education and in the Grammatical Studies or the Middle Ages. 
In his theses for the degree of Doctor, he dealt with the mediaeval 
organisation of the university of Paris', and with the Grammar 
of Alexander de Villa Dei (1850). He also published documents 
on the history of the university of Orleans', while the results of his 
careful examination of some hundred mss were incorporated in 
his valuable collection of materials for a history of the grammatical 
doctrines of the Middle Ages'. In a controversy with Prantl 
he held that the Latin form of a synopsis of Logic by Petnis 
Hispanus was the original, while Prantl maintained the or^inality 
of the Greek form of the synopsis by Michael Psellus. Thurot's 
opinion has since been confirmed'. He was- a scholar of wide 
outlook ; he did much towards making France familiar with the 
results of foreign scholarship ; he was a great admirer of Madvig, 
and, in his lectures, drew special attention to the value of the first 
volume of the Adversaria Critica'. 

Sophocles was ably edited in 1867 by Edouard Toumier 

(1831 — 1899); and seven plays of Euripides {1868) 

and the principal speeches of Demosthenes {1873-7) 

by Henri Weil (b. 1818)'; while Aristophanes and the Alexandrian 

poets were tastefully studied by A. Couat (d. 1899). 

The Latin Classics were the field of labour chosen by Louis 
Eugene Benoist (1831 — 1887), who, after twelve 
years' experience as a teacher at Marseilles, was on 
the staff of the Faculty of Letters at Nancy from 1867 to 1871 ; 
and, after a few years at Aix, succeeded Patin as professor in 
Paris (r874-87). In 1884 he was elected a member of the 
Academy of Inscriptions, but was prevented by ill health from 
doing much for the remaining three years of his life. 

While he was still al Marseilles, he edited the CisUllaria and Xuiitns of 
Plautus and the Andria of Terence, but his main attention wa3 devoted to 

1 Dezobry, Paris, :85o, 131 pp, 

' Bi61. di CEcoU da CharUs, xixii (1871) 376—396. 

• Notices it Extraits, xxii (i) 1869, 591 pp. ; cp. Dacunuuls in Cotnpta 
rendus of the Acad, of Inscr. vi (1870) 341 — 170. 

" Slapferio Feslschr., Freibui^ in B., 1896, 130-8; Byz. ZeitschrM ^^^{. 
" Biogr.Jahrb. 1881, J3— 19, after Ren. Cril. 341 f; Riv. Hist. 386 f; Hev. 
di Philol. 171-S; S.Ber.bayir.Akad.m^i^-(,\?X\lQT\%%i\\ Baiily, i886. 

* Aeschylus, 1884, 1907'; &tudes, 1S97-1900; cp. MilangtsH. Writ, 1891. 



Lucretius and Vii^I. His (iTst edition of Virgil appeared in three volumes in 
i86;-7i. His course of lectures in Paris began nilh a eulogy of his pre- 
decessor, I'atLn. while, in the following year, his sludie:^ in Plaulus were 
appropriately combined with an encomium of Ritschi'. His larger edition of 
Virgil was puhlished in [876-80. With the aid of Lantoine, he published In 
1834 an edition of the llfth book of Lucretius, followed by a school-edition in 
t886. Meanwhile, he had embarked on an edition of Catullus, for which the 
translation into French verse was executed in i8;8-8j, by his celebrated pupil, 
Eugene Rostand, but this edition was never completed. Besides numerous 
articles on the authors above mentioned, he wrote on ' Horace in France'', 
but he failed to linish his proposed edition of that poet. In conjunction with 
his able pupii, O. Riemann, he produced an edition of Livy, \xt — xxv 
{1881— 3), in which Riemann was responsible for the text and notes and the 
critical and grammalicaJ appendices, while Benoist dealt with the religious, 
civil, and military institutions. His literary activity extended over a quarter 
of a century, during which he devoted unsparing toil to the textual criticism 
and exegesis of the Latin Classics. He was thoroughly familiar with the work 
of the Latin scholars of Germany, and his editions were distinctly superior to 
those that had hitherto held the field in France. Among the able Latin 
scholars that belonged to his school were Riemann, Waltz, Uri, Constans, 
Goliier, Plessis, and Causeret^. 

Olhon Riemanti (1853—1891), as a student of the French School of Athens, 
spent two years {1874-5) 'i llalyi collating Mss of Xenophon 
and Livy. His third year was reserved for the Ionian islands. 
As a teacher at Nancy, he produced his theses on the language and grammar 
of Livy and on the text of Xenophon's HeUtnua, with his archaeoli^cal 
researches on the Ionian islands and the first part of his studies on the evi- 
dence of Inscriptions as to the Attic dialect. In Paris, shortly after 1881, he 
succeeded Thurot as professor of Greek at the £cole Normale. During the 
latter part of his short life, he published an enlarged edition of his admirable 
work on Livy, and two editions of his excellent Latin Syntax ([886-90)''. 

Daring a brief life of thirty years, the highest distinction in 
palaeography was attained by Charles Graux (1852 - 
— 1882), who began his studies in the Collige of his 
native town of Verviers. For his sound knowledge of Greek he 
was indebted to an aged cur^, whose learning was only equalled 
by his modesty. He continued his study of Greek under Toumier 
in Paris, where he worked at Comparative Grammar under Br^al. 

■ Rev. dePhiigI.ii)t. 
' Rev. pelilique et litt. viii (1875) 719 f. 
» BiBgr.Jakrh. 1887, lu— 117. 

' Since enlarged in Riemann and Goelzer, Gram. Comfarit du Gree it 
du Latin, i vols. (1899—190:). Siogr.Jahrb. 1891, 133 f. 

h. i,«a-t?.oot^lc 


At the age of 21, he was already editing in a scientific spirit the 
Revue de Pkilologte and the Revue Critique. His proficiency in 
Greek Palaeography led to his being repeatedly sent to explore 
the Mss of foreign libraries. In 1879 he published a catalogue 
of the Greek mss of Copenhagen ; and, during his journeys in 
Spain, he examined the contents of no less than sixty libraries, 
while he devoted special attention to the treasures of the Escurial. 
He there found the materials for his Essay on the origins of 
the department of Greek mss in the Escurial, which includes a 
sketch of the Revival of Learning in Spain*. In the Royal 
Library of Madrid he discovered a new recension of certain of 
Plutarch's Lives. During his stay in Madrid, he was presented to 
the King of Spain, and characteristically seized the occasion to 
suggest the possibility of lending Spanish mss to scholars in 
France. To the Rwue de Phtlologie he had contributed an im- 
portant article on ancient Stichometry', and he kept this subject 
in view during all his researches abroad. Some of his earliest 
works had been connected with the Greek writers on fortifications, 
and he had published the treatise of Philon of Byzantium, as well 
as a memoir on the walls of Carthage. He had thus chosen the 
application of critical scholarship to the study of ancient history 
as his special field of labour. Early in 1881 he was appointed to 
the new office of instructor in Greek History and Antiquities in 
the Faculty of Letters in Paris. Before beginning his Course, he 
visited Florence, and stayed for a longer time in Rome, where he 
aided the officials of the Vatican in dating the Greek mss which 
they were then er^aged in cataloguing. On his return to Paris, 
after a brief respite from work, he announced his first lecture, 
but, before the date fixed for its delivery, he was carried off by a 
sudden illness in the thirtieth year of his age. His memory was 
honoured by the publication of a volume of papers contributed 
by seventy-eight of the leading scholars of Europe ; and his lite- 
rary remains were collected in memorial volumes including the 
edilio princeps of certain of the works of Choriclus, an edition 
of Plutarch's Lives of Demosthenes and Cicero, founded on the 

» Bibl. de r£co!e dts kautes /tudts, XLVl (1880). 

' Rev. de Philol. 1878, 97 — 143, (Lydus, rtpl Jhwd,u«ibi-, ib. 1896, 
'3— 35') 



Madrid MS, a revised text of part of Xenophon's Oeconomicus, and 
the treatise on fortifications by Philon of Byzantium'. 

Some of the French translations of the Latin Classics have been noticed in 
connexion with Ihe brothers Nisard. Cicero was translated 
by Joseph Victor Le Clerc (1789—1865)', and Sallnsl by rani ators 

Moncourt. In the department of Greek literature, Homer was translated by 
Giguet, Thucydides by Zc!vort, the Anlidosis of Isocrates by Cartelier, 
Demosthenes by Sti^venart and by Dareste, Dio Cassius by Gros, and the 
DioHysiacii of Nonnus by the Cotnle de Marcellas (1795 — 1861), (who 
presented to Ihe Louvre the Venus de Milo'). Lycophron and the Greek 
Anthology were rendered by DehJque (d. 1870), who counted ^tg*' sioong 
his pupils; Aeschylus and the Metaphyncs of Aristotle, as well as M. Aurelius 
and Plutarch, by Fierron, the author of Histories of Greek and Lalin literature 
(d, 1878)'. 

Aristotle was expounded, as well as translated, by Barthdlemy- 
Saint-Hilaire (1805 — 1895), ""''^^ "^ professor of 
. Greek and Latin philosophy in 1838, and, during gaint-H™^ 
his public career, was principal secretary of the 
provisional government of 1848. His translation of Aristotle, 
begun in 1832, was completed in 1891'. 

The following critique is from the pen of Lord Acton': — 
' He knows Greek thoroughly for working purposes, but not exquisitely as 
a scholar; and he has done little, on the whole, far his idol Aristotle in the 

way of consulting the MSS and improving the unsettled text ' He ' is quite 

at the top of scholars and philosophers of the second class. Not a discoverer, 
not an originator, not even clever in the sense common with Frenchmen, not 
eloqaent at all, not vivid or pointed in phrase; sufficient in knowledge, but 
not abounding, sound, but not supple, accustomed to heavy work in the 
darkness, unused to effect, to influence, or to applause, unsympathetic and 
a little isolated, but high-minded, devoted to principle, willing, even en- 
thusiastic, to sacrifice himself, his comfort, his life, his reputation, to public 
duty or scientific truth.... Not the least of his merits is that, having spent his 
life on Aristotle, he told me that he thought more highly of Plato; and in his 

' Ttxlesgrees, 1886; Notices bibliogr. 1884; Graux et Martin, MSS gncs 
m Suide (1889), Espagne et Portugal (1893), Fac-simiUs (1891)- Biogr. 
Jahrb. 1881, 18 — »i; portrait, life by Lavisse, and biblii^raphy in Milanga 
Graux, 1884. 

" Notiu by Guigniaut, 1866. » Cp. Michaelis, Arch. Enid. 45 f, 

* See also ^ger's HeUiitisme m France, ii 469 — 476. 

" Index of subjects in two vols. (1891). Picot, Notice! Nisloriijues, i (1907) 

* Leitert, 1904, 37—39 (17 Sept. 1880). 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 




Imroduction lo the Ethics he showed the weakness of his hero's attack on 
Platonism '. 

In his fdilion and )ra.ii$latioii of the Politics (1S37), the Books are arranged 
in the following order; — I, 11, III, vii, viii, IV, vi, v. It was a French 
translalor, Nicolas Oresme (d. 1381), who was the first to place Books Vll and 
vni iinmedialely after I, II, ill, while Saint-Hilaire was the firsl to place Vl 

The 'physiology' of Aristotle was the subject of a thesis by 
Charles Waddington (born in i8iq), a member of an 
English family which settled in France in 1780. He 
lectured on Logic at the Sorbonne {1850-6), but, being opposed 
as a Protestant, withdrew to Strassbui^. On returning in 1864, 
he lectured on philosophical subjects. He wrote a monograph 
on Ramus (1855), followed by works on Pyrrhonism (1877), on 
the authority of Aristotle in the Middle Ages (1877), and on the 
Philosophy of the Renaissance and its antecedents (1872-3). 

The study of ancient geography was advanced by Clia.rIeB Athanase Baron 
Walckenaer (1771 — 1851). who lived in Scotland during (he 
French Revolution, and was in the service of France from 
1816 to 1830. In 1840 he became Secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions. 
His lieal-known work is that on the Ge<^aphy of GauP. He also edited the 
Irishman Dicuil's treatise De maaura otbis lerroi (180;), and wrote on the 
life and works of Horace'. The ancient geography of France was similarly 
. studied with marked success by A. E. E. Desjardins (i8'3— 

f?^ '"* 1886), who also made his mark in Latin Epigraphy, while the 
Renter diplomalisl, Charles Tissol (1818— 1884), published an im- 

portant memoir on Caesar's campaign in Africa (1883). The 
Roman inscriptions of Algiers were systematically edited by Leon Renier 
(1809^1885), the author of an able monograph on the siege of Jerusalem by 
Tilus, and the compiler of a large coMeclion of Roman military diplomas*. 
The historian Prosper Mctim^ (18OJ-70), besides pioducing 
" two volumes on Catiline, and on the Social War, look part in 
the preparationof the ffi>Wi>iru!(C/j(ir published in 1865-6 by 
Napoleon III (1808—1873), while Amidee Thierry (i797— 
1873) wrote on Rufinus, .Stilicho, and Eulropius*, and Brunei de Presle 

> SusemihI-Hicks, Polilks, p. 16, n. 4. 

' 3 vols., with atlas, 1839. 

' Naudet's Notice, 1853 ; Saint-Beuve's Lundis, vi. 

' Salomon Reinach in Biogr. Jahrb. viii ( 1885) roj f ; Chatelain in Rev. dt 
Phil. x(r886) if. 

' Also author of Hist, lies Gaulois, and HisI, de la Gaule; notice by 
G. L^vjque, 1873. 

A. Thierry 



(1809 — iS7g), a specialist in modem Greek, treated of Ihe Greeks in Sicily 
(1845) and of Greece under Roman rate (1859)'. 

As a member of the French School at Athens, Fustel de 
Coulanges (1830—1889) published a memoir on 
the island of Chios'. His Latin thesis on the ' Cult 
of Vesta', written on his return to France (1858), contained the 
germ of his best-known work, La Cili Antique (1864), a work 
coinciding in many points with Sir Henry Maine's Ancient Law 
(1861). In 1874 he began the publication of his 'History of 
the Institutions of France', and in the following year became 
professor of Ancient History at the Sorbonne, where, in all 
his lectures, he strongly insisted on the study of the original 
authorities. A proposal to found in his honour a new Chair of 
Mediaeval History was delayed until Gambetta had been assured 
in 1879 that the recognition, in the Citi Antique, of the important 
part played by religion did not really imply the author's sympathy 
with modern ' clencalism ', After spending three years as Director 
of the ^cole Normale, he resumed for the last six years of his 
life his fruitful labours in the Chair of Mediaeval History at the 
Sorbonne'. His Gaule Romaine was posthumously published in 

Among (he dislinguished representatives of Classical Archaeology in 
Franeewas Aubin LooLs Millin de Grandmaison (1759 — 181S), 
author of the MonumoUs oHliqaes itUdiis (t8o5-6), and of Mnii 

the Gaiirie mylhelogiqut (i8ii)*. Of Italian descent, he 
learned German in Strassburg, and, for the last twenty-three years of his life, 
edited a journal that formed a valuable link between the archaeoli^ical studies 
of France and Geimany. In the course of his travels he produced one of the 
fullest descriptions of the Roman remains in the South of France, and his 
visits to Italy led to the first systematic examination of monuments connected 
with the Oresteia (iSij)", He introduced into classical archaeology the terms 
mcnvmtnts antiques and antiquili figurie^. 

A. C. Qualremtre de Quincy (iJSS — '8+9), in his illustrated volume, 
Lt Jupittr Olympim (1814), was the first to enable archae- 
ologists Co form a clear conception of the chryselephantine 

' Queux Saint' Hilaire, in Assoc. Eludes grecs, 1875, 341. 

* Archiitt des missions scitntifiquis, vol. v. 

* Paul Guiraud in Biagr.Jakrb. xii (1889! 138—149. 

* Plates in his PeitUura dt vases antiques (1B08-10) and Pierres grcailts 
inedites (1817-15) republished by S. Reinach, 1891-5. 

* Stark, 157 f. • ib. so. 




work of the ancients. It was not until he actuallj saw the sculptures of the 
Parthenon in 1818 tha.t he fully appreciated their importance'. He was the 
first to recc^ise the value of ' Carrey's' drawings of those sculptures*. 

An epoch in the study of ancient sculpture was made by Jean BaptUte 
Comte de Clarac (1777—1847), who, after living in Switzer- 
land, Germany and Holland, returned to France, and 
became tutor in the family of king Murat at Naples. He there wrote a report 
on the discoveries at Pompeii (1813). In 1818 he succeeded Visconti as 
Conservator of the Louvre. His catalogues of 1810-30 ultimately became a 
manual of the history of ancient art (184J-9). Under the title of Mtisie de 
sculpture antique el mcdtme he published two volumes of outline engravings 
of the sculptures of the Louvre (1816-30), followed by two further volumes 
containing more than JS"" copies of the 'Statues of Europe', arranged 
according to subjects (185J-7), and completed by a volume of reliefs, and 
another of Egyptian, Greek and Roman Iconography. This vast collection of 
outlines was the foundation of all subsequent works on ancient sculpture'. 
Raoul Rochette (1783 — 1854) produced in his Monumem inidits (1818) a 
work of the same title and general aim as that of his contem- 
Rochettc porary, Gerhard. As the successor of Millin at the Louvre he 
published during twenty-live years a large number of papers on 
archaeological discoveries. He wrote a critical history of the Greek Colonies, 
and a work on (he antiquities of the Crimea. He was specially interested in the 
Pe^amene artists, and in the sculptured representations of Greek heroes*. His 
views' and those of Guigniaul (1754 — 1876), the learned translator and reviser 
of Creuzer's Symbolik, were keenly criticised by Jean 
LeticiBDe Anioine Letronne (1787—1848), the author of works on 
ancient geography, including a critical essay on the topography of Syracuse 
(1812), researches on Dicuil, de meniura orbis terrae (1814), and on the 
Periplusof 'Scylax' (i8j6) and the fragments of Scymnus and ' Dicaearchus ' 
(1840). He also discussed the fragments of Heron of Atenandria (1851), and 
wrote masterly papers on ancient a-stronomy, and on the statue of Memnon*. 
His gjreater works were connected with Greek and Roman coinage (1817-35), 
and with the Greek and Latin Inscriptions of ^[ypt (1841-8)'. 

Philippe Le Bas {1794 — t86o), who had leaml his Greek from Boissonade, 
made the acquaintance of Italian and German archaeo1<%ists 
during his residence in Rome as tutor in the family of queen 

• Letters to Canova. » Stark, 158 ; vol. ii, p. 199 supra. 

' Stark, 367 f. S. Reinach, Clarac de Poche (1897 — 1904); t«isl in the 

• Stark, 197; portrait by his daughter engraved by her husband, Luigi 

• PHntures antiques inMites {1836). ' Inscr. de t'£gypte, ii 315 — ^ia. 
' Longp^iier, Notice, 1849; Egger, Mini, de Philol. 1 — 14. Milanges 

(with Walckenaer's ^hgt), 1860; CEuvres Ckoisies, 1S81-5. 




Hortense. The Iwo years of his mission to Greece and Asia Minor (1943-4) 
were devoted lo the collection or 450 drawings of ancient monuments, and 
5000 inscriptions. Several part* of the Voyagi archiologique en Gria el m 
Asie Mineurt were published in 1847-8. After the death of Le Bas, the 
collection of the inscriptions was greatly enlarged in 1861-1 by W. H. 
Waddington, who extended the quest to Syria and Cyprus, 
and by P. Foucart'. The results of the exploration of Asia 
Minor in 1833-7 ^1 Texier (1794 — 1860) were published in 1849'. 

The Due de Luynes (1803 — 1S67), who played an important part in the 
early history of the Archaeoli^cai Institnle', and generously 
supported the publication of the two volumes of Neuvelles Luvnes 

Annales for 1838-9, independently produced by the French 
section of that Institute in 1S40-5, distinguished himself by bis admirable 
works on the exploration of Metapontum (1836), on (he coins of the Satraps 
(1848), and on the coins and inscriptions of Cyprus (1851). He was the 
liberal patron of archaeoli^cal work at home and abroad, but, in all his 
varied interests, he ever relumed to the art of ancient Greece as the ' shrine of 
beauty'. He lavished his resources on Simart's restoration of the chrysele- 
phantine statue of Athena Parthenos. He was to France what the Earl of 
Arundel was to England, and he left all his vast collections of works of 
ancient art to the Museum in the Paris Library*. 

Charles Lenonnant {1816 — 1881), the discoverer in j86o of the fine relief 
of the divinities of Elensis, was the author of the five volumes 
of the Trher de Humiimatique el de glyfli/ue, and of tbe threi 
of the £lite des immuinniei ciramographiques. He also produced a comme 
laiy on Plato's Cralylus (1861)- He died during his travels in Greece, and w 
bnried on the hill of Colonus". His son Fran9ois (1837 — 
1883) was a versatile explorer in the most varied fields of 
archaeology, epigraphy, and numismatics. Among his principal publications 
were his ' archaeolr^cal researches at Eleusis ' (1861), and his monograph on 
the sacred 'Eleusinian way' (1864). His earliest important work was his 
Essay on the Coins of the Ptolemies (1857). Among the most comprehensive 
of his articles in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionary were those on the 
Alphabet, and on Bacchus and Ceres. He produced numerous memoirs on 
Greek and Latin inscriptions, on works of ancient sculpture, and on numis- 
matics. He took part in preparing seven volumes of masterpieces of ancient 
art, mainly from the Museum at Naples, and in producing highly popular 
works on Magna Graecia, and on Apulia, and Lucania. In conjunction with 

> Stark, 319. Plates published by S. Reinach (1888). 
' Cp. Michaelis, Arch. Entd. 76, rso- 

" ib. 186; Michaelis, Geuh. d. Inst., 44, 63, 85, 9S- 
* E. Vinet, in L'art el Varchhlegie, 468 f ; Stark, 300 f. 

> Netiees by Wallon, 1859 ; and Laboulaye, 1861 ; portrait in the Gaietle 
arehiale^qut, i88s. 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 

C. Lend 

F. I^no 

266 FRANCE. [cent. XIX. 

Baron de Witle, he founded ihe Gazelle Archlolagiquc in 187s ; on Ihe death 
of Beuli in the previous year he was appointed professor of Archaeolc^ at the 
Biblioth^ue Nalionale, and held that position with the highest distii>ction for 
the remaining nine years of his life'. 

Among archaeolf^ts intermediale in age between the elder and the 
I-onnrfrltr J""'"E^' Lenormant were Adrien de Longperier (1816—1881), 
g^^ who wrote on the Bronzes of the Louvre (1869) and on the 

Coins of the Sassanides (r88j), and whose archaeological 
papers were collected by Schlumbeiger" ; and Charles Ernest Beule (1826 — 
1875), who helped to popukrise archaeology by his works on (he Acropolis 
(i8i;4) and the Coinage (1858) of Athens, on the Peloponnesus (i^SS)! '"'^ 01 
Che arts at Sparta, on Greek art before Pericles, and on Pheidias. He also 
wrote on Augustus (a political pamphlet), and on Tiberius and Titus'. The 
h™j mediaeval topography of Athens was excellently illustrated 

by the work of Leon de Laborde on Athens in centuries 
XV — XVII (1854). Athens and the Acropolis were the theme of a woik by 
Emile Bumouf (1877), the second Director of the French School (1 811-1907)*. 
Though the Due de Luynes was one of the warmest friends of the Archae- 
ological Institute of Rome, the Due de Blacas its first presi- 
^f\^heni' '*^'"' ^^^ '^^ learned Guigniaul (the friend of Panofka and 
the 'father of the School of France'') one of the earliest 
members of Ihe Institute, nevertheless It was not (he Institute of Rome that 
suggested the foundation of (he School of Athens. The germ of (he French 
School was the Roman Academy of France, the Academy of artists founded 
by Colbert in 1666*. The School of Athens was founded in 1846 ; during the 
first six(y years of its existence it has had five Directors; — Ameiife Daveluy 
(1846-67). ^mile Burnouf (1867-75), Albert Dumont (1875-78), Paul Foucart 
{1878-90) and Theophile HomoUe, the present Director; and the story of its 
fortunes under these five Directors has been admirably told by (jeoiges 
Radet'. It has explored and excavated in Asia Minor, in Cyprus, Syria, 
North Africa and even in Spain, as well as in Greece, in Thrace and Mace- 
donia, and in the islands of the Aegean. It has lately won fresh laurels at 
both of the ancient shrines of Apollo, at Delos and at Delphi. It has also 
added much to the learning and to the literature of France. Among the 
students entered under Daveluy we find Charles Lev6que', Emile Bumouf, 
' Babelon in Biogr. Jahrb. 1884, 151 — 163 ; Rayel's &ludis, 405 — 414. 
^ 1881, with complete biblii^raphy ; Rayet's Eludes, 396 — 404. 
' Gniyer, in Gaa. cUs Bmux Arts, 1874 ; portrait in G. Radet's History of 
the French School of Athens, opp. p. 174. 

* Portrait in Radet, p. isg. 

' Portrait in Radet, opp. p. io8. 

* Ilomolle, quoted by Radet. 4. 

' VHistoin d I'CEuvre dt I'Scole Franfoise d'Alkims, 1901, 491 pp., 
with 153 illustrations, including portraits of all the Directors. 
' La Seieitu du Beau (i86i). 




Jules Girard, Beule, Edmond About, Fuslel de Coulanges, Heuzey, Georges 
Ferrol, Paul Foucarl, Wescher, Decluufnie, and Albeit Dumont. lAmong 
those entered under Emile Bumoiif: — Rayel, Collignon, HomoUe, and 
Riemann ; under Albert Duinoni : — Paul Girard, Jules Ma.rtha. Bernard 
Haussoullier, and Edmond Pottier; and under Paul Foucart : — -Hanvette, 
Salomon Reinach, Monceaux, Pietie Paris, Diehl, Radet, Deschamps', 
Fougires, Lechat, and Victor B^rard. Many of these names are widely 
known, there are none of them that are not ttuaiirrTa, uiwfrow-u', and there is 
Sundance of promise and more than promise among their successors, the 
pupils of Theophile Homolle. Most of the names represent various depart- 
ments of classical archaeology, but the study of Greek lileralure is also repre- 
sented by E. Burnouf, J. Girard, Perrol, Decharme, and Hauvelte, and the 
linguistic »de of classical learning by the careful treatment of Attic usage in 
(he epigraphic works of Foucart, Riemann and S. Reinach. and by Homolle's 
preliminary paper on the primitive dialect of Delphi. Greek texts were edited 
by Wescher; while Riemann collated the Anibrosian MS of Xenophon's HelU- 
nica and examined the icholia on Demosthenes and Aeschines in the monastic 
library of Patmus'. Part of the recent pn^ress of excavation and discovery 
in the Hellenic world has been traced by S. Reinach', and [he documentary 
history of the French exploration of the East in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centniies has been published by H. Omonl*. The French School of Athens 
published its results first in the Arehivis des missions sdmiifiquts tt litlfrairis, 
and next in a BulUlin begun in (868 and transformed into the well-known 
Bullttin dt corrtspoHdance kclUniiut in 1879- The French School of Rome 
is the younger sister of the School of Athens. When {by the Versailles decree 
of 187 1 ) the Archaeological Institute of Rome was placed under the control of 
the Berlin Academy and thus ceased to be 'international', a French School of 
Rome became a necessity, and it was accordingly founded in 1873. Its work 
is partly represented in the Bihliolhique of the Schools of Athens and Rome 
(which includes De Nolhac's volumes on Petrarch and Hnmanism, and on 
the Library of Fulvio Orsini); its special oi^n is Milangcs d'arcUologic el 
d'hiiloirt; and its present Director is Mgr Duchesne. 

The study of epigraphy and numismatics was ably represented by 
William Henry Waddinglon (18H}— 1894), a cousin of Charles 
Waddington'. He was born at the family chdieau near ji^ *''*'"''" 
Dreux, was educated in Paris and at Rugby, rowed in the 
university.boat at Cambridge, and was a Chancellor's Medallist and second in 
the first class of the Classical Tripos of that university in 1849. His early 
travels in Greece and Asia Minor resulted in his Veyagi en Asie Mineure au 

' La Grice tV aujeard^ hui (1891) etc. 

'' Details in Radet, 397, and, in general, 379—414. 

' Ckroniques d'OrienI, j vols., 1891-6. 

* Missions aTckiolggiqua, % vols. 4I0, xvi + 1137 pp. (1903). 


268 FRANCE. [cent. XIX. 

point de vui ttumismaHqui (1853)'. This was followed by his Milcatget di 
numismatiipii et de philologit (1861-7), his edition of the Edict of Diocletian 
(1864), the Greek and Latin Inscriptions in his continuation of Le Bas' Voyage 
arehhhgique (1868), his 'Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Syria' (1870) and 
his ' Fasli of the Asiatic provinces of the Roman Empire (ed. i, 1872)'. 
He was elected a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1871, and of the 
Senate in 1876, was Minister of Public Instruction in r876-7, and Ambassador 
of Fiance to England in 1883-93. As a. Member of the Academy of In- 
scriptions in Paris (1865) and of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, and 
an Honorary Doctor of the University of Cambridge (1884), he was an 
archaeolf^st who conferred distinction on the land of his ancestors as well as 
on the land of his adoption. ' His manly loyalty to France lost nothil^ 
by the discipline of Rugby and Cambridge, and he adorned public life without 
ceasing to deserve well of archaeolt^ '*. It is nevertheless true that he 
would have served Chat science still better, had he withdrawn from public life 
two-and-lwenty years before his death. He might thus have lived to complete 
and publish his long-expected work on the Coinage of Asia Minor*, a work 
founded on the studies of a life-time and illustrated by an unrivalled collection 
consisting entirely of coins (hat were either very rare or absolutely uniqae'. 
His political popularity was probably at its height in 1877-g, when he was 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Plenipotentiary of France at the Congress of 
Berlin (June, 1878). It was to Waddington that Greece then owed the 
promise of a rectificalion of her frontiers. Early in 1880, on ceasing to 
be responsible for foreign affairs, he paid bis tirst visit to Rome, where 
Salomon Reinach met him in the Lateran Museum. Waddington had at that 
moment an immense reputation as a philhellene, and Reinach suggested a 
tour in Greece. 'On vous recevra' (he added) 'sous des arcs de triomphe,' 
' Mais pr^cisfment ' (replied Waddington} 'je n'aime pas les arcs de triomphe.' 
A more sober form of gratitude would doubtless have been preferred by 
that calm and dispassionate politician and archaeolt^ist who, in all his 
writings, seldom, if ever, allowed himself to lapse into a rhetorical phrase. 
Attracted mainly towards (he solution of diflicult problems of chronology, he 

' Rivut numismaliqut, 1851-3. 

' All these works (except the MUanges) originally formed part of his 
continuation of ' Le Bas.' He also wrote on the chronology of the life of the 
rhetorician Aristides (Mint. Acad. Inscr. 1867), and on the coinage of Isauria 
and Lycaonia (ffw. «um. i88j) and the inscriptions of Tarsus {B. C. H. 

' Jebb in/. H. S. av p. vii. 

* In course of completion by Babelon and Theodore Reinach, for publica- 
tion by the Academy of Inscriptions. 

' Purchased for the Cabinil de M/daillei in 1897 (Babelon's laomiaire 
Sommaire, 1898; Waddington, Babelon, Th. Reinach, Recueil de Monnaies 
d'Asie Mimure, 1904-7). 




regarded the sciences of epigraphy and numismatics solely as handmaids to 
tustoiy or (if we must deny ourselves that phrase in such a context) solely as 
aids lo the attainmenl of historic truth'. 

Among important works on Numismatics may be mentioned the well- 
known DtseripHeit dt nUdatlle! antiques grecquts el romaines 
(iSo6f) by Mionnet (1770 — 1843), the consular and imperial 
Roman coins of Cohen (ed. 1, 1881); and the Byzantine coins (1838} of 
De Saulcy (1807^1880), the oriental traveller and archaeologist^. 

Our survey of the classical archaeolc^sts of France cannot close without 
some I'ecord of the brief but brilliant career of Olivier Rayet 
(1847— -1887}. At the £cole Normale he came under the in- 
spiring influence of his future father-in-hiw, Ernest Desjardins, whose lectures 
on Ancient History and Geography were varied with vivid reminiscences of 
eminent archaeologists, such as Mariette and Borghesi. Rome and Paestum 
and Selious were among the land-marks of Ihe memorable journey of 1869 
that led Rayet to the School of Athens. At Athens he began the fruitful 
studies which resulted in his papers on the Cerameicus. There too he obtained 
for the Louvre, and for his own collection, some of (he linest of the early 
examples of the Tanagra figurines, a branch of ancient art in which he soon 
became a rect^nised expert. He regarded these graceful figures as having no 
mylholc^cal or symbolic significance; they were placed in the tombs (he 
held) simply as substitutes for the victims sacrificed in primitive times as 
companions to the spirits of the dead'. In 1871-3 he was engaged in exca- 
v^ing the theatre of Miletus and the temple of Didyma, and in the discoveiy 
of important sculptures and inscriptions on both sites*. Early in 1974, on 
his return to Paris, he began his lectures on Greek inscriptions and terra- 
collas, and on the topography of Athens; these were followed by further 
lectures on (he history of ancient art ; and ten years after his return he 
succeeded F. Lenormant as professor of archaeology at the Bibliethique 
NaiioncUe. In February 1S87 he died at the age of less than forty, after two 
years of ill health due lo a malady probably contracted during the exploration 
of Miletus. The only work which he lived to complete was his series of 
Msnummts de fart antique (1884). His importaot Histeire di la Ciramique 
grtique was completed by Collignon {l888), and the same year saw the 
publication of an interesting collection of his more popular papers'. 

For the ten years that preceded his last illness he held a unique position 

' Cp. S. Reinach, in Biogr.JaAr. 1897, 1—8. 

' He also wrote on Cisar dans Us Gaules (l86o) ; cp. Revui Celtiqu^, 
18S0; Froehner, 1881 ; Schlumberger, 1881 {with bibliography). 

* &tudts d'archiologu: et d'art, 1888, 3iof. 

* 1*. ggf. The work was resumed by Haussonllier in 1895-6 {£tudes sur 
I'histBiride MiUt, 1901). 

» &titdes d'arckhlogie it d'art, with portrait, and biographical notice by 
Salomon Reinach. 



270 FRANCE. [cent. XIX. 

among the archaeoli^sts of France, as a man whose tasle and judgement 
were respected by experts and artists, and also by collectors of works of 
ancient art. He did not pretend to any profound learning in (he domain of 
mythologj, but he had a fine sense of style. On his return from Olympia he 
wrote two admirable articles on ihe newly discovered pediments of the temple 
of Zeus and on the German excavations in general'. With an eager patriotism 
he elsewhere ui^ed that Paris should not be allowed to fall behind Berlin or 
London in the oi^nisation of its Museums of Ancient Art. It may be added 
that his articles on this theme were written at the instance of Gambetta, for 
whom he had an unbounded admiration ; and, after his hero's death, it was 
not without emotion that he reproduced and described in his /Honumtnti di 
I'art antique the exquisite figurine presented to that eminent politician by (he 
grratitude of (he Greeks of Epinis'. 

During the nineteenth century in France classical learning had 
no darker days than those of the First Empire. Bon-Joseph 
Dacier regretfully reports to Napoleon I : — ' La Philologie, qui 
est la base de toute bonne litt^rature et sur laquelle repose la 
certitude de I'histoire, ne trouve presque plus personne pour la 
cultiver". The first Napoleon studied Caesar for his own pur- 
poses*, and the third followed his example'. Under the Restora- 
tion, Latin was recognised anew in 1821 as the proper medium of 
instruction in philosophy, but this recc^nition was withdrawn afler 
the Revolution of July, 1830'. A literary reaction, however, 
ensued, a reaction connected with the notable names of Abel 
Francois Villemain and Victor Cousin. The latter, who had 
studied philosophy and educational organisation in Germany, and 
had written inter alia on Aristotle's Metaphysics, was Minister of 
Public Instruction in 184a'. Villemain (1790 — 
1870), the Minister of 1839, had been appointed 
professor of French Eloquence at the Sorbonne, had translated 
Cicero's Letters and De RepuMica, had published a romance on 

' Reprinted in &tudes, 4^—85. 

' S. Reinach, in Biogr. Jahrb. 1887, jj — 41, and esp. in his ed. r>\ £ludes 
(i88«), pp. 1-m. 

' RafpoTt sur Us ptogris de rhistotre et de la litlh-ature ancietme, 1789 — 
1808 {Paris, 1810), 

• Prkis des guerra de Char, ed. Marchand, 360 pp. (1830). 

• Hist, de/ales CAnr {1865-6). 

• Giiard, ^ducatum et Instrvclion {Enseigtiement Secondaiie), ii C. ix, x. 
' p. 151 JH/ra. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


the Greeks of the fifteenth century', and a popular treatise on 
Roman Polytheism", He is a representative of the rhetorical side 
of classical scholarship. Like Guizot and Cousin (both of whom 
had been Ministers of Public Instruction as well as professors), 
Villemain gave brilliant courses of lectures, which, although 
delivered from the professorial chair, were addressed to the 
general public, there being hardly any regular students or duly 
organised schools of learning'. 

A more solid type of erudition was represented by the Minister 
of 1875, Henri Alexandre Wallon (1812—1905)*, 
for many years 'perpetual secretary' of the Aca- 
demy of Inscriptions, who, besides not a few important contribu- 
tions to historical or theolc^ical literature, had in the early part 
of his career produced a learned history of ancient slavery'. His 
able contemporary, Jean Victor Duruy (i8ir — 
1894), the author of a Historical Geography of the 
Roman Republic and the Roman Empire (1838) and of well- 
known Histories of Rome' and Greece', crowned his many services 
as Minister by the establishment of the icoU pratique des hautes 
itudes in 1866. The date has been recognised as marking a 
renaissance of classical studies in France'. It is also the date of 
the foundation of the Revue Critique, which, as the organ of a 
sound and sober type of scholarship, dealt a final death-blow to 
the 'pale imitators of Villemain'. The characteristic of this 
renaissance has been described by the author of the Manuel de 
Philologie as an alliance between the French qualities of clearness 
and method, and the solid learning of other nations*. 

' Lascaris, 1815. ' Nouvtaax Milanget, 1817. 

' L. LLard, Les Universith Franfoisii (Report of 1897). 

' Portrait in Coinfles rendus of Acad, of Inscr. 1906. 

' 184; ; ed. 1, 1879 (Perrot in Rrv. Arch. 1879, j6o f). 

" Six vols. (1876-79); ill. ed. in eight vols. (1878-86); E. T. ed. Mahaffy, 
1883 f. 

' 1861; two vols. [8B3; ill. ed. three vols. 1887-9; E- T. ed. Mahaffy, 

' S. Reinach, Manuel de Phihlogii, i 13. In 1877 the Rtvuede PhilelogU 
was founded, and Cobet writes to Tournier in that year, eipressing his 
delight, rmaia esse el lam laeta fiorere in Gallia severa literarum veterum 
stadia {Sev. de Philol. ii 189). 

" S. Reinach, /. c. 




Among German scholars who settled in France may be mentioned Karl 
Benedict Hase (1780 — 1864), who, after studying at Jena and 
Helmatedt, left in iSoi for Paris, where he held an appoint- 
ment in the Library, besides being a professor of Modern Greek and of 
F^lae<^raphy (1816), and of Comparative Grammar (1851). He wrote the 
Frot^omena to the edilU princeps of Lydns. de magislralibus Hemanh, and 
edited Lydns de ostenlis, etc., as well as Julius Obsequens, Valerius Maximus, 
and Suetonius. He contributed many papers to the Notices el Exlraiis of the 
MS5 of the Paris Library. In the study of palaeography his most famous pupil 
was Charles Gmux'. Hase took part in the first volume only of the new 
edition of the Greek Thesaurus projected by Didol=. 

One of Didot's most active supporters in the series of the Classics that 

bears his name was Johann Friedrich Diibner (1801 — 1867), 

who had studied at Giittingen, and vias invited to Paris in 

■833 to take part in the new edition of the Thesaurus. He was the editor of 

many volumes in Didot's series, being sole editor of Menander and Philemon, 

Polybius, Plutarch's Moraiia, and the Characters of Theophrastus, with Marcus 

Aurelius, Epictetus, Airian etc., Himerius, Porphyry, and the scholia to 

Aristophanes, and jomt editor of Strabo. the Tragic Fragments, the minor 

Epic Poets, and the scholia to Theocritus, Nicander and Oppian'. He 

completed in two volumes the edition of the Greek Antholc^ for which 

preparations had been made by Boissonade, and a third volume, containing 

the Epigrams quoted by ancient authors or preserved in inscriptions, was 

edited (1850} by Ed. Cougny (1818—1889), who was led by 

ousny Egger to the study of ancient rhetoric and edited in 18^3 four 

Pmgymnasmata from a Ms discovered by himself at Bourges. He also 

printed Brunck's correspondence with interesting details on his A?iaiecla, and 

a sketch of his career*. During the last fifteen years of his life he was engaged 

on the edition of the Greek Epigrams above-mentioned, and also on a 

collection of the Greek writers on the geography and history of Gaul, a work 

that owed much to the encoar^ement of E^er'. 

Dubner was naturally the medium of communication between the publisher 
and Dilbner's countrymen. Thus it was through Dubner that Kochly made 
bis proposal to edit Manetho, and was informed that the usual honorarium 
was 1100 francs for a volume of 40 sheets ; but half this sum was usually paid 
in books of nominally equivalent value published by Didot°. Apart from the 
ordinary Greek Classics, the series included Strabo, edited by DUbner and 
Carl Mliller, the editor of the Geographi Graeci Minores and the fragiOents of 

' p. SS9 supra. 

' Guigniaut, Notice, 1867. 

' Bursian, ii 868 f. 

* Annuaire Assoc. £tudes grtcs, k 106, viii 447, k 141. 

' S. Reinach, in Biogr.Jahrb. 1889, 149 — 152. 

' Bockel's Hermann Kochly, 131. 



the Gieelt historians. The fragments of the philosophers were edited by 

The Didot series derived its name from Ambroise Finnin Didot {1790 — 
1876), (he celebraled printer and publisher, whose ancestors 
were associated with the book-trade from 1713. Didot was 
himsetfa translator ofThucydides (ed. i, 1875), and the author of an essay on 
Anacreon, and of works on Muslims and Aldus ManutJus (1875). and on 
Henri Estienne (1814), the author of the Greek Thtsaurus. With the aid of 
the brothers Dindorf, this great work was published anew by the ' modem 
Estienne' (1831-65)'. 

Colmar in Alsace was the birthplace of Victor Henry (1850 — 
1907), a pupil of Abel Bergaigne, and a lecturer aC 
Douai and Lille, and at the Sorbonne, where he 
was professor of Comparative Philology for the last twelve years 
of his life. His treatise on Analogy in Greek (1883) was followed 
by \m Esquiises Morphologiques (1882-9); and his Comparative 
Grammars of Greek and Latin', and of English and German, 
were translated into English. His other works deal with the 
psychology of language, and with Sanskrit literature. He was 
a man of wide and varied culture, and his interest in language 
extended from the dialect of his Alsatian birthplace to that of the 
Aleutian islands that link the North of Asia to the North of 

Our survey of classical scholarship in France may here be 
followed by the briefest mention of a representative 
of French Switzerland, a professor at Geneva,— 
E. A. Betant (1803— 1871). His French translation of Thucy- 
dides was published in Paris {1863). He had already produced 
a lexicon to Thucydides in French (1836) and in Latin {1843-7), 
and editions of the Nubes and Flulus. He closed his career in 
1871 by giving to the world of scholars the editio princeps of 
Boethius De Consolatione, as rendered into Greek by the Byain- 
tine monk, Maximus Planudes^ 

' Cp., in general, Egger's Helllniunt ett France, ii 459 — 463. 

' Nine folio vols. ; cp. Egger, /. c, ii 451 ; on Didot, cp. Assoc. Atudes gr. 

6, MS- 

' 1887, 1893'; E.T. 1890. 

' Cp. Gnbernatis, Did. Inl, 1905, and Alhetiaeum, 16 Feb. 1907. 

° Cherbulioz'Bourrit, Notice nicrologiqw. Gen. 1873. 

s. III. ,..,■, 11. VftOOglc 

Reproduced from a copy of tbe presentaCioD portrait drawn 
by J. H. Hofiineistec and litht^rapbed by Spamei; p. 2S1 mfra. 




We have seen in a previous chapter that Wyttenbach was 
professor for twenty-eight years (1771 — 1799) at 
Amsterdam, and for seventeen (1799— 1816) at wyweobBch 
Leyden'. Among his pupils at Amsterdam was 
Mahne ; he was followed to Leyden by van Lennep ; while his 
later pupils, at Leyden alone, included Bake and van Heusde. 

The earliest of these favourite pupils, Willem Leonardus Mahne 
(1772 — ^1852), had a special admiration for his 
master. To Wyttenbach he dedicated the first-fruits 
of his learning, his dissertation on the peripatetic philosopher, 
Aristoxenus (1793)- After holding appointments at several of the 
Latin schools of Holland, he became a professor at Ghent in 181 6, 
publishing in that year a dialogue on the study of classical literature. 
Like many of his countrymen, he lost his appointment owing to 
the Belgian revolution, but he found a home at Leyden as a pro- 
fessor in 1831. In his inaugural discourse he pleaded for a wider 
study of the History of Greek and Latin literature, which had 
hitherto been confined to the learning of a few names and dates 
in connexion with the general History of Greece and Rome*; but 
he was prevented by ill health from carrying his reform into 
practice. Nevertheless he did useful work in connexion with 
the History of Scholarship. His Life of Wyttenbach (1823-35) 
was indeed unequal to Ruhnken's eult^ of Hemsterhuys, but 
he did good service by publishing selections from Wytten- 

1 ii 4<Si supra. ^ p. u (L. Mailer, 13 n.). 

h, 1. if8r-.fK")^ic 


bach's letters (1826-30), as well as the correspondence of 
Ruhnken with Valckenaer and Wyttenbach (1832) and with other 
scholars (1834)'. 

Wyttenbach's pupil at Leyden, as welt as Amsterdam, David 
Jacobus van Lennep (1774 — 1853), was professor 

Leiineo °^ Eloquence at Amsterdam from 1 799 to his death. 

He produced two editions of Ovid's Heroides; he 
also edited Terentianus Maurus and Hesiod'. 

The third of Wyttenbach's pupils, Philipp Witlem van Heusde 
p. w. van {^Tl^ — 1839), who was born and bred at Rotterdam, 

Heuade g^^j Studied at Amsterdam and at Ijcyden, became 

professor at Utrecht in 1804, and died during a Swiss tour 
in 1839. 

He was an exceplion to the rule that Wyttenbach's pupils were repro- 
ductions of Wyttenbach on a smaller scale, and confined themselves to the 
study of Greek Philosophy and Cicero. A wide ran^e of interest was 
displayed in his Specimen Crilicum in Plalonem (1803). But the expectations 
of further work in the field of pure scholarship, raised by that treatise', were 
not fulfilled by his Initia philosophim Pl,<tenicai^. Here, and in a Dutch 
work on Socrates published during the same period, he insisted on ihe educa- 
tional importance of the Socratic dialectic, and on the permanent value of (he 
Platonic philosophy. He was in fact more interested in philosophy than in 
scholarship, and his lectures lacked the foundation of a sound grammatical- 
knowledge''. Among his pupils, Karsten showed a more decided interest in 
scholarship, while his two sons, and De Geer and Hulleman, were mainly 
concerned with writing monographs, either on Greek Philosophy or on the 
History of Roman Literature'. 

His younger contemporary, Petrus Hoftnan-Peerlkamp (1786 
— 1865), belonged to a family of French refugees 
named Perlechamp. He studied at his birth-place, 
Groningen, and also at Leyden. After holding scholastic appoint- 
ments at Haarlem and elsewhere, he returned to I.eyden as 

' AXsa Sufpi. ad Ef. R.el W.,ilimque aiia...aiuciUta (1847). 

' Life by his son, ed, 4, Amst, 18G1. 

' Wyttenbach, on p. xxxiii of the epislala, prefixed to ihe Specimen, heralded 
his pupil as the future sospilalar Plalonii. Cp. Bake, Schotua Hypomntmata, 
iii 10—16. 

* 1817-36; ed. 1, [841. 

' This is emphasised by his pupil and successor, Karsten. Cp. Francken's 
Life of Karsten (L. Miiller, 104). 

' L. Miiller, 103-5 i N. C. Kist (Leyden, 1839] ; Rovers (Utrecht, 1841). 



professor from 1822 to 1848, when he retired, and was succeeded 
by Cobet. 

At Groningen, Peerlkamp had been a pupil of Ruardi (174C — 1S15), who 
had inherited Schrader's lasle for Latin versification. Under the influence of 
Ruardi, Peetlkainp imitated Cornelius Nepos, and Cicero, respectively, in his 
'Lives' and 'Letters' of distinguished Dutchmen (1806-8); and, forty years 
later, he found his model for a biographical composition in the Agriiola of 
Tacitus, Itui Ruardi had also learned Greek under Valckenaer and 
Rnhnken ; Peerlkamp was thus led (o produce in 1806 a critical paper on 
Xenophon Ephesins, followed by an edition in i8r8. This edition gave no 
indication of the editor's future line as a critic. In the same year the Brussels 
Academy offered a prize for the best account of the lives and works of the 
Latin poets of the Netherlands', and thus prompted the ultimate production of 
Peeilkamp's work de vita, doclritta el farultate NedfrlandorHm qui carmina 
latina composutrunt (1838*). Meanwhile he had begun to give proof of a keen 
interest in Horace. In his preface to Osterdyk's Dutch translation of the 
Odts and Epodes (1819), he states that he had himself collected materials for 
an edition, adding that all the difficulties could be removed by a careful in- 
teipretation of the text. Thus far, there was no indication of the bold line 
that he was to take in his edition of 1834. At Leyden, his critical spirit had 
been awakened by scholars such as Bake and Geel, and (he orientalist, 
Hamaker. The iirst result of this influence is to he seen in his edition of (he 
AgritoJa of Tacitus (1837-63), which includes a few happy emendations, and 
gives (he earliest proof of the editor's wide reading in Latin. This was 
followed by his celebrated edition of the Odes of Horace (1834), which gave 
rise to a considerable controversy. 

It even formed a school, represented in Sweden by Ljungborg, and in 
Germany by Lehrs and Gruppe, while it was regarded with sympathy by 
Hermann and Meineke. On the other hand, Orelli' said of its editor; 
' Horatium ex Horatio ipso expulit ' ; Madvig denounced his ' pravitas et 
libido', and described him as ' inaniter et prolerve ludens''; while Munro 
characterised him 'as a man of real learning in his way and of much reading 
in the later Latin poets ', but ' hardly less wild (than Gruppe) in his mode of 
dealing with the odes of Horace and the Aiiitid'. ■ Some ol his comments ' 
(he adds) 'such as those on Carm. iii 19, 5 — 11, are enough to make anyone 
blush who feels that a philolc^r should be something more than a pedant at 
his desk ignorant of men and things. Near the beginning o[ the Aeneid he 
rejects a passage closely imitated by Ovid '*. 

' Meaning from i8[!i I0 1830 the Royaumt dts Pays-Bos, and including 
Belgium as well as Holland. 

» Cp. ed. 1, p. 19; L. Muller xaJaArh.f. PKUol. \9&i, 176-184. 

* Ado. Cril. ii jo : cp. Boissier, Sei/. de Philol. 1878, and L. Mailer, 

* King and Munro's Horaee, xviii. 



Peerlkamp's edition of the Odis was followed nine years later by that of 
Virgil's Aeneid. These two works are regarded as his claim lo an abiding 
reputation as a Latin scholar. On the other hand, his reconstruction of the 
Ats Poelica is infelicitous', and hardly one of his conjectures on the Sattrts* 
can be accepted, though his wide reading in the Latin poets has enabled him 
to contribute much towards the interpretation of the text. The posthumous 
publication of his edition of the 'Queen of Elegies'' did not add to his 
reputation. In Peerlkamp a hypercritical spirit was combined with undoubted 
learning and acumen, and his editions of Horace had at least the merit of 
adding a new stimulus 10 the study of that poet*. 

Peerlkamp's work on the Latin poets of the 'Netherlands', first published 
„ _^ in 1811, was preceded in 1819 by the work to which a silver 

medal had been awarded in the same competition :— The 
Pamasus Laltna- Bctgicus" of Jacob Henrik Hoeulft (1756—1843). The 
Latin poets of the ' Netherlands ' are there comnieroorated in terse epigrams 
followed by precise biographical and biblit^^phical details. The author had 
already collected the Latin poems of Van Santen, and had published bis own 
Pericula PelHca and Fericula CtilUa. His name is still remembered in con- 
nexion with modern Latin verse. By bequeathing to the Royal Institute of 
Amsterdam a sum of money, now held by the Royal Academy of that city, he 
founded prizes for original Latin poems on any subject, which are open lo 
scholars of any nationality'. 

Janus Bake (1787 — 1864) studied under Wyttenbach at 
Leyden ( 1 804-10), where he was successively 
' extraordinary ' and ' ordinary ' professor of Greek 
and Roman literature. In 1810 he edited the fragments of 
Poseidonius, in 1815 delivered an inaugural discourse on the 
merits of Euripides and the other tragic poets, and in 181 7 
showed a higher degree of originality in his second inaugural 

' 1845; Bemhardy, RSm. Lilt. 6o6». ' 1863. 

' Prop. iv. 11. 

' L. MuUer, 110—1(7; presentation portrait lithographed in 1841. 

' Amsterdam and Breda, 1819 (cp. L. Mliller, 176 n*. and Van der Aa, 

< The prize is a large gold medal of the value of 400 florins ; it was won in 
1899 by the Pater ad Filium of J. J, Hartman, professor of Latin at Leyden; 
silver medals were awarded to four Italian compelitois who were highly 
coraroended ; and all the five successfiil poems were published in one volume 
by J. Muller of Amsterdam {CI. Rev. xiii 461). The prize was won more 
than once by Giovanni Pascoli, professor of Latin at Messina. The poems are 
sent before the first of January to the Registrar of the PkUolegUtk-Hktarische 
Afdetling of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam ; the ether conditions 
are correctly given in CI. Rev. xiv 141. 



discourse, in which he declared his adhesion to the critical 
school of Ruhnken and Valckenaer'. 

This new depiituie was due to his deeper sludy of the characteristics of Ihe 
two critics just mentioned, and also to liis intercourse with two English 
adherents of the school of Porson, namely, Dobtee and Gaisford, both of 
whom visited Leyden in xSii-6^. He was specially interested in the Attic 
Oratois as authorities on Athenian antiquities, and in Cicero, as a master of 
style. His own ideal of the orator's style was so high that he held that the 
Catilinarian Orations', and the speeches /ro ArMa' and/r<i Mairiile, were 
unworthy of Cicero*. He also held that the secret of Cicero's style was lost 
after his death, and that the writers of the silver age were of no value for the 
higher criticism of his works'. Lastly, in one of his discourses, he insisted that 
there were actually certain defects in Cicero's style, and that he was not the 
best model for the orators of modem times'. In the higher criticism of Cicero 
he was less happy than in the textual emendations of that author included in 
his Ssholica Hypomnemata, and in his edition of the De Legiius (iSfl), which is 
superior in this respect to his latest work, his edition of the De Oralon {1863}. 
In hb commentaries on Cicero, his models were mainly Muretus and Emesti. 
He rt^arded with suspicion the method pursued by critics like Madvig in 
distingnishing between interpolated and uninterpolated and intermediate mss ; 
in reconstructing the archetype ; and in setting aside the conjectures due to the 
age of the humanists. Except in showing more regard for ancient MSS and in 
reducing the mass of various readings, he differs little from the Dutch scholars 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In his study of the Attic 
Orators, he did good service in elucidating points of Attic law. He also set 
his ^e against the indiscriminate admiration of the Athenian democracy 
which had prevailed since the time of Niebuhr'. He edited for the Clarendon 
Press the Rkitaric of Apsines and Longinus (1849}, his only edition of a 
Greek work'. 

Bake's pupil, Rinkes^', following in his master's footsteps, maintained in 
1856 the spariousness of the first (as well as the other three) 
of the Catilinarian orations. This had been maintained 
before their lime, but the audacit}' of the declaration that the oft-qaoted 

' Dl cuslBdia vtlais doclrinae et elegantiiu, praecipug grammatid offido. 
' Bake, SchcUca Hypomnemata, vol. ii, pp. iii — viii. 
' ib. V I — 115 (mainly against Madvig). 

* I'nu/. dt tmead. Oratore, ij. ' Bakhuizen, 11. 

' Cp. Bake's Dt Or. (1863) i— xiv. 

' Dt tempiranda admiralioru tloquentiae Tullianai, in Schol. ffyp. i T — 33. 
' L. Muller, 96, to£— 109. 

' Cobet, Alhculio ad Jok. Batium muncre Acadcmico dKcdentem (1857) i 
Bakhui2en van den Brink, Rtdt {1865). 
" 1823— 1865. 




Quimsque tandem was written, not by Cicero, but by some unknown orator of 
the first century, aroused a perfect storm in HollanJ. An early dealh 
unhappily prevented Rinkcs' undoubted acumen from reaching fiill malurily'. 
Of Bake 's other pupils, Suringar (1805 — '895) produced a useful 
Historia critica Scholiaslarum lalinerum (1829-35), and gave 
proof of his inherited interest in Cicero in the two volumes of his 'Life nnil 
Annals of Cicero' {1854). Another pupil, Groen van Prinslerer, was the 
author of the Prosofegraphia Piatonica. 

Jacob Geel (1789 — i86z), who was bom and bred at Amster- 
dam, was Librarian and honorary Professor at 
Leyden for the last twenty-nine years of his life. 
Before his appointment as Head-Librarian, he edited Theocritus 
(1820) and wrote the Historia Crilica Sophutarum {1823), the 
earliest detailed work on that subject in modem times. After 
1833, he produced an excellent edition of the Phoenissae of Euri- 
pides (1846), in which he defended the opinions of Valckenaer, 
and gave proof of his acumen and learning, and also of his 
affinity with the English adherents of Porson'. 

The critical school of Greek scholars that gathered round Bake and Geel 
at Leyden included Hamaker {:789— 1835)', Hecker (1810—1865), W. A. 
Hirschig (b. 1814), editor of the Scriptares Erotki Graeci (1856), and his 
brother, R. B. Hirschig (b. rSij), editor of Plato's Gorgias (1873). 

A short life fell to the lot of Geel's archaeological contemporaiy Caspar 
Jacob Christian Reuvens (1793 — 1835), who, after studying at 
Leyden and Paris, and professing Greek and Latin for three 
years at Harderwyk, was appointed extraordinary professor of classical 
archaeology at Leyden, where he was full professor for the last nine yeais of 
his life. At that time classical archaeolc^y was not a popular subject in 
Holland, and his lectures were scantily attended, but his papers in classical 
periodicals made him well known abroad. He supported the opinions of 
Quatremdie de Quincy as to the true orientation of the Parthenon, and 
contributed to Thotbecke's Commmtaiio (i8]l) an appendix on the monu- 
ments of art (hat adorned the Library founded by Asinius PoUio. He died in 
the summer vacation of 1835, shortly after visiting the monuments of Greek 
Art in the British Museum. In his Collectanea Utteraria he pubUshed 
conjectures on Attius, Diomedes, Lucihus, and Lydus, with a brief paper on 
Greek pronunciation. Some of his conjectures are good, but the work as a 
whole gives proof of a decline in the study of old Latin in Holland since the 

' Cp. L. MuUer, 97. Cobet's letters to Geel (1840-5) in Brieven van Cebet 
aan Geel (Leiden, 1891). 

^ Bake, Schol. Hyp. i 37—48. 



days of Fr. Dousa and of G. J. Vossius'. In archaeology Reuvens had a 
most able successor in Ihe perjoii or llic excellent archae- 
ologist and epigraphisl, L. J. F. Janssen (1806— iS6g), the J«n»Kn 
unwearied explorer of many a primaeval grave-mound, the discoverer of 
Roman as welt as Germanic remains in the Netherlands, who published 
illustrated descriptions of the principal monuments of art in the Museum at 
Leyden, and repeatedly urged the excavnlion of Katwyk, between Leyden and 
the sea'. 

The History of Greek Civilisation, a work in eight volumes, 
written in French (1833-42), was the main achieve- 
ment of Pieter van Limbourg-Brouwer ( 1 7 96 — 1847 ), ^Bra^we?" 
Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine, and professor 
at Groningen. His early writings on philosophical subjects were 
followed by papers on the poetry of Pindar, Aeschylus, Sophocles, 
and Euripides. During the publication of his principal work, he 
incidentally attacked Forchhamnier's opinion as to the cause of 
the condemnation of Socrates', He closed his career with a 
memoir on the allegorical interpretation of Greek mythology. 

Van Heusde's lack of sound scholarship, as we have already 
seen*, was noted with regret in the inaugural address 
of his pupil and successor Simon Karsten (rSoz — 
1864), who was professor at Utrecht for the last twenty-four 
years of his life. He had previously collected the fragments 
of Xenophanes, Parmenides, and Empedocles (1825-38), and 
had prepared a Dutch treatise on 'Palingenesis', which was not 
published until 1846. In the same year he wrote on Sophoclean 
trilogies. His principal contribution to scholarship was an edition 
of the Agamemnon (1855), Including many original conjectures. 
The 'wise and weighty words' in which he expresses his general 
principles are quoted with approval in Kennedy's second edition", 
where the English editor adopts as his motto the phrase of the 
Dutch critic ;— ' principium et fundamentum critices est iusta 
interpretation. Karsten's work on Horace (1861) was translated 

' Latin life by Leemans in Pref. to Catalogue of Reuvens' Library ; Bake's 
S(hnl. Hyp. i 33—36 ; L. MuUer, 130. 

> Du Rieu in the Dutch Sfectator, 1869, 366 f. 376 f ; Stark, 39s ; Report 
of recent excavations in Medidielingm of Leyden Museum, 1907, 13 f. 

" p. 117 mpra. * p. 176 sufira, n. j. 

" Ed. J 

t, pp. XXIV— xxvi, ' p. x: 



into German. His abiding interest in Greek philosophy was 
shown in the posthumous edition of the Commentary of Simplicius 
on the fourth book of Aristotle De Caelo. Among his pupils were 
his bic^apher, Francken, and his son H. T. Karsten, the author 
of a dissertation on Plato's Letters (1864)'. 

Cornelius Marinus Francken (1810 — 1900), a pupil of K»rsten, and pro- 

fessot at Gioningen and Ulrecht, was the author of the Com- 

mtntatUmts Lysiacae (l86j]. His productions as a professor 

of Latin included a Dutch edition of the Aulularia (1S77). In 1891 he 

resigned his professorship, and nine years afterwards, at the age of 80, 

published his Varroitiana in liie pages of Mmmosynt^. 

Johannes Cornelius Gerardus Boot (1811 — 1901)1 who was bom and bred 
^^ at Amheim. and studied at Leyden, was Rector at Leenwatden 

(1839-51) and professor at Amsterdam (1851— 1881). He 
delivered an inaugural discourse De ptrpetua fhilelsgiae dignitalt, and dis- 
tinguished hiimelf mainly by his admirable commentaxy on Cicero's Letters to 
Atiicui^. An excellent monograph on Atticus was produced in 1838 by 
Jan Gerard HuUeman (iBij— 1862)*. 

The greatest of the modern Greek scholars of the Netherlands, 
Carolus Gabriel Cobet (1813 — 1889), was born in 
Paris. He was the son of a Dutchman in the 
French public service, who had married a Frenchwoman, Marie 
Bertranet. One of his Dutch biographers protests against the 
frequent remark that it was from his French mother that Cobet 
derived his brilliant wit and his keen acumen'. When he was 
only six weeks of age, he was taken to Holland. He was educated 
at the Hague, under an admirable head-master, Kappeyne van 
de Coppello, whom he always remembered with gratitude. On 
entering the university of Leyden, he was already familiar with 
the whole range of the ancient classics, but bis father was then 
proposing that he should follow a theological career, and his 
distinction as a scholar remained unrecognised until the publica- 
tion of his Prosopographia Xmophontea (1836). This was a prize- 
dissertation, produced when its author was only twenty-three, 
but its high promise aroused among the foremost scholars of 

' Cp. L. MUller, 104. 

» xxviii (1900) )8i— J(»7, 395, 411—435. Lift by J. van der Vliet 
(Amsterdam Acad., 10 March, 1909). 

* r865-6 ; ed. a. ' Cobet, in mtmirriam If., t86». 

• J. J. Hartnan in Biogr. fahrb. 1889, 53. 

h. i.. ii,l^.OOQIC 

CHAP. XXXVir.] COBET. 283 

Holland the expectation that its author would rival the fame of a 
Ruhnken or a Valckenaer. Four years later, he produced his 
critical observations on the fragments of the Comic Poet, Plato', 
Shortly afterwards, on the proposal of Geel, he received an 
honorary degree at Leyden', and was sent by the Royal Institute 
of Amsterdam on a mission to the Italian libraries. The ostensible 
object was the examination of the mss of Simplicius, but the real 
aim was to give this remarkably promising scholar the opportunity 
of gaining a wide acquaintance with Greek mss in general. His 
term of absence was extended to five years in all', and by the end 
of that time he had become an experienced and accomplished 
palaeographer. He had also incidentally won the friendship 
of a congenial English scholar, Badham. 

On his return, he was appointed to an 'extraordinary' pro- 
fessorship at Leyden, and delivered an inaugural address which 
is one of the landmarks of his career (1846)'. As has been well 
said, we here have 'Cobet himself — strong, masculine writing, a 
style clear and bracing. ...Every sentence has its work to do, and 
there is a moral force behind it all, an intense enthusiasm for 
truth, a quality that marks the whole of Cobet's critical work". 
He succeeded Peerlkamp as full professor in 1848. In 1850-r he 
presented to the Royal Institute three important Commmtationes 
PhilologUae, which are less widely known than many of his 
papers'. These were followed by his best-known works, the 
Variae LecHones (1854)' and the Novae Lediones (1858), and, 

' Amst. 1840. 

* The ordinary degree involved a knowledge of Roman law, which Cobet 
declined to study. 

' Cp. Britven van Cobet aan Gal uit Parijs en Italic, Nov. 1840— Juli, 
1845 (Leiden, 1B91). 

' Oratio lie arte ittterpntandi grammatUes tt critices fundamcntis innixa, 
36 pp. + 113 pp. of notes. 1847. In 1846 he had conitibuted Scholia Attliqua 
to Geel'a ed. of Eur. Pkoenissae. 

W. G. Rutherford, in CI. R&v. m 473. 

' (1) De tmmdaniiae ralione grammaticae Graecae discemendo oratiomm 
itrtifieialim ab araliime poputari ; (1) De simerilale GraeH lermonis fast 
Aristatelem...defraData; (3) De auctorilate et um grammaticorum velerum in 
explicandis striptorihus Grattis. Printed at Amst. 1853. 

' 399 PP-; *d- ^' + SHpplementum {399 — 400) + Epimetrum (401 — 68i), 


twenty years later, by others of the same general type, the Miscel- 
lanea Critka (1876) mainly on Homer and Demosthenes, the 
Collectanea Critica {1878), and the critical and palaeographical 
observations on the ' Roman Antiquities ' of Dionysius of Hali- 
camassus {1877). An inaugural lecture on the study of Roman 
antiquities, including some of his own reminiscences of Rome, 
was published in 1853, and he also printed six professorial 
discourses in 1852 — 1860', He reluctantly edited Diogenes 
Laertius for Didot, without any prolegomena (1850). He also 
published critical remarks on the newly recovered work, of 
Philostratus, irepl yu^vacmit^s (1859), as Well as a text of two 
speeches of Hypeteides (1858-77), and school-editions of Xeno- 
phon's Anabasis and Hdlenica (1859-62) and of Lysias (1863)'. 
He was long the mainstay of the classical periodical Mnemosyne*, 
which derived a new life from his vigorous contributions, while, 
in conjunction with his friend and pupil, K. S. Kontos of Athens, 
he edited three volumes of the Xoyu« "Ep^^?, written entirely in 
Greek, and including Cobet's corrections of Clemens Aiexandrinus 


While Cobet shared with his fellow-countrymen their aptitude 
for conjectural criticism, he rose superior to them in the strict 
severity of his scientific method. With Cobet, the ars grammatica 
(or the intimate knowledge of the language, and its historical 
developement, attained in the course of constant reading) was 
combined with an intelligent use of the best mss, as the pre- 
liminary condition for the ars critica, i.e. the detection and the 
correction of corruptions of the text. On these principles he 
proposed in the pages of Mnemosyne, and of his Variae and 
l^iwae Lectiones, a large number of emendations on Greek authors. 

' Aihtuliii ad commilitQxes (iSjl, '53, '56); Praefatio Icctionum de Histtria 
VeUrt (1853-4); Frotreptkus [,\%%ii) ajid AMoiiatiu {tS6o) ad Studia Httma- 
nilalis. Also Or. recloraHs de moiiumenlii lilerarum veterum mo pretio attti- 
tnatidis (i8€4). 

' He look part in preparing an Altic Greek Reader {1856), and a text of 
the Greek Testament (i860). The only Lalin author he edited wa£ Cornelius 
Nepos (1893"). 

' Founded in 1851; the editorsof i8ji-6] were E. J. Kiehl (1837 — 1873), 
professor in Deventer, Groningen and Middelburg, E. Mehler (b. 1836), Naber, 
Bake and Cobet. The new series was slatted in 1871. 



The merits and the defects of his method are there made manifest. 
His marvellous familiarity with Greek, his wide reading, the skill 
derived from the study of many mss durii^ his Italian Wander- 

jahre, enabled him to detect the source of a corruption, and to 
divine the appropriate remedy. On the other hand, his excessive 
confidence in the rules founded on observations made in the 
course of his reading, is open to criticism. No sooner has he 
ascertained what he regards as a fixed rule of Greek usage, than 
he remorselessly emends all the exceptions. But it cannot be 
questioned that he supplies the student of textual criticism with 
golden rules for his instruction, and the advanced scholar with rich 
stores of interesting and stimulating information'. With Cobet the 
study of institutions is subordinate to the study of language, and 
the study of Latin less prominent than that of Greek. But his 
Latin style is admirable, and his singular mastery of fluent and lucid 
Latinity could not have been attained without long and laborious 
study of the language'. He was one of the very few scholars who 
were capable of making an extemporaneous speech in really good 
Latin. At the celebration of the tercentenary of Leyden in 1875, 
when Cobet and Madvig confronted each other, the delegates of 
all the universities of Europe looked on in awe at the prospect of 
the two thunder -clouds closing in conflict. But they soon found 
themselves admiring the prompt dexterity of the great Greek 
scholar, as he caught up the phrases used by several of the 
previous speakers; the generous and spirited language in which 
he addressed Madvig: — pugnabimus tecum, eontendemus tecum, 
eoque vehementius coftlendemus, quo le vehementim admiramur ; and, 
lastly, the calm exordium of the great Latinist's reply; — post 
Cobetum Latine loqui vereor". In 1884, at the age of 70, Cobet 
became emeritus, and placed on the screens of his university the 
notice, which was read by at least one passing traveller: — Care/aj 
Gabriel Cobet, propter aetatem immunis, commilitonum studia 
quantum poterit adjuvabit. On the death of Cobet it fell to the 

■ UrlichB, ni'; cp. L. MUUer, 78, 117— r«. 

* His Lalinitj is criticised in a letter purporting lo come from Kuhnken 
[Ex Oreo, Datvm SaturnaUbus), which Cobet publishes in Mnemosyne, 1877, 
irj — ij8, with hia own reply. 

o Professor Mayor, cp. CI, Hev. \ 114. 




lot of the present writer to send to Leyden an unofficial letter of 
condolence signed by more than 70 of the scholars of Cambridge', 
and to receive on their behalf a kindly reply which formed a 
new link in the long tradition of scholarly sympathy between the 
Netherlands and England. 

Cobet was sometimes charged with n^lecting or ignoring the 
work of his predecessors'. He was attacked by Gomperz in 1878', 
In the next number of Mnemosyne* he replied with a paper on 
Philodemus, praising the edition produced by Gomperz, adding 
his own elucidations of points that had been left obscure, and 
ending with the apt quotation from Menander : — 
^Siov otSiv wu8e lunxTuuaTtftov 
Jitt' ^ StfltMrSai \oihopovii,tvov ipfptiv. 
In the same year he was attacked by the Greek editor of 
Plutarch's Moralia, Gregorius Bernardakis, who accused him of 
appropriating proposals already made by Koraes. In his defence 
he showed himself less concerned for his personal fame than for 
the credit of his accuser". His discussion of Stein's estimate of 
the MSS of Herodotus is a delightful example of kindly and genial 
criticism, in the course of which he vividly treats the mss under 
examination as though each was endued with a living personality*. 
Reiske was more highly appreciated by Cobet than by the 
Germans of his own day. He had a high regard for the Dindorft, 
for Bergk, Meineke and Lehrs, and for the best points in the 
work of Nauck. He was ever eager in confessing his debt to 'the 
three great Richards ', Bentley, Dawes, and Person, and the later 
representatives of the Porsonian school, Elmsley and Dobree. 
The influence of the English school was at work among his 
teachers, and he had freed himself from that of the German 
school by the time of his return from Italy. It was through 
Cobet that the traditional English method, which was in danger 
of being forgotten in England itself, became dominant in Holland 

' Reprinted in CI. Rev. iii 474. 
' Cp.L.MuUer, li7f. 

' Die Bruehstiickt lier griechtschen Tragiktr and Cohfts neuesle Mamer, 

* vi (1878) 373— 381 elc. 

" Mnimosyne, 1878, 49— 54. 

' ih. 1883, 400—413, with Stein's reply in "Batsaxx'ijahrtsb. 1 



and attained a still wider range. It would be difficult to compare 
Cobet with any other scholar than Scaliger or Bentley. He 
himself regards Scaliger as an 'almost perfect critic", while he 
resembles Bentley in his ' high-handed, hard-hitting criticism ', 
and in his 'consciousness of power'". 

In conitast to the genial and expansiye Cobet, a calmer and more reserved 
type of character is represented by his colleague, William 
Georg PluyEers {1811-1880), who, in 1861, succeeded 
HuUeman as professor of Latin. In his inaugural oration he refers in fitting 
terms to his predecessor, and also to Bake and Cobet. In middle life he had 
been interested in the Alexandrian editors of Homer (1847), and he subse- 
quently contributed to the textual criticism of Cicero and Tacitus. He was 
much appreciated at Leyden as a learned and original lecturer on Horace and 
Lucretius *. 

Samuel Adrianus Naber (bom 181B), who studied at Leyden and was 
professor of Greek at Amsterdam until 1898, is best known as 
the editor of the lexicon of Pholius (1864-5}. Naber was ""*' 

present at Cobel's celebrated inaugural lecture of 1B46, and he has lived to 
publish in the pages of Mnemosyni, sixty years later, an almost complete 
bibliography of his master's writings. 

Among the other pupils of Cobet, we may here mention Tjalling 
Hallwrlsma (18)9—1894), who studied under Bake, Geel, 
and Cobet at I-eyden, and, after examining mss in France, 
Spain, and Italy, was appointed Rector at Haarlem in 1864, and professor of 
Greek at Groningen in 1877. He was far from being a prolific writer, but he 
contributed papers on Greek and Latin criticism to the pages of Mtuniosyne, 
and published Ltctionts Lysiacae (1868). After his death his Adversaria 
Critica were edited by Herwerden'. 

His contemporary, Willem Nicolaas du Rieu (1819 — '896), was also a 
pupil of Bake and Cobet, and worked at Mss in France and 
Italy. His long services to the Library at Leyden were 
crowned by his appointment as principal Librarian in i83i. He was the 
originator of the scheme for the complete photographic reproduction of 
important Greek and Latin MSS, which has been carried out under the 
auspices of his successor, E. S. G- de Vries '. 

Du Riei 

' Dt arit inttrpretandi, JS- 

' W. G. Rutherford, in CI. Rev. iii 470-4. Cp., in general, J. J. Haitman 
in Bu>gr. Jakrb. 1889, 53—66; J. J. Comelissen, ad Cobili memariam, 
1889; H. C. MuUer, in memarian (in English), Amst. 'EXXdt, II i 49—54; 
bibliography by S. A. Naber in Mnemosyne, xxxiv {1906) 430—443, xxxv 440. 

' On this last point cp. K. Kuiper in Bwgr. Jahrb. 1903, p. 98. 

* Biegr. fahrb. 1897, 8) — 87; portrait in Adv. Crit. 

' i!#. 1899, 31 — 53 ; Naber in Mnetiiesynt, xxvi 177 — 18& 



Cobel was the only masler who won the allegiance of J. J. Comelissen 
(lSj9-i8gi), profe&sOT of Gieek and Latin at Deventei, rector 
at Arnheim, and, for the last twelve years of his life, successor 
af Pluygers in the Latin Chair at Leyden. The influence of Cobet is manifest 
in the severe review of Alexandrian literature, which is (he theme of his 
inaugural discourse at Deventer {iS6j), but ihe rest of his work is mainly that 
of a specialist in Latin. It includes a paper attacking the credibility of 
Caesar's Cammtnta'-U di Bella Civili (1864), dissertations on the life of 
Juvenal (1B68) and the text of Velleius Faterculus (1887), a volume of 
CollfClanea Critics comprising some 150 conjectures on Cicero and Caesar 
{1870), and, lastly, editions of the Agritgla of Tacilus and ihe Oclavius of 
Minucius Felix (i88t~i). In a Dutch manifeslo of his educational principles, 
published after four years' experience at Devenler, he urges that Ihe growing 
indiflerence towards classical learning in Holland should be counleracted (as 
in Germany) by encouraging the study of history, geography, mythology, 
archaeology, aitd the history of literature, subjects which (as he held) had been 
unduly neglected in comparison with grammar and textual criticism'. In his 
inaugural leclure. delivered ten years later at Leyden, he describes in 
admirable Latin the characteristic merits of thai par twbilt amkorum, 
J. F. Gronovius and N. Heinsius, and draws a contrast between the way in 
which Latin wa.s learnt by the contemporaries of those great scholars, during 
the first glow of classical enthusiasm in Holland, and the position which it 
holds in modern times, when i( is no longer the common property of aU 
educated persons. 'But' (he continues), 'if our study of Latin has lost in 
breadth, it has gained in depth. The evidence of mss is weighed with a more 
judicious care ; in the light of comparative philology, grammar receives a more 
scientific Ireatmenl ; our knowledge has been enriched by the recovery of 
innumerable inscriptions ; an indiscriminating admiration for all the contents 
of the Classics has been corrected by the aid of historical and literary criticism. 
The various branches of classical learning are now more minutely studied, but 
there is a danger lest, in our excessive punctiliousness on minute matters of 
detail, we should lose the vital force and vigour of our great ancestors. Latin 
has now left Ihe light of public life and has become a cloistral language; 
Latin, that once lived and breathed, is regarded by the modem man as inert 
and well nigh dead. If any one of those great ancestors were restored to life, 
there is grave reason to fear that he would admonish and rebuke us in the 
language applied by Gronovius to Graevius : — "nae lu, qui varia et mulliplici 
doctrina eruditum te iactas, Grammatici, non Latme, scis"". 

From a Latin professor of Leyden we finally turn to a Latin professor of 
Utrecht. The versatile scholar, J. van der Vliet (1847 — 1901), 
studied Latin literature under Pluygers at Leyden, and Greek 

' Di tludU der clasiiki oiidheid (in Tijdspiigel, 1B69). 

' Barmanni Oralio i» milium Graevii, p. 91 (Cornelissen, Oralie 
Inauguralis, 34) ; the passages above quoted from the Oralio are only a brief 
summary of the original; cp. Van Leeuwen, in Biogr. Jahrb. 1891, 51—63. 


pa1ae<^aphy under Cobet ; and the influence of the latter is clearly marked in 
his Sludia Critica on Dionyslus of HaJicatnassus (1874). Asa schoolmaster at 
HaarleiD, he had sufficient leisure to become familiar with the [ang;uage of 
Java, and with Sanskrit. Ulliroatdy he succeeded Francken at Utrecht 
(1891), having meanwhile concentrated himself on Latin, especially on that of 
the Silver Age. In the course of his Latin studies he passed from Seneca and 
Tacitus 10 Apuleius, and from Apuleius to Tertullian and Sulpicius Severus. 
In his interest in Latin there was in fact no lower limit of time. He was 
^miliar with the prose and the verse of the Italian humanists'; he discoursed 
on the results of the Renaissance as exemplified in the Latin poems of the 
Dutch statesman, Konstantyn Huygens {1596—1687)'; he composed an ode of 
the mediaeval type for the opening uf (he new university buildings b 1S91, and 
he even imitated the style of Persius in an annotated satire entitled Vanitas 
Vanilalum. In all the minuteness of his statistical statements on points of 
Latin usage, he never lost his line sense of (he importance of literary form. In 
a revieu' of a German pamphlet, bristling with references and citations, he 
remarks: — 'I am well aware that (as a reviewer) the ideal scholar ought to 
have the digestion of an ostrich, which is capable of assimilating the driest and 
hardest substances in the shortest space of time, but it must not be forgotten 
that even the reviewer is a human being and that a writer will do no detriment 
lo the cause of learning, if, foi the reader's sake, he lends his work some little 
charm of style". As a professor of Latin van der Vliet produced critical 
editions of the Hisioriti of Tacitus*, and of (i) the Melamerf hoses, and (1) the 
Apologia, Florida and Dt Dm Sotratis, of Apuleius^. For Tacitus he 
depended mainly on the collations of Meiser ; for Apuleius, he niinutelj 
examined the MSS during his two visits to Italy, but, however careful he was in 
recording the results of that examination, he remained, for the most part, true 
lo the precept he had learned from Cobet : — Cedicibus manascripiis plane 
nihil fidenduni est*. 

Our survey of the nineteenth century has thus far been limited 

to the Northern Netherlands. It began with the pupils of 
Wyttenbach, and it has ended with the pupils of Cobet. During 
the whole of the century, the staff of classical professors in each 
university continued to be small ; and those professors, besides 
being responsible for elementary and advanced courses on Latin 

' Trifdiuiit Laimum (Beyers, Utrecht, 1893), esp. Petrarcae Sludia 

" Verkand. v. h. UlrecAtsch Genoolsckaf, 1894. 
' Review of Slangl's TuUiana, in the Miiieam for 1900. 
* Groningen, rgoo. 
" Leipzig (Teubner), 1897 and 1900. 
' K. Kniper in Biogr. [akrh. rgoj, 97— rij. 
S. III. 


290 HOLLAND. [cent. XIX. 

and Greek, were compelled to give more or less popular instruction 
on Greek and Roman History and Antiquities. An interest in 
ancient Art was hardly represented in the universities except by 
Reuvens and Janssen, and by Du Rieu, who studied classical 
archaeology (as well as palaeography) during his repeated visits 
to Rome. In the published works of the professors, as contrasted 
with their oral teaching, the dominant note was textual criticism. 
As a Latin scholar and as the editor of Terence and Horace, 
Bentley had had little influence on Dutch scholarship. Editions 
of the Latin Classics, modelled on those of Burman, with a 
confused mass of prolix variorum notes, remained long in vi^ue. 
The acquisitive instinct of Holland seemed to delight in constantly 
adding to the accumulating pile of erudite annotation. Happily, 
however, in the latest Dutch edition of Cicero's Letters to Atiicus^, 
the notes are never over-loaded with unnecessary detail, but are 
always brief and terse and clear ; and the same is true of a still 
more recent edition of Aristophanes'. The influence of Bentley, 
as a Greek scholar, had been eflectively transmitted through 
Hemsterhuys to Valckenaer and Ruhnken, and ultimately through 
Ruhnken to Wyttenbach. But the attention of those scholars 
had not been concentrated on the Greek authors of the golden 
age. Lucian, even more than Aristophanes, had been studied by 
Hemsterhuys, who bestowed on Xenophon of Ephesus the time 
that he might well have reserved fof Xenophon of Athens; the 
Alexandrian and Hellenistic writers, no less than Herodotus, had 
been explored by Valckenaer; the researches of Ruhnken ranged 
over a wide field of literature extending from the Homeric Hymns 
to Longinus, and from the early Greek Orators to the late Greek 
Lexicographers*; while Wyttenbach, who edited only one dialogue 
of Plato, devoted the largest part of his life to Plutarch. The time 
that Hemsterhuys and his followers thus lavished on the 'Graeculi', 
on late writers like Lucian and other artificial imitators of the 
genuine Attic authors, was repeatedly lamented by Cobet*, who 

' Ed. Boot, Amsi, i865f. ' Ed. van Leeuwen, Leyden, i896f. 

' (Ruhnkenius) ecquem sprevit ac fastidivit eorum qui diu post enstinclam 
Graeciam balbutire Graece rectius quam dicere ac scribere dicantur' (Cobet, 
Commintaliones Philological, :8;3, ii 6). 

* t.g. Commenlalione!, U, 




found his main occupation in studying the great originals them- 
selves, and in ascertaining and enforcing a fixed standard of Attic 
usage. The love of reducing classical texts to the dead level of a 
smooth uniformity had already been exemplified by Latin scholars, 
such as N. Heihsius and Broukhusius', who had attempted to 
assimilate the vigorous and varied style of a Catullus or a Pro- 
pertius to the monotonous uniformity of an Ovid. The same love 
of uniformity was exemplified (as we have seen), in the case of 
Attic Greek, by Cobet and his immediate followers. Such a ten- 
dency may even perhaps be regarded as a national characteristic 
of the clear-headed and methodical scholars, who dwell in a land 
of straight canals rather than winding rivers, a land of level plains 
varied only by a fringe of sand-dunes, a land saved from devasta- 
tion by dikes that restrain the free waters of the sea. But, as we 
look back over the three-hundred and thirty-three years which 
have elapsed since the foundation of the first of the universities of 
the Northern Netherlands, we remember that it was the breaking 
of those dikes by the orders of William the Silent that brought 
deliverance to the beleaguered city of Leyden, and that the heroism 
of its inhabitants was then fitly commemorated by the founding of 
its far-^med university'. 

Leyden became, in general, the model for the later universities 
of the Northern Netherlands. Franeker was thus 
founded in Friesland, in 1585; Groningen, in the verelties""' 
northern province of that name, in 1614 ; Utrecht 
in 1636; and Harderwyk, on the south-east shore of the Zuider 
Zee, in 1648. The seventeenth century also saw the foundation 
of an Athenaeum at Deventer and at Amsterdam. In 1811 
Franeker and Harderwyk were suppressed by Napoleon I, who 
was happily foiled in his attempt to suppress Utrecht. The 
Athenaeum of Amsterdam was transformed into a university in 
1877. At the present time the number of students exceeds 1300 
at Leyden, 1100 at Utrecht, and 1000 at Amsterdam, while it is 
less than 500 at Groningen. Leyden and Utrecht have long been 
the principal seats of classical learning. 

' " in- 330. "'P'-"- ' " 300 su/ra. 


(ii) Belgium. 

Meanwhile, in the Southern Netherlands, the university of 
Louvain had been founded in 1426 at a place 
venial" ""'' praised by its founder for the salubrity and the 
beauty of its situation amid the meadows and vine- 
yards of Brabant'. Within twenty years of its foundation it began 
to resemble the universities of England by its institution of com- 
petitive examinations and by its adoption of the collegiate system'. 
The most famous of its Colleges was that for the study of Latin, 
Greek and Hebrew, the Collegium Trilingue, founded in 1517 by 
Busleiden, and fostered during its first decade by Erasmus'. This 
College was one of the first-fruits of the Revival of Learning in 
the Netherlands, while the University, which was opposed to the 
principles of the Reformation, was the chief stronghold of the 
Catholic cause in and after the sixteenth century. 

Some of the leading representatives of learning at Louvain in 
the sixteenth century have already been briefly noticed*. Lipsius 
belongs to Leyden" as well as to I.x>uvain, the university of his 
youth and his old age, which he proudly describes as the 'Belgian 
Athens". During his life-time, the Northern Netherlands re- 
volted against the power of Spain, and a struggle that began in 
1 568 did not end until the independence of the 'United Provinces' 
was formally and finally recognised by the Peace of Westphalia 
(1648). The Southern Provinces remained subject to Spain until 
1 7 14, when they passed under the power of Austria. Eighty years 
later, after a single year of independence (1790), they fell for 
twenty years under the power of France (1794 — 1814). The 
university of Louvain, which was closed for a time under the 
Austrian emperor Joseph II, was suppressed by the French in 
1797. When the united kingdom of the Southern and Northern 
Netherlands had been brought into existence in 1815 by the 
Congress of Vienna, king William I founded in i8i6-r7 the two 
new universities of Ghent and Li^ge, and, in the same year, placed 

• Baron de Reiffenbeig's Mimeires, 18J9, p. 1911. 
' Hamilton's Z>it™j«iwii, 406 f, 645—650; KashdaJI, 11 i 559—363. 
» ii jtl supra. * ii i\l{ supra. ' ii 301 supra. 

' Lovamum, Lib. iii, cap. 1, Salvete AChenae nostrae, Atbenae Belgicae. 


at Louvain a ColUge phUosophique, making attendance at that 
College compulsory on all future inmates of the episcopal Semi- 
naries. The resentment thus aroused among the clergy contributed 
towards the revolution of 1830, which dissolved the union between 
the North and the South and led to the foundation of the separate 
kingdom of Belgium. The universities did not emerge from the 
crisis without serious mutilation. Late in 1830 Li^ge lost its 
Faculty of Philosophy ; Ghent retained only those of Law and 
Medicine ; the Faculties of Science and Law disappeared at 
Louvain, but that of I^w was partially restored soon afterwards. 
The general aim of all this was the institution of a single central 
university, which, it is assumed, would have been located at 
Louvain. The proposal for a central university was lost in 1834 
by five votes; thereupon the universities of Ghent and Liege were 
retained and reorganised, and that of Louvain suppressed. In 
November, 1834, a 'free' university was founded in Brussels- In 
the same month the Belgian bishops founded at Malines a catholic 
university which was transferred to Louvain in the following year'. 

Brussels is the seat of an Academy of Science and Letters, 
founded during the Austrian rule, under the auspices of the 
empress Maria Theresa, in 1772. This Academy was suppressed 
during the French occupation in 1794, was re-estabhshed in 1816, 
and began a fresh lease of life in 1833. In the sequel we shall 
notice a few of the more prominent representatives of classical 
learning in the nineteenth century, confining ourselves almost 
exclusively to members of the Brussels Academy. With the 
exception of Baron de Witte, all of those whom we propose to 
mention were professors at one or other of the Belgian universities. 

While textual criticism is a prominent characteristic of Dutch 

scholarship, the study of classical archaeology and 

■ ■ , • ■ • ■ , , . , . O* Witte 

of constitutional antiquities has been admirably re- 
presented among natives of Belgium. The cosmopolitan archaeo- 
logist, Jean Baron de Witte (1808— 1889), was bom in Antwerp. 
At the age of thirteen he was taken to Paris, where he soon gave 
promise of his life-long interest in art and archaeology. He 
travelled extensively in Europe and the East (1838-42). During 

' Cp. in general, the Intrgduclipn to Prof. A. Le Roy's UUnivirsUi tit 
Liige (1867), xxxi, xliii — xlvii. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 

294 BELGIUM. [cent. XIX. 

his travels he became a full Member of the International Archaeo- 
logical Institute in Rome; after his return to Paris, where he 
resided for the rest of his life, he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the Academy of Inscriptions, a Foreign Member of 
that body in 1864, and in 1887 an honorary Foreign Member of 
the Antiquarian Society of France (1887). Meanwhile, ever since 
1851, he had been a full Member of the Royal Academy of his 
native land. As an archaeologist, he was profoundly influenced 
by Fanofka, whom he aided in editing the Paris volumes of the 
Annali of the Archaeological Institute (1832-4). He published 
catalogues of several archaeological collections, and was a constant 
contributor to the leading archaeological periodicals. For many 
years he was one of the editors of the Gazette archiologique and 
of the Revue Numismatiqve. His colleague in the former was 
Francois Lenormant, whose father, Charles Lenormant, had been 
one of his companions during his visit to Greece, Smyrna, and Con- 
stantinople, and was associated with him in the most important of 
his works. This was the well-known &lile des monuments 'ceramo- 
graphiques, in four quarto volumes with four further volumes of 
no less than 455 plates {1844—61), being only part of the materials 
for a complete representation of the social and religious life of the 
ancient world. De Witte also published elaborately illustrated 
researches on the Roman Emperors who had held sway in Gaul 
during the third century (1868)'. 

For nearly forty years De Witte counted among his correspon- 
dents the able representative of classical archaeolc^ 
r™im '" Belgium, J. E. G, Roulez (1806— 1878). Bom 
in Brabant, he studied under Creuzer's pupil, 
G. J. Bekker, at Louvain, and, after winning the prize at Ghent 
for his essay on Carneades, and at Louvain for that on Heracleides 
Ponticus, continued his studies at Heidelberg under Creuzer, in 
Berlin under Boeckh, and at Gettingen under Dissen and 
K. O. Miiller. His interest in mythology was due to Creuzer; 
and, a year after his return to his native land, he dedicated to 
Creuzer the textual criticisms on Themistius, which he presented 

^ Biagr.Jahrb. iBg), ti8f; A. Michaelis, Gesch. dtr deutschen arch. Inst. 
44, S7f. 63; Stark, 396, 36;; BibliographU Atadlmique, tj pp. (Bruxelles, 
1 884 

h. 1. iiA.OO^IC 


for his Doctor's degree at Louvain. In 1832 he became a pro- 
fessor of Greek History and Ancient Geography at the Athenaeum 
of Ghent, and in 1834 he published at Leipzig the Novcu Historiae 
of Ptolemaeus Hephaestion. While the university of Ghent was 
partly in abeyance, he was an active member of the Ftuulti 
libre de philosopMe ei Ultres. When the university was fully 
restored in 1835, he was appointed to a professorship, and con- 
tinued to lecture until 1863 on Greek and Roman literature, on 
Art and Archaeology, and on ancient and modern Law. He had 
repeatedly dischai^ed the duties of rector with conspicuous 
success, and, for the next ten years of his life, he was the official 
supervisor' of the university, which ultimately acquired his valuable 
library. In the controversies as to the primitive inhabitants of 
Belgium he played a good-tempered and a dignified part ; he also 
explored the Roman roads and the other antiquities of the country. 
The principal papers which he presented to the Brussels Academy 
were collected in the seven books of his Melanges (1838-54). His 
masterpiece was a fine volume on select vases from the Leyden 
Museum, published in Ghent with twenty coloured plates (1854). 
His archaeological studies had been fruitfully pursued during his 
single visit to Italy in r839; he repeatedly published vase-paintings 
from the Piazati collection then in Florence, but since dispersed ; 
he was a frequent contributor to the Annali of the Archaeological 
Institute in Rome, and to the Gazette arMologique of France. As 
an archaeologist, he was even better known abroad than in his 
native land. At Rome, in 1877, when M, Gevaert, the eminent 
Be^an authority on ancient music, asked Fiorelli to explain the 
musical instruments in a bas-reUef of an Archigallus in the Capi- 
toline Museum', Fiorelli replied with all his Neapolitan vivacity: — 
' When you return to Belgium, ask Roulez, he knows more about 
that class of monuments than any man in Europe". 

Among the contemporaries of Roulez at Ghent was Joseph 
Gantrelle {1809 — 1893), a native of Echtemach, 
who was educated at the Athenaeum of Luxem- 

* Adminislratettr-inspecleur. ' Miltin, Galer. myth. Ixxxii ij*. 

' See esp. De Witte in Annulare of Bnissels Acad. 1879, 167 — 103, wilh 
portrait and bibliography; also A. Wagener, in Rev. di tinslruHiim pubtiqui, 
Gand, xxi (187S) i^ofi and Biogr.Jahri. 1878, ff j Staik, 396. 


296 BELGIUM. [cent. XIX. 

burg. He studied at Ghent under Mahne (the biographer of 
Wyttenbach), who left for Leyden soon after Belgium had seceded 
from Holland. After holding scholastic appointments in Brussels 
and at Hasselt, Gantrellewas appointed in 1837 to a professorship 
at Ghent, where he became professor of Latin rhetoric in 1851-4, 
inspector of intermediate education 1854-64, and professor once 
more from 1864 to the end of his career in 1892. He had been 
naturalised as a Belgian in 1839, and in the same year had pub- 
lished a valuable memoir on the early historical relations between 
the Southern Netherlands and England', and a Latin Grammar, 
which marked a new departure in the schools of Be^um*, and 
was highly esteemed by Eckstein in Germany and by Benoist and 
Thurot in France. His classical pubUcations were mainly con- 
nected with Tacitus. He published m Paris a Study of that 
historian's 'Grammar and Style", as well as contributions to the 
criticism and interpretation of his works*, with highly appreciated 
editions of the Agricoia (1874), Germattta {1877) and Histories 
{1881). He characterised the Agricoia as an iloge historiqm^,xaA 
the same was the general character of his own 'panegyrical bio- 
graphy' of Ratherius, bishop of Verona and Li^ge'. To the 
publications of the Brussels Academy he contributed three papers, 
on the following subjects: — (i) the order of words in a Latin 
sentence: (2) the Suevi on the banks of the Scheldt; and (3) the 
rules and method of criticism, in connexion with the controversy 
raised by the previous paper'. He steadily resisted the attacks 
directed against a classical education; in conjunction with Wagener 
he started in 1874 a 'society for the promotion of philological and 
historical studies ', and, late in life, he anonymously assigned to the 
Brussels Academy the sum of 45,000 francs for the foundation of a 
biennial prize for the encouragement of ' classical philology '. In 
his immediate circle, though he was loyal and devoted to his 
personal friends, he was not universally popular; he was recognised 

' Nouvella Archive! historiques, 1839. 
* Repeatedly revised and improved; ed. ti, 18S9. 
' 1874, 1S81'. * 1875; partly translated into German. 

' Kevue lU P InstmcHim puhUque, 1878; anA Hme Jakri. 1881. 
' Nouveltes Archive! histariguci, 1837, written in accideDtal ignorance of 
the great work of the brothers Balierini (Verona, 1765). 
' Bulletin!, Sii. 3, vi 611, xi 190, xUi 344. 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


as a man of undoubted learning, but of uncertain temper ; his 
leading characteristic was a passionate and indomitable energy ; 
labm- improbus was in fact the law of his life'. 

The Revut de ritutrucHon publique en Bdgique gave scope to 
a large part of the editorial energy of Gantrelle and 
his colleague, Wagener. Auguste Wagener {1829 — 
1896) was born and bred at Roeremonde in Limburg, east of 
the present boundaries of Belgium. He studied for two years at 
Bonn under Lassen, Welcker and Ritschl, and for one year at 
Li^ge; he also spent six months in Paris, where he became 
acquainted with Littr^, E^er, Daremberg and Renan, before 
beginning his lectures on Moral Philosophy at Ghent {185 1). The 
bishop soon detected and publicly denounced 'five dangerous 
errors' in his teaching; the lecturer replied with ■moderation and 
dignity, but shortly afterwards he was happily sent on an archaeo- 
Ic^cal mission to Greece and Asia Minor, and, on his return, 
was appointed to lecture on the safe subjects of the Latin language 
and ancient literature{i854). He becameafull professor in 1862, 
and, after the resignation of Roulez in 1864, lectured on Roman 
Antiquities, and, subsequently, on constitutional history. For 
thirteen years he was superintendent of public instruction at 
Ghent, and in 1878, when the liberal party came into power, 
became general supervisor of the university, thus attaining the 
distinction of being afterwards described by the rector, in the 
familiar English phrase, as 'the right man in the right place'. In 
r882-6 he was Member of Parliament for Ghent, and had charge 
of the budget for public instruction. After resuming his duties 
as professor, he lectured on Greek Epigraphy and on Roman 
Constitutional History, resigned office in 1895 and died in the 
following year. 

Wagener and Gantrelle, though differing widely in character, were united 
in their devotion to classical studies. They were associated as editors of 
Tacitus, and also as editors of the Belgian Kevut. But, while Gantrelle was 
interested in the grammatical side of Classics, Wagener had a distinct taste for 
archaeology and history. As a scholar Wagener ranged himself under the 
bannei of Boeckh and K. O. MuUer. He did not read the Classics with a 

' A. Wagener, in Atmuairt of Brussels Acad. 1896, 45 — 114, with portrait 
and bibliography. 


view lo constantly delecting the errors of the copyist, and the few ci 
thai he proposed were founded on solid proof of Iheir absolute necessity. 
In his public career, he proved himself a bom oiator and an admirable 
lecturer; he assimilated all (hat was best in the French and German types of 
scholarship, while he remained true to the best traditions of his own country. 
Shortly before his death, when his friends and former pupils assembled to do 
honour to his past services, he unconsciously portrayed his own character in 
his mtvissima virba. He said that 'he had found the law of his life in the 
precept ypwdi staxrlai ; he was conscious of his own limitations ', he had 
played an unobtrusive part, had made some small discoveries but had not 
thrown a new light on whole provinces of ancient learning; in the world of 
public and social life, he had not opened out any new paths, and he would not 
be remembered as a parliamentary orator; the kind sympathy expressed by 
his friends and pupils on that day was perhaps inspired by the fact (hat he had 
always walked conoalently in Ihe same palh, the path of duty'. The classical 
authors that he mainly studied were Anliphon' and Plutarch', Cicero' and 
Tacitus. He wrote a remarkable article on the textual criticism of the 
Dialogus de oratorihus*; produced an excellent edition of the first book of the 
Annals (Paris, 1878), and easily refuted Hochart's paradoxical ascription of 
the Annals and Hislories to the authorship of Poggio". The influence of 
RitschI is apparent in his Bonn dissertation on the Origines of Calo (1849), 
that of Lassen in his memoir on the apologues of India and of Greece*. His 
visit lo Asia Minor led to his discovery and elucidation of a metrological monu- 
ment in N.W. Phrygia^, and to his publication of fifteen other inscriptions", 
followed by one connected with the corporations of artisans, which he had 
himself copied ac Hierapolis'. His merits were not overlooked by the Academy 
of Brussels, but he was elected a correspondent of the Archaeolc^ical Institute 

After his election as a full member, he gave a lecture on the political opinions 
of Plutarch and Tacitus'", and on liberty of conscience at Athens". He was 

' Revue de PlnstrueHon Publique, xii 149^157, xiii 88 — 113. 

' De EI in Delphi!, ib. xi 161 f, xjxii 1 ;i f. 

' Esp. in his repeated revisions of his father's Pre Milone, with the 
commentary of Asconius, where, in c. 19, luco (for lects) Libitinae is due to 

■* Revue, XX 157— 484. 


' Brussels Acad. Minioires des savants Grangers, 4°, xxv (1853). 

' (At Ouchak i.e. Ushak) Mhn. xKvii, 1855. 

" ib. XXX, :859. 

* Revu4, xi (1869) I— 1+. 

■* BulleHm, Ser. I, 1876, ill 1109. 

" i6. Sir. 3, 1884, vii 574. 



also an expert in Music. The question whether 'harmony' was known in 
ancient Music had been repeatedly asked since the days of the Renaissance ; 
it had recentlj' been answered in the negative by Fr. Fetis, and in the 
afGrmalive by J. H. Vincent. Wagener took the affirmative side in a memoir' 
that inspired Francois Augusle Gevaert with a desire to extend his knowledge 
of the subject. When Gevaert embarked on his memorable work on the 
'History and Theory of Ancienl Music'', he obl^ned the collaboration of 
Wagener on points connected with the revision and the interpretation of the 
ancient texts. Wiener was associated with Gevaert and Vollgraff in an 
edition of the Musical ProUims of Aristotle, two parts of which were published 
by Wagener's survivors in 190a and in igor. Gevaert, who was born in rSiS, 
and owed his early training to Ghent, is a practical musician and composer of 
a very high order, and is also known as the accomplished and versatile 
historian of ancient Music. Since 1871 he has been director of the Royal 
Csnservaioiri of Music in Brussels'. 

Gantrelle and Wagener had been preceded as editors of the 
Revue by Louis Chretien Roersch {1831— 1891). 
Bom at Maestricht, the capital of the Dutch district Roef»Vh 
of Limbufg, he was educated at the local Athenaeum 
before beginning his studies at Louvain. Owing to the large 
number of new appointments created by a law of 1850, he soon 
obtained a place on the staff of the Athenaeum of Bruges. He 
was then only twenty, and so youthful was his appearance that, 
on the prize-day, when he was seen descending the steps of the 
Ii6tel de Ville empty-handed, the boys in the street called out: — 
' Look at that idle dog ! he has not carried off a single prize ! '. 
At Bruges he remained for fifteen years. Meanwhile, in 1855, 
he had contributed to the Renue Pedagogique an elaborate notice 
of J. L. Bumoufs Greek Grammar. This periodical had been 
started in 1852 at Mons ; it was transferred in 1858 to Bruges, 
where under the new title of Revue de rinsiruction publique it was 
edited by Roersch and his colleague Feys, whose sister he married. 
When Gantrelie and Wagener became editors, it was transferred to 
Ghent, hut the name of Roersch was retained even after he had 
been compelled in 1868 to resign the immediate direction owing 

' Sur la symphonie dis anciens, \a Mlm. des lav. Strang. XXM, 1861. 

' Henzel, Paris, 1875—1881; cp. Bursian's /a^fwi. xliv 15 — 19; also 
La Mmpie Antique (1895), ib. Ixxxiv 185, 514. 

' On Gevaert, cp. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. 1906 ; 
on Wagener, Annuaire of Brussels Acad. 189S, IS5— *«4' 



300 BELGIUM. [cent. XIX. 

to the pressure of his new duties at Li^ge. In 1865 he had been 
appointed at the Acok Nonnale to an important lectureship, which, 
in 1872, was combined with a classical professorship in the uni- 
versity. He was convinced that the study of the old classical 
world was an indispensable means towards the progress of modern 
civilisation'; but he gave a wide interpretation to that study. At 
Louvain, he had combined with it the study of Sanskrit, while, at 
Li^ge, he gave proof of his interest in Germanic {and especially in 
Flemish) and even in Semitic philology. He delighted in studying 
the Old Testament in the original Hebrew and in passing his 
evenings in reading the Coran with the aid of the professor of 
Arabic, and Homer, Virgil or Dante in the company of the 
professor of Criminal Law. Late in life he was rector of the 
university and for three years discharged the duties of that office 
with complete success during a transitional time of extraordinary 
difficulty. On resigning in October, 1891, he delivered a discourse 
on the early constitution of Athens, in connexion with the recently 
recovered treatise of Aristotle ; twelve days later, he was listening 
to the classical cantata of Andromeda, and, only three days after- 
wards, he died. 

As a classical scholar, he had devoted special attention to the 
Latinity of Cornelius Nepos". For the text, he had collated 
four MSS, and in particular the Louvain ms from the adjacent 
abbey of Pare. In 1861 he produced an excellent school-edition 
(ed. 2, 1884), followed by similar editions of Caesar, De Bello 
GalHco (1864), and Cicero, /ro Archia et pro rege Deiotaro (1867). 
In 1885 he published, in conjunction with Paul Thomas of Ghent, 
an excellent Greek Grammar, which was warmly welcomed by the 
learned Societies of Belgium. For the national encyclopaedia 
entitled Van Bemmel's Patria Belgica^ he condensed into the 
brief compass of 26 p^es a 'History of Philolc^y in Belgium', 
which is described by his biographer as 'a difficult task involving 
long and laborious research', and as 'undoubtedly the most 

' Discow! Rtctoral of 1889. and Van Bemmel's Patria Btlgica, iii 431 (cp. 
P. Wniems, NolUt, 516 f). 
" Rome, 1858, 1861 f, 
• iii(i8;s)407— 431. 



important of his works". To the Biographk Nationak he con- 
tributed, during the last ten years of his life, more than twenty 
notices of modern Latin poets or scholars who were natives of the 
Southern Netherlands, the most prominent of these being Gruter, 
D. Heinsius and Lipsius. In 1888, he accompanied his future 
biographer, Pierre Willems, on a pilgrimage to the house in which 
Lipsius was bom, only to discover that the great scholar's books 
and furniture, after remaining safe for three centuries, had un- 
fortunately been sold by auction at a recent date. Thirty years 
previously, he had published two letters from Kuster to Bentley 
and Hemsterhuys, which he had discovered in the National 
Library of France". His studies and his published articles ranged 
over a wide field, while his administrative duties left him little 
leisure for any work on an extensive scale. But he was fully 
capable of producing works of far larger compass, any one of 
which might have ensured him a permanent place in the history 
of the scholarship of his country*. 

We may here add a brief notice of one or two of the early German 
professors in the Belgian universilies. In 1S17 the govern- 
ment of the united kingdoms of Holland and Belgium found 
it necessary to invite scholars of German nationality to fill certain of the 
professorships in the newly constituted universities of Louv^n, Ghent and 
Liege. Among these was J. D. Fuss (1781 — 186a), who had been educated 
by (he Jesuits in his native town of Diiren in Rhenish Prussia. He had afler- 
wardb studied at Wiirzburg under Schelling and at Halle under F. A. Wolf; 
he had also made the acquaintance of W. von Schlegel and Madame de Staet, 
by whose advice he had studied for some years in Paris. He had there 
translated into La.lin the treatise of loannes Lydus on Ihe Roman magistrates, 
as his own share of Hase's edilio prituepi (1811). In 1815 he was appointed 
by the Prussian Government to a classieal mastership in the gymnasium of 
Cologne; and, two years later, was called to the professorship of ancient 
literature and Roman antiquities at Li£ge> Among his best works was a 
Latin manual of Roman Antiquities (i8jo), the third edition of which was 
translated into English at Oxford in iS^o. His Jesuit training had made him 

' P. Willems in Anntiaire of Brussels Acad. 1893, with summary on 
pp. S31-6- 

a RevM, 1858, 318 f, 368 (incl. a letter to Bignon). 

' P. Willems, b Annuaire, r893, 515 — 545, with portrait, and conspectus 
of passages in Greek and Latin authors discussed, £43 f> also complete 
bibliography by A. Roersch, ib. 545 — 565. 




a skilful composer of Latin verse. In (he course of an excellent Latin ode on 
ihe foundation of the University of Lifge, he thus refers to Louvain, as well as 
Liege and Ghent ; — ■ 

' Priscum en refulgeC Lovanii decus, 
Binaeque Belgis, astra velut nova, 
Surgunt sorores ; en Camoenae 
Auspidis redieie laetis ' *. 
He was also an adept in writing accentual rhj^miug Latin verse of the 
mediaeval type. A good example of this is the rendering of Schiller's LUi 
VCH dtr Glockt^, included in his original and translated Carmina Lalina'. 
In 1830, when the Dutch professors were expelled from the Belgian uni- 
versities, Fuss, who was threatened with expulsion, protested that he was not 
a Dutchman but a German ; the plea was allowed, but he soon found the whole 
of the Faculty to which he belonged suppressed by the govemmenl. Nothing 
daunled, he continued to leach as a member of a Faculty Hire, and, five years 
later, was reinstated, as professor of Roman aniiquilies only. He had a better 
command of Latin than of any other language, and he consoled himself for the 
fact that be was no longer a professor of Latin literature by writing volumes of 
Latin verse and by enlarging the range of his private readir^. He was rector 
of the university in iS44.-5, ^'"^' <>" laying down hisofhce, delivered a discourse 
on the permanent importance of modern Lalin. Later in life he became a 
diligent student of Dante, though he took no interest in the mediaeval 
scholasticism of the Divitia Cenimedia*. 

The counterpart of Fuss at Li^ge was G. J. Bekker (1791 — 1837) at 
Louvain. As a pupil of Creuzer at Heidelberg, he prepared 
a dissertation on Philoslratus' Life of Apollonius, which was 
published in 1S18. In the previous year he had been called to Louvain aa 
professor of ancient literature. Within a year he acquired a perfect knowledge 
of Flemish as well as of French ; and, as the envoy of Louvain at the com- 
memoration of (he fifth jubilee of Leyden, he gave proof of his perfect com- 
mand of Dutch. He had a genuine admiration for the great Dutch scholars, 
especially for Wyltenbach. On the suppression of the university of Louvain 
in 1834, he left for Liege, where he was rector of the universily for the next 
academical year, and died not long after. At Louvain he bad produced liltle 
besides an edition of the Odyssey and of Isocrates ad Dcmotdcum \ but he was 
a man of no small merit, and he derives a reflecled fame from his pupils, 
Baguet and Roulez'. 

' Reprinted in Le Roy's LUgt, $6 f. 

» Extract, I*. 333. ' iSji; ed. 1, 1845-6- 

* Life and bibli<^aphy in Le Roy's LUgt, 31+ — 331- 

' Baron de Reiffenberg, in Annuairt, 1838; Le Roy's Liige, 70—77; 
portrait in IcenograpkU da UnvoersUis. His biographer, (he singularly 
versatile Baron de Reiffenbeig (1795 — 1850), published excerpts from Ihe 
elder Pliny (iSio), a paper on Lipstns in the M^. courvaues of the Brussels 

O. J. Bekker 




The foimer of ihese, Francois Baguet (1801 — 1867}, belonged to i 
thoroughly catholic family in Ihe south of Bra.banl. 
leaving school at (he age of 16, he found (he u 
Ghen( and Liege just coming into being and that of Louvain in course of 
reconstruction. He was accordingly compelled (o wait foi a year before 
entering Louvain, where he studied Greek and Latin under G. J. Bekker. 
He published in 1811 in a quarto volume of nearly 400 pages an elaborate 
prize-essay on Chrysippus, and ob(ained his Doctor's d^ree on the strength 
of an edition of the eighth book of Dion Cbrysostom (1813). When he was 
offered a lectureship in Greek and Latin in the newly constituted CoUige 
Pkilosofhiqilt of Louvain, he declined the offer, buc, as soon as a catholic 
university was established at Malines, he was appointed classical professor and 
secretaiy of (hat body and retained these posts on its transfer to Louvain. 
Though he was familiar with Flemish and Dutch (as well as wi(h French) lie 
never took the trouble to learn German, and consequently found himself at a 
constant disadvantage as a classical scholar. His papers on intermediate 
education (1843-63) were published in the Rivuc Catholui%u and in the 
Bulletins of the Brussels Academy, which included in its MJtaoim of 1849 
bis only exten^ve production, a notice of the life and works ol the Jesuit 
scholar, Andrf Schott, the correspondent of Casaubon. In Baguet, the man 
was worth even more than the scholar. He was remarkable for his thorough- 
ness, his devotion to duty, and his resolute self-effacement. The motlo of his 
life was ama naciri'. We next lutn to a name of fat greater note. 

F^lix N^ve {1816 — 1893), a native of Ath in Hainaut, was 
educated beyond the borders of his native land at 
Lille, where he gave early proof of being a skilful 
versifier in Latin as well as in French. Like Nam^che, the future 
historian of Belgium, he was one of the first to enter Louvain on 
its reconstitution as a catholic university in 1835. In addition to 
his ordinary classical studies, he there attended Arendt's lectures 
on oriental literature, and, after learning a little Sanskrit, continued 
that study under Lassen at Bonn, Windischmann in Munich, and 
Eugene Bumouf in Paris, where he also studied Hebrew, Syriac, 
and Persian, He was appointed professor of ancient literature 
and oriental languages at Louvain in 1841, and became a full 
professor twelve years later. For ten successive years he lectured 
on ancient philosophy, and, for thirty-six in all, on Greek and 

Acad., iii {183 1), Archivei phihli>gi</uet (1835-6), and (ne Minuiires (1814-34) 
on the early history of the university of Louvain. Cp. Annuairi, (853, and 
Le Boy's LUge, 170—198. 

' RoulesE, b Annuairi of Brussels Acad. 1B70, 103 — 133, with biblio- 


304 BELGIUM. [cent. XIX. 

Latin literature, though all the while his main interests lay in the 
direction of oriental studies. From time to time he lectured on 
Sanskrit ; and among those who attended these lectures were men 
of no less mark than Roersch and Willems. Of his published 
works by far the greatest part related to oriental languages, 
especially Sanskrit, Armenian and Syriac. But, in 1846-55, his 
interest in these languages incidentally led to his writing a series 
of notices of the Belgian orientalists; and these in their turn 
formed the prelude to his important memoir on the Collegium 
Trilingue at Louvain'. In the course of this history of the 
College from 1517 to 1797, he surveyed the study of the learned 
languages at Louvain during the sixteenth, seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. The merit of the work was recognised by 
the award of the gold medal of the Brussels Academy. Thirty- 
four years later, in the evening of a long life, the author returned 
to the same theme in a work of wider scope and more highly 
finished form'. 

In this work he collected and revised and supplemented all his scattered 
notices of the minor humanisls of the Southern Netherlands. But this was 
not all. After a suggestive Introduction, in the course of which he urges that 
the Renaissance had only accidental points of contact with the Reformation, 
he devotes nearly a hundred admirable pages to Erasmus, with special 
reference to his life at Louvain. He next dilates on Jerome Busleiden and 
Sir Thomas More, and on the theologian, Martin Dorpius tH^S^'E'S), the 
defender of humanistic studies, who lectured on Plautus and wrote amusing 
prologues for performances of the Aulularia and the Milts Gloriasus \ on 
Adrien Barlandus (1487—15^9), a commentator on Terence (1530); on 
Jacques Ceratinus de Horn (d. 1530!, the compiler of a Greek and Latin 
dictionary dedicated to Erasmus ; on the Greek scholar and magistrate, 
Francois de Craneveldt (d. 1564), the friend of Erasmus and More, and the 
translator of the work of Procopius on the buildings of Justinian ; and lastly 
on Guy Morillon (d. 1548), the diligent student of Livy and Suetonius, and 
the secretary of Charles V. Nothing is here said of such well-known scholars 
of the sixteenth century as Viv^ and Lipsius, but we have a comprehensive 
monc^raph on Clenaidus^. The seventeenth century is represented by Jean 

■ 1856; Cp. ii siin. ], supra. 

' La Jitnaissanet el reiser de tlrudilion cauienne en Belgiqut, 439 pp., 
Louvain, 1890. 

* pp. aJ4 — 174. Cp. Chauvin and Roersch in Mimtires ceuroanh of the 
Brussels Acad. LX (1900O' i^o. 5> ^3 pp.,andii ti^ supra. 




Bapliste Grammaye (iS79~-'fi3s)> 'he author of a work on the alphabets 
of the sixteen besl-known languages'; by Petms Caslellanus (158; — 1631). 
professor of Greek at Louvain, and author of lives of famous physicians, also of 
a treatise on the festivals of Greece, and another on the viands of the ancient 
world, aflerwaids incorporated in Ihe Titsaurus' of Gronovius. The last two 
chapters deal with Andteos Catullus (i j86— r667), the author of a Latin play 
on the origin of the sciences, under the (iile o{ Pronuthcus (1613), and Valerius 
Andreas, the compiler of a gec^^phical and biographical dictionary of Belgium 
(16^3), and of the earliest history of the university of Louvain (1635)'- 

While F^lix Nfeve was an orientalist who became incidentally 
interested in the scholarship of the Southern 
Netherlands, we have in the person of Jean Joseph 
Thonissen (1816— iSgi) an eminent jurist and politician who 
included in the long series of his historical and legal writings a 
luminous work on Criminal Law in primitive Greece and at 
Athens. Bom at Hasselt, the capital of Limbourg, and educated 
at his native place and at Rolduc, he studied at Liege and {for 
two years) in Paris, For 36 years professor of Criminal Law at 
Louvain and for 27 Member for Hasselt, he was presented with 
his bust in marble by his constituents in 1873 and by his friends and 
pupils seven years later. In 1884-7 he was Home Secretary and 
Minister of Public Iristruction, The rumour of his death in 1 888 led 
to the pre mature publication of generous tributes to his great services 
as a liberal catholic, as a statesman, and as the author of a highly 
appreciated commentary on the constitution of Belgium. His 
study of modern socialism was preceded by an examination of 
the I^ws of Crete, Sparta and Rome, as well as the institutions 
of Pythagoras and the Republic of Plato'. His papers on the 
criminal law of India, Egypt, and Judaea", and his two large 
volumesonthesamesubject(i869), were succeeded by his work on 
the Criminal Law of Legendary Greece and on that of Athens 
under the democracy, the evidence as to the former being directly 

' Speiiram lilUrarunt it liuguarum, Alh (i6it). 

* 'X 35'— 404- 

» On the life of Nive, cp. T. J. Lamy in Annuaire of the Brussels Acad. 
1S94, 90 pp., with portrait and bibliography. 

* Esp. in Le sodalismc depuit F antiquili jusqu'h... \it,i, 1 vols. (Louvain, 

" Collected in his Melanges, 1873. 
s. III. I,. I ., II, l^3fi"K"V^IC 


derived from Homer and Hesiod. For Athenian he relies 
on the Attic orators and other ancient texts. 

He begins with & brief review of Ihe sources of oat information. In ihe 
second book, he deals with the different kinds of penalties ; in the thitd, he 
classilies the offences against the stale, against the person etc ; in the fourth, 
after some general considerations, he examines Plato's and Aristotle's opinions 
on punishments. He closes with reflexions on the general character of the 
Athenian system of penalties, its merits and its defects^. 

Even before the publication of the second of his four volumes 
on the History of Belgium under Leopold I (1855-8), his merits 
were recognised by the Royal Academy of Brussels, and one of 
his most permanent services to that body was his comprehensive 
survey and methodical analysis of several hundreds of papers 
presented to the Section of Letters (under the head of epigraphy, 
linguistics, ancient and mediaeval literature etc.) during the first 
century of its existence^ 

While the Criminal Law of Athens was one of the many 
subjects that attracted the attention of Thonissen, the Political 
Institutions of Rome were the principal theme of the life-long 
labours of Pierre Willems (1840 — 1898). Bom and 
bred at Maestricht, and educated at Louvain, he 
received the distinction of a government grant, which enabled him 
to study for two years in foreign universities (1862-3). In Paris 
he worked at oriental languages under Oppert, Greek under E^er, 
and Latin literature under Patin'. He continued to study oriental 
languages in Berlin, and completed his Wamierjahre by visiting 
the university of Utrecht, and by working at Greek under Cobet 
at Leyden. During his absence abroad he paid hardly any 
attention to the Institutions of Rome, nor did he ever attend 
any lectures on that subject at Louvain. On his return he was 
appointed to a professorship which he held for the remaining 
33 years of his life. For the last 25 of those years he was also 
secretary of the university. 

' Lt Droit pfaal de la Ripubliqui athhiienne, prkidl d'une itudi lUr le 
droit criminel de la Grid Ugatdaire, 490 pp., 1875. 

* Rapport Sfeulaire sur Us Iravaux de la Classt dis Uttres, 1773—1873, 
304 pp. Cp- T. J. Lamy in the Atmuaire for 1891, 106 pp., with portrait 
and bibliography. 

' Rrvue Btlge, xv (1863) +91. 



He is best known as the author of standard works on the 
Political Institutions of ancient Rome. In 1870 he published 
his comprehensive treatise on 'Roman Antiquities", which in all 
subsequent editions bore the title of Le droit public remain'. The 
author aims at combining the didactic method of W. A. Becker 
and the historic method of L. Lange, and at avoiding the draw- 
backs of both. He displays an intimate knowledge of the original 
authorities and the best modem treatises on the subject ; and he 
constantly insists on drawing a sharp distinction between facts 
and hypotheses. His treatment of a somewhat dry subject is 
characterised by a remarkable clearness of style. It is the first 
complete work of the kind that has been written in French. It 
passed through six editions, and was ultimately translated into 
Russian by command of the Russian Minister of Public In- 

An even higher degree of success attended the publication of 
his great work on the Senate under the Roman Republic*. His 
fundamental principle is that the Senate remained an exclusively 
patrician body until about 400 b.c. It is on this basis that he 
grounds his description of the composition (and the attributes) of 
the Senate down to the pltbiscitum Ovimum {c. 338 — 312 e.g.), 
which required the censors to choose the persons best qualified 
for the Senate without distinction between patricians and plebeians. 
Finally, he brings his subject down to the end of the Roman 
Republic. The work was carefully discussed*, and elaborately 
reviewed' in Germany and elsewhere. As many as twenty-seven 
reviews are enumerated in the preface to the second edition (1885) 
of the first volume ; and Mommsen, who is not lavish of citations 
from the works of other investigators, makes an exception in the 
case of Willems*. The author's single aim was the atuinment of 

• Lii aniiquiih mmaints mvisagies au point dt vut des initHuUons poUtiques, 
331 pp. (Louvain, 1870). 

' Jusqu'h Constatitin in ed. 1871, '74; juiqu'h Juitinien in ed. 1880, '8j, 
'8S [nearly 700 pp.). 

' Le Sinai de la ripublique romaine; i (La comfiesitiim), ii (Les attribu- 
tiem du S4nat),\\\[Registres), 1878—1885; 638 (7»4') + 784+ "S PP- 

* L. Lange, De pltbhcilis Ovinia el Atinio disputalio. Lips. 1878, ;i pp. 

* e.g. by Hermann Schiller in Bursian's /a^r«i. xix (1879] 411 — 417. 

• Pief. to Romischcs Staatsmhl, ni ii {1888) p. vi. It has been noticed 


historic truth. He made a point of studying all the original 
authorities, and of never consulting any modern writers until he 
had formed his own opinion. One of the most striking features of 
the work is the elaborate biographical roister of the members of 
the Senate in 179 and in 55 b.c. The author afterwards began a 
work on the equestrian and senatorial orders under the Empire, 
and his register of the Senate of 65 a.d. has been published by 
his son'. His work was highly esteemed in other lands, in France, 
England and Italy, no less than in Germany, but he never visited 
Rome, nor indeed any part of Italy. Among his minor works the 
most widely interesting is the public lecture in which he gives a 
detailed and vivid description of the municipal elecrions at 
Pompeii'. Such slighter, efforts were, however, quite exceptional; 
he generally preferred concentrating himself on an opus magnum, 
such as his work on the Senate and on the Droit public remain*, 
and even his minor publications had usually some connexion with 
his larger undertakings. At Louvain, in 1874, he founded among 
the inembers of bis class a Sociefas Philolaga, the first of its kind 
in Belgium ; and one of its earliest members was Charles Michel, 
now a professor at Li^e and editor of the compact and compre- 
hensive Recueil £ Inscriptions Gricques (igoo). Willems was also 
the founder and first oi^aniser of the Classical Quarterly called 
the Mush Beige (1897}. In his own works he showed in general 
a greater affinity with the German and Dutch than with the French 
type of classical learning*. He was more interested in the pursuit 
of positive facts than in the elegant literary analysis of the Classics. 
His courses of lectures dealt with a considerable variety of classical 
authors, together with I^atin inscriptions. They also included a 
general outline of the whole province of 'classical philology', which 

that, in the third edition of vol. I, Mommsen is apt to emphasise points of 
difference, while he appears to have modified some of his opinions in the light 
oTthose of Willems. 

' \\o pp., Louvain, 1901 (extract from Music Beigi, vols, iv — -vi). 

' Lis ileetions munvipales i Pomfii, with tables and notes, (41 pp. ([886), 
extract from the Bullttins of the Brussels Acad., S^r. 3, xii (1886) 51 f. 

' ' He also collected a lai^ mass of materials for a comprehensive work on 
Flenrish dialects. 

* In medie virtus is his own motto in Eevue Beige, xv (l8(>3) 508 f. 



- he defined as 'the science of the civilisation of Greece and Rome". 
He was profoundly impressed with the importance of maintaining 
classical studies in intermediate and in higher education. He was 
also interested in the earlier fortunes and the later progress of 
those studies, he regretted the absence of a complete history of 
the humanists of Louvain, and he was devoted to the memory of 
men like N^ve and Roersch, who had made important contribu- 
tions towards such a history. In all the breadth and soUdity and 
accuracy of his own attainments he gave proof of his possession 
of that genius which consists in an infinite capacity for taking 
pains', thus adding a new glory to the Chair that had been filled 
three centuries before by a man of more brilliant hterary talent, 
but of less stability of character, the greatest Latin scholar of the 
Southern Netherlands, Justus Lipsius', 

' Letira chtitiennes, Paris (1881) 453. 

' "La g^nie n'esl qu'une grand e aptitude ik la patience' (Buffon); Cailyle'a 
FrecUriei, i 415, cd. 1870. 

' On the life and works of Pierre Willems, cp. esp. Victor Brants in the 
Annuaire of the Brussels Acad. 1899, 60 pp., with poitrait and biblic^raphy ; 
also Lamy in BtdUtim o( Brussels Acad. (1898) 397, and Walking in Jlfus/e 
Belp, 1898. 


Prom a photograph reproduced in the Opuscula Academica [ed. 1S87) and 
in the Nordisk Tidskrift, Ser. 11, vol. viii; p. 319 it^ra. 




Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the three constituent portions 
of the ancient Scandinavia, formed a single kingdom Denmark : 
from 1397 to 1523, that is, from the accession of university of 
queen Margaret, the Semiramis of the North, to the 
proclamation of Gustavus Vasa as king of Sweden. Copenhagen," 
the capital of Denmark in and after 1443, became the seat of a 
university founded in 1479 by Christian I under the sanction of 
Sixlus IV (1475). The statutes which it received from the 
archbishop of Lund were modelled on those of Cologne. Sweden 
{as already implied) became a separate kingdom in 1523; from 
1523 to 1560 Gustavus Vasa was king of Sweden, and Frederic I 
and Christian III successively kings of Denmark and Norway, 
and in 1527-36 protestantism was established in all three countries. 
In 1539 the university of Copenhagen, which had collapsed during 
a time of civil and religious commotion, was refounded by 
Christian III on the model of the protestant university of Witten- 
berg. It was destroyed in the great fire of 1728, and rebuilt and 
reorganised in 1732 under Christian VI, who was also the patron 
of the 'Society of Sciences" founded in 1742. The university was 
finally reorganised in 1788°. Nearly three centuries before the 
foundation of that university, the Latin secretary of the archbishop 
of Lund, and the earliest authority for the tragic story of Hamlet, 
was known by the name of Saxo Grammaticus', and we shall see 
in the sequel that the preparation of text-books of Latin Grammar 

' Del Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Cp. p. 314 infra. 

* Cp. Malien's Retskistorie (1879) '< Rashdall, ii lyi f ; and Mintrm, n. 

* His eleganlly wrilten Datiorum Rigum Hereumqtu Historia (f. ijoo) 
was first published by ihe Danish man of letters, C. Fed«rsen (Paris, isi4)- 



was a prominent part of the work of scholars in Denmark from 
the days of Jersin and Bang, Ancherson and Baden, down to those 
of Madvig. 

Our list of scholars begins with Thomas Bang (1600 — i66i), 
whOj after spending three years abroad in the study 
of Latin, Hebrew and Theology at Franeker and 
Wittenberg, became professor of Hebrew, librarian, and professor 
of Theology in the university of Copenhagen. An orientalist by 
profession, he was a layman in Latin, but he was convinced of the 
supreme importance of maintaining that languE^e in the schools of 
Denmark. As a Latin scholar, he is best known for having revised 
at the royal command the Latin Grammar (1623) of J. D. Jersin, 
rector of the school at Soro and ultimately bishop of Ribe. 
Bang's praecepta minora and majora of 1636-40 were followed in 
the latter year by his principal grammatical work, the Observatioms 
Fkilologuae, in two volumes of more than 700 pages each. He 
also published a Latin primer under the attractive title of Aurora 
LatinitatU (1638). Oriental languages are the main theme of two 
of his other works: — the Caelum orientis et prisci mundi (1657), 
and the Exerdtationes litterariae aniiquitatis (1638-48)'. In the 
latter he starts from Pliny's phrase, aetemus liilerarum usus', and 
discourses at large on the 'book of Enoch' and the language of 
the angels. In accordance with the general belief of his time, he 
holds that all languages (as well as all alphabets) have their source 
in Hebrew'. 

Bang's contemporary, Johan Laurembei^ {(. 1588 — 1658), 
professor of Latin Poetry at Rostock, left Germany 
for Denmark in 1623, and was mathematical master 
at Sor<> for the remaining 22 years of his life. His edition of 
the Sphaera of Proclus (1611), his Latin Aitiiquarius, or vocabu- 
lary of archaic and antiquarian words and phrases (1624), and his 
collection of maps of ancient Greece*, are now of little note in 

' Replinted MCticovitExercitatianei.. -de i)rtuttfragratu/itUrarum,l6^i. 

' vii 193. 

' Professor M. ,C. Geriz, in Bricka's Datisi Biograjisk Lexikon (18S7 — 
1904). Prof. Gerix has al^o written on most of (he scholars mentitwed below ; 
all these articles have been carefully consulted. 

' Ed. Pufendorf, i6fo. 

h. !■, II, l^.OOQIC 


comparison with the literary interest of his Danish and Latin 

In the same century Oluf Borch, or Olaus Borrichius (i6zg — 
1690), after studying medicine at Copenhagen, 
travelled in Holland, England, France and Italy, 
and, on his return in 1666, became professor in the university, and 
physician to the king. He was one of the most versatile of men. 
He lectured on philology, as well as on medicine, botany and 
chemistry, besides filling (late in life) the office of librarian. In 
philology his earhest work was a compendious guide to Latin 
versification, quaintly named Parnassus in nuce (1654). His 
dissertatio de lexicis Latinis et Gratcis {1660) was followed by his 
principal work in this line of study : — the Cogitationes de variis 
linguae Latinae adatibus {1675). This was supplemented by his 
Analecta, and by his dissertation De studio furae Latinitatis. The 
historical side of scholarship is represented by his notable 
Conspectus of the principal Latin authors, and by his ' Academic 
dissertations' on the Greek and Latin poets, and on the topography 
of Rome and the oracles of the ancients'. The science of language 
is exemplified in his Dissertalto de causis diversltatis Hnguarum 


Language, in his view, was originally given to man by God, and there 
was the closest correspondence between the original words, as images of 
thugs, and the things themselves. Man had also received the gift of an 
aptitude for inventing new words, on which common custom impressed certain 
meanings; hence the further developement of languages. After the building 
of the tower of Babel, there was a confusion of tongues. The primitive lan- 
guage was preserved completely among the Hebrews, and only patlially 
among other nations. Hence in all languages there were some words which 
were related to Hebrew, but these languages had diveiged in difFecent 
directions. This wa.^ due to a variety of causes, such as diversities of climate 
and of modes of livbg, which alfecled the oigans of speech. In the conception 
of language which is here presented, anamatapoeia plays an important part. 

■ Ed. Lappenberg, Stuttgart, 1S61 (Bursian, i 310); cp. L. Daae, Om 
Humanislen og Satirikeren, Johati Lauremherg, Chr. 1884. His Satires were 
not without influence on thai versatile man of genius, Holbei^ (1684 — 1754), 
the Moli^re of Denmark, who, in his Comedies, owed much to Planlus. One 
of those Comedies, Niels Klims' stibUrranean jgurmy, «"as actually written in 
Latin (1741). 

" 1676-87 ; ed. I, 1714-5- 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


In the rest of Borch's vien'S there is much thit is obscure, aJid, as a whole, 
they are out of date ; but Ihey are not devoid of interest, while they have the 
advantage of being dothed in an attractive form '. 

In the first half of the next century Hans Gram (1685 — 1748) 
was appointed professor of Greek (1714), as well as 
historiographer, librarian and archivist of Copen- 
hagen (i73of). We still possess the rectorial oration in which he 
dilated on the literary history of Denmark and Norway down to 
the foundation of the university'. It was in his time that the 
university was rebuilt and reopened, and it was owing to his 
influence that the ' Society of Sciences ' was founded in 1742. He 
was specially interested in Greek science and in Greek history. 
He wrote on the ' Egyptian origin of geometry ', and published 
observations on Archytas and Aratus. He carefully studied the 
works of Xenophon and the scholia on Thucydides, and edited the 
Characters of Theophrastus. He also published a brief history of 
Greek literature, and he is the reputed author of a Latin-Danish 
and Danish- Latin Dictionary, called the Nucleus Latinitatis, which 
remained in use until it was superseded by the work of Jacob 
Baden. Gram never left his native land, but he counted Fabricius, 
Havercamp and Duker among his correspondents abroad. It was 
once the fashion to describe him as 'the greatest man in Denmark ', 
but he never produced any magnum opus. He buried his extensive 
learning in a twnsiderable number of minor lucubrations, and he 
was only too apt to lose himself in mazes of minute detail. 
Nevertheless he did good service to his country by the organisa- 
tion of learning and by the critical examination of its ancient 

Gram's contemporary Christian Falster (1690 — 1752) was in- 
terested in Greek and Roman literature and criti- 
cism. He produced at Flensborg his supplement 
to Latin lexicons {1717) and a comprehensive introduction to the 
study of Latin literature entitled Quaestiones Romanae (1718), 
At Ribe he prepared his notes on Gellius'. When the com- 
' Geriz, in Bricka. 

' 17451 Aliauttd Nrues aus Damumari,\(\^fl'S\ \yi — 518. 
' Cp. Harless, Vitat Philol., iii 146—156; NottvetU Biografihu GiniraU, 
s.v.\ and esp. Gerlz, in Bricka. 

* Vigilui prima ntitium Ripensiam (yfix). 

„.,,„, ^.oogic 


mentary was completed, it was calculated that it would fill three 
folio volumes. It was impossible to find a publisher, and the 
author accordingly bequeathed his ms, with all his other books, 
to the library of the university of Copenhagen. Meanwhile, 
his friend, Hans Gram, 'on hearing that the Nodes Hipensa 
had been doomed to eternal darkness", prevailed on the author 
to allow some small portions of these Noctes to see the light of 
day'. His Memoriae Obscurae, largely derived from Gellius, and 
published at Hamburg in 1722, is practically a supplement to the 
Bibliolheca Latino of the great Hamburg scholar, Fabricius. In 
his Cogitationes Variae Philologicae (1715) he regards classical 
literature as a handmaid to theology and protests against the 
opinion that the ' pagan ' Classics should be avoided by the 
Christian student. Among the classical desiderata of his time, he 
here mentions a history of Greek literature and adds an outline of 
a fiature work on the subject. He also discusses the essential 
points in an ideal edition and incidentally denounces the Dutch 
fashion of accumulating a mass of ' various readings". 

He recurs to the same theme in a work originally described by 
himself as Sermones, to which his Dutch publisher adroitly gave 
the more attractive title of Amoenitates Philologicae*. It is written 
in a style that is eminently readable without being perfectly pure. 
One of the chapters describes the author's conversation with a 
youth of high promise who found his chief delight in reading the 
lives of great scholars and was inspired with the ambition of 
following in their steps". Another conversation, on the scholar's 
religion, ends with the author's description of himself as a 
' Christian philosopher ' : — ' studeo, non tam ut doctior quam ut 
melior evadam". This is the most celebrated of his works, but, 
notwithstanding its title, the largest part of it has no connexion 
with ' philology '. Its writer is also known as a Danish satirist, as 

Ameenitalis Philologiiae, ill ix^. 
Primed ib. at end of vols, ii and iii. 

P. \\,C0git.Xi\, V. 

iii 7, Amst. 1719-31, 3 vols., with vignette. 
>l. i Hans Gmm is apostrophised as amfilissim. 

In Ihe dedicatory prefa 
r and nebilinimi Gram. 



a commentator on the fourteenth satire of Juvenal, and as the 
author of a Danish rendering of Ovid's Tristia^. 

Later in the same century Jacob Baden (1735 — i8p4), who 
began his studies at Copenhagen and continued 
them at Gdttingen and Leipzig, held scholastic 
appointments at Altona and at Helsingor (Elsinore), and was 
professor of 'eloquence' at Copenhagen for the last 24 years of 
his life. His portrait was engraved by Lahde^ and his bust 
modelled by Thorwaldsen. A compendious Latin Grammar 
produced in 1751 by the Danish schoolmaster, Soren Ancherson 
(1698— 1781), was the authorised text-book for use in all the 
schools of Denmark and Norway, and it held its ground until the 
author's death, thirty years later. In the very next year it was 
superseded by Baden's Grammar, just as Baden's was ultimately 
superseded in 1846 by that of Madvig. Baden was also the 
compiler of standard Latin-Danish and Danish-Latin Dictionaries 
(1786-8), the former of these being founded on Gesner. He 
produced creditable editions of Phaedrus, Virgil and Horace, and 
translations of Xenophon's Cyropaedeia, and of Horace, Suetonius, 
Tacitus and Quintilian (x, xi). He was far less successful as the 
author of a Greek Grammar and Chrestomathy. 

His son, Torkil Baden (1765— 1849), studied at Gottingen 
and acquired an interest in art during his travels 
in Italy. He was a professor at Kiel in Holstein 
(then part of Denmark) and (in 1804-23) at Copenhagen. His 
published works (such as his dissertation on Philostratus) were 
partly inspired by his interest in ancient art. He 'had read 
nearly all the Greek and Latin Classics ', but the result of all 
this reading is inadequately represented in his edition of the 
Tragedies of Seneca'. His edition of his grandfather's Roma 
Danica brought him into feud with other scholars. He was 
more fortunate in his new and improved edition of bis father's 
Dictionaries {1815-31). 

Intermediate in date between the two Badens is Rasmus 

• Cp. Thaarup, in Christian Falsltrs Satirer (1840); Bursian, i 367-9; 
and Geitz, in Bricka. 

' Lahde og Nyerup, Portraile, iii (1806). 
' Leipzig, 1815-11. 



Nyerup (1756 — iSag), the learned librarian of Copenhagen, who, 
besides producing numerous works connected with 
Scandinavian literature, was the first to pubhsh 
the contents of eight Glossaria antiqua Latino- Theottsca'. The 
fifth of these is ultimately derived from the important Latin 
and Anglo-Saxon glossary preserved in a Leyden ms of the 
eighth century, which formerly belonged to Isaac Vossius and 
was probably once at St Gallen'. 

One of Nyerup's less productive contemporaries is Niels Iversen 
Schow (1754 — 1830), the professor of Copenhagen, 
who studied mss in Rome and Venice, edited the 
Homeric Allegories of Heracleides Ponticus {1782) and Joannes 
Lydus De Mensibui (1794), and began editions of Stobaeus and 
Photius, which unfortunately remained unfinished- In bygone 
years he had studied at Gottingen under Heyne; he had thus 
acquired an interest in archaeology, and be had produced a 
handbook of the subject; but his early promise remained un- 
fulfilled. He is far less distinguished than the able and versatile 
archaeologist and historian, Friedtich Miinter {1761 
— 1830), who had also studied under Heyne and 
ultimately became bishop of Seeland. His youi^er contemporary 
Birgerus (B6rge) Thorlacius (1775 — 1829), professor 
at Copenhagen for the last twenty-six years of his 
life, edited Hesiod's Works and Days, the Speech of Lycurgus 
against I.eocrates, and Cornelius Nepos, besides discussing the 
Republic of Cicero, and producing a considerable series of Opus- 
cula (1806-22). His editions of Greek texts were mere reprints 
from those of foreign scholars. He was a man of wide but 
superficial learning ; ineffective as a Latin professor, he did good 
service as one of the revisers of the Danish translation of the Greek 
Testament. The briefest mention must sufiice for 
S. N. J. Bloch (1772—1862), rector of the school °'"* 
at Roeskilde, a compiler of elementary text-books and an editor 
of Select Speeches of Cicero, who advocated a reform in the 

* (Nyerap), Symbolai ad literaturam Teuttinkam anltquiarem, Hauoiae, 
1787, pp. 174— 4'o- 

' The Laden Latin-AnglB-Saxon Glossary, ed. J. H. HesseU, Cambridge 
Univ. Press, 1906, pp. xiii — xvi. 

h. i., ii,l^.OOglc 


pronunciation of Greek, and thus came into conflict with Matthlae 
in Germany, and with Henrichsen in Denmark (1826). It was 

from a paper on the Latin Imperative (1825) by 

Niels Bygom Krarup (1792 — 1842), a teacher at 
Christianshavn, that Zumpt derived the name of the 'future 
imperative'. Among natives of Iceland may be mentioned 

Gudmundur Magndsson (1741 — 1798), an editor 
"AraeK'n" °f Terence {1780), and Paul Amesen {1776— 

1851), who was educated at Helsingor, held a 
mastership at Christiania, and finally taught Greek and Latin at 
Copenhagen. His Greek and Danish dictionary was the first of 
its kind in Denmark (r83o), and was followed by his new Latin 
dictionary (1845-8). 

Meanwhile archaeology was represented by Johann Georg Zoega (1755 — 

1S09), who studied at Gottingen and repeatedly visited Italy 

in and after 1780. He joined the Church of Rome in 1783 
and died in Rome in 1S09. His earliest work, that on the impeiatortal coins 
of Egypt, was followed by his important folio ' on the origin and use of 
obelisks' (1797), by his 'Coptic mss of the Museum Boigianum', and his 
'ancient Roman bas-reliefs''. He was commemorated by a medallion executed 

by his friend Thorwaldsen. Another Danish archaeolt^ist, 
™" " Pelet Oluf Brondsted (1780—1841), after studying at Copen- 

hagen, worked at archaeology in Paris and in Italy, and in 1810-4 travelled in 
Greece with Mailer and Stackelberg, Cockerell and Foster. Brondsted's own 
share in this eventful lour is partly recorded in the two volumes of his travels 
(1810-30). Meanwhile, he had returned to Copenhagen in 1814, to leave it in 
1810 for a tour among the Ionian Islands and in Italy'. He visited England 
in 1814 and 1831, and was professor of Philology and Archaeolc^ for the 
last ten years of his life. His paper on ' Panathenaic vases' was published 
by the Royal Society of Literature (1831), and his ' Bronzes of Siris ' by the 
F C Petersen ^''*"^"t' Society (1836). As professor he was succeeded in 

1841 by F. C. Petersen (1786—1859), who held this position 
for the remaining 17 years of his life. His ' Introduction to Archaeoli^y' 
(1815), which includes a full account of Winckelmann, was translated into 
German'. He also published a handbook to Greek literature, besides com- 

^ Aihandhingat {1817), Leben, etc., Welcker (1819); Stark, 145-9; 
Michaelis, Arch. Enid. 13 f. 

' Stark, 160-1. 

■ 1819, 3S3 pp. (n ' 
61 on Winckelmann) ; 
(Stark, 51, s8). 


ments on Libanius and an excellent paper on the jurisdiction of the Ephelae 
(1854). During the student-days of Henrichsen, Elberling and Madvig, 
Petersen was the only thoroughly eHtdent lecluier on Che classical side of 
Ihe university. It was owing lo the inadequacy of the other lecturers that 
these three students (with two of their companions) formed a philological 
society of their own, which had an important influence on their early career'. 
The fourth of ihe Danish archaeologists, Olaus Kellermann 
(1805 — 1837), began to reside in Rome in 1831 and gave 
proof of high promise in Latin Epigraphy'. Lastly, the Danish expedition to 
the island of Rhodes, in 1901-4, led Co the discovery of inscriptions which 
determine the date and birthplace of the sculptor Boethus to be Chalcedon in 
the Hellenistic age, and prove Chat the group of Laocodn may be approxi- 
mately placed at Ihe beginning of the rule of Augustus'. 

The foremost representative of scholarship in Denmark was 
Johan Nicolai Madvig (1804—1886), the son of a « j - 
subordinate legal official on the Danish island of 
Bomholm, off the Swedish coast, from which his great-grandfather 
had migrated to Danish territory. His name was derived from 
a fishing- village in the South of Sweden that once belonged to 
Denmark. At the early age of eleven, he began copying legal 
documents for his father, and he always retained a keen interest 
in law. After his father's death he was educated at Frederiks- 
borg in Nordseeland under Bendtsen, in whose memory he 
delivered a public eulogy in 1831, but he was mainly setf-taught. 
After studying at Copenhagen (1820-5), ^^ was appointed pro- 
fessor of Latin (1829) and held that position for more than half 
a century. In and after 1848 he was a member of the Danish 
Diet, Inspector of all the Schools of Denmark, and for three 
years Minister of Education, He was President of the Council 
from 1856 to 1863, and continued to take part in politics until 
he reached the age of seventy. At the fourth centenary of the 
university of Copenhagen (the commemoration of which was, 
for political reasons, confined to the Scandinavian nations), he 
discharged his duties as rector in the most admirable manner. 
Throughout the whole of his long life of more than 80 years, he 

' Gerti on Petersen and Henrichsen, in Bricka. 

' Vigilum Somanorum latircula (1835); O. Jabn, Sftc. Epigr., 184I, 
pp. v^xv; Jorgensen, in Bricka. 

' Micbaelis, Arch. Entd. i68f ; p. 18 n. 1 mfra. 



was never seriously ill, and his mental powers remained unim- 
paired to the very end. 

His best work was that devoted to the study of the Latin 
language and to the textual criticism of Cicero and Livy, In 
1825, in conjunction with four young scholars of Copenhagen, 
he edited a volume of Garatoni's notes on the Speeches of Cicero. 
The dissertation for his degree consisted of emendations of 
Cicero, De Legiius and Academica (i8z6), followed by a treatise 
on Asconius (1827), an Epistola Critica on the last two of the 
Verrine Orations (1828), and criticisms on Select Speeches (1830), 
a.nA the Caio Maior unA Laelius {li^^). His duties as professor 
involved the preparation of the Latin programs of the uni- 
versity, afterwards published in his Opuscula Academka (1834- 
42)'. In the first of these Opuscula, a paper originally published 
in 1829, he proved that certain alleged orthographical fragments 
of 'Apuleius', which had imposed on Mai and Osann, were 
forgeries of the fifteenth century'. He attained a European repu- 
tation by his masterly edition of Cicero, De Pinibus (1839)', 
one of those standard works which instruct and stimulate the 
student not only by the knowledge they impart but also by the 
way in which they impart it'. His Latin Grammar (1841), 
followed by a volume of 'Observations' (1844), was translated 
into all the languages of Europe. ' The great merits of the book 
are its clearness, and grasp of the subject, within the limits which 
the writer set himself; its power of analysis, and its command 
of classical usage". Meanwhile, he was pursuing those wider 
studies of the text of the Greek as well as the Latin Classics, 
which bore fruit in his Adversaria Critica. In 1846 he produced 
his Greek Syntax'^, and, in the same year, a tour in Germany 
gave him the opportunity of making the acquaintance of Schneide- 
win, and also of Boeckh, with whom he had a close affinity. 
He was on friendly terms with Halm, and the sixth volume of 
Baiter and Kayser's Cicero was dedicated by Baiter to Madvig, — 
Tullianorum criticorum principi. 

' Ed. 1, 1887. » Nettleship, U 5—7. ' Ed. 3, 1876. 

* Bursian, ii 946 ; cp. Nettleship, ii 7— ro. 

' Neltteship, ii 10 f. 

' Followed by Beinerkungen in Philoiogus, Suppl. 1848. 



When he resumed his professorship in 1851, on ceasing Co 
be Minister-of Education, his study of Roman Constitutional 
History led to his devoting his main attention to Livy. He 
produced his well-known Emendationes Livianae in i860', and 
his edition of the text, in conjunction with Ussing, in i86i~6'. 
On the completion of his Livy, he made a lengthy tour in 
Switzerland, Italy and France, and, in 1869, saw still more of 
Italy. In 187 1-3 he published the two volumes of his Adversaria 
Critica, with an admirable introduction on the general principles 
of textual criticism, illustrated by examples. After producing a 
German edition of his minor philological writings (1875), he 
began to suffer from increasing weakness of sight, but. did not 
resign the duties of his professorship until five years later. Mean- 
while, he brought out new editions of his works, including several 
volumes of his Livy, a German translation of his Greek Syntax, 
a selection from Cicero's Speeches, and nearly completed a new 
edition of his Opuscula Academica (1887). He had also returned 
to the study of the text of Cicero, had produced in 1884 an 
Appendix to his Adversaria, and an important work in two 
volumes on the Constitution and Administration of the Roman 
Slate (1881-2)'. Finally, when the eyesight of the unwearied 
veteran began to grow dim, he dictated his Memoirs from the 
days of his childhood down to 1884. 

From the outset of his career as a scholar, his special field 
had been verbal criticism. A rational method of estimating the 
value of Mss, and applying the results, had lately come into 
vogue ; MSS were no longer to be counted, but to be weighed in 
comparison with the original archetype. This method was ex- 
tended by Madvig, and was carried through with remarkable 
clearness and precision*. In the preface to the De Finibus there 
is a characteristic passage in which he compares the textual 
critic to a judge whose duty it is to elicit the truth from the 
conflict of evidence'. 

• Enlarged ed. 1877. 

' Cp. Nettleship, ii 11—14. 
' Cp. Netcleship, ii 16 — 19. 

* Cp. his preface lo the 11 Oialions of Cic, reprinled in his Oputc, 
' Transl. in Neltleahip, ii 8. 

s. III. I,. i„ iiAi-OOi^lc 


He had a lemarkable aptitude for conjectural emendation. 
In Cicero, pro Caelio, no less than six of his corrections were 
subsequently confirmed by the ms formerly in the abbey of 
St Victor". But his conjectures were not all of equal value; 
he was certainly less successful with the text of Plato than with 
that of Cicero ; and he himself regretted that he was not more 
familiar with the style of the Greek Tragic Poets. Quam vellem 
poetas Graecos tt praesertim Atticos non ailigissel, was Cobet's 
saying of Madvig ; Munro would have extended the remark to 
the Roman poets'; and KitschI had occasion to attack him for 
the metrical mistake of changing mutasse into natasst in a passage 
of Ovidl 

Verbal criticism he regarded, however, as a means to an end, 
and that end was the vivid realisation and the perfect presentation 
of the civilisation of Greece and Rome, whether in literature, or 
in public or private life. A lecture of 1881 gives proof of the 
breadth of his interest in the study of language^ but he cared little 
for the minor details of Comparative Philology. The subject- 
matter of the I-alin Classics was less largely represented in his 
published works than in his professorial lectures. In his paper 
on Asconius, he followed Niebuhr in maintaining the spuriousness 
of part of the commentary. The earliest of his papers on the 
Institutions of Rome were those on the Equites, the Colonies, 
and the tribuni aerarii^. 

' His familiarity wilh ante- and post-classical I^lin was by no means on a par 
with his mastery of Ciceronian and Livian style. Nor does he display that nice 
sense of usage which makes the study of J. F. Utonovius, Ruhnken, Heindorf, 
Collet, so instructive. Robust common sense, revoking against impossibilities 
in thought and expression, a clear perception of what the context requires, a 
close adherence to the ductus litltrarum seem to me' {says Professor Mayor) 
'his great merits as a critic'". 

'Whatever ftultsmaybe found in his work,, has always' (adds Professor 
Netlleship) 'the characteristic of a sound humanity. The whole man is there : 
it is not a fragment of a mind, or a half-grown mind, which we see active 

' A. C. Clark, Anad. Oxoti. X, xxxi f. 

^ Jeumal of PhiM. vi 78. 

' Met. iv 46 ; OpHsc. Pkilol. iii (cp. Nettleship, ii 15). 

* Was ill Sprachv/isstHschqft f 

* All reprinted in Opusc. " CI. Rev. i 114. 



bernr« us '■ He has ' a certain simpticily and wholesome iiidepen<)ence '. and 
he was ' uninfluenced bj any definite philological tradition '', 'Clear, sound, 
and independent judgement, formed always on first-hand study, is one of 
Madvijj's greatest characteristics ''. ' He'never lost sight of the real position 
and value of classical philoli^y.,.. It is not in the literary enjoyment afforded 
by the Greek and Latin writers, nor in the gymnastic training given to the 
mind by mastering their grammar, that he places their educational value 1 hut 
in the fact that they offer the necessary and the only means of obtaining a 
first-hand view of the Giaeco- Roman world, and therefore of the fore-iime of 
European civilization''. ' He was always impressing on the students that the 
ultimate and highest aim of their studies was to gain a sure insight into history, 
3 clear and living idea of the life of the Greek and Roman world ''■ 

All the classical scholars of modern Denmark were trained 
by Madvig during the half century of his tenure of the Latin 
Professorship. His general character was marked by a hatred 
of empty talk and exaggerated phrases, a strong sense of justice 
and an unswerving integrity- He had a singular grace and ease 
of manner". In carryii^ out, however, the principle of his 
favourite motto, 'speaking the truth in love', he often appeared 
to emphasise the first part of that motto even more than the 
second. One of his pupils has aptly applied to his master the 
language once applied by the latter lo the Father of History : — 

'quern ob argumenli amplitudinem ingeniique candorem et suavilatem 
veneramur el diligimus". 

The jubilee volume of Opuscula presented to Madvig in 1876 
by some of his former pupils included papers by R. Christensen 
{1843 — 1876), the student of Greek history and archaeolc^y', 
criticisms on Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetic by Ussing', emenda- 
tions of Plautus by Sophus Bugge of Christiania', and of other 
Latin authors by Whitte, the translator of Terence'", translations 
from Hesiod by C. P. Christensen Schmidt'", and, lastly, emenda- 

' Nettleahip's Essays, ii 4 f. ' ib. 19. 

» Kleiru SchrifUn, 385 f (Nettleship, 20). 

* Gerti, ib. Ji f. " CI. Rn,. i 114. 

■ J. L. Heibei^, in Biogr. Jahrb. 1886, 201— aji ; cp. M. C. Getti in 
Btrlin. PkU. Woch. 5 and 11 Feb. 1887, and esp. iit Brick a's Dansk Bto- 
grafisk Lexicon ; John Mayor in CI. Rcv-'aiii; Nettleahip's i'jjafj, ii 1—53. 

' Life in Tidskrift, Ser. It iii 279. 

' P- m infra. ° )>■ 331 'V"- 



tions of Quintilian by M. CI. Gertz, and remarks on early medi- 
aeval Latin by V. Thomsen, both of whom are still professors at 

Among Danish editions of Cicero, which had the advantage 
of contributions from Madvig, were Rudolf Henrichsen's De 
Oratore (1830), P. H. Tregder's Tusculan Disputations (1841), 
and G. F. W. Lund's De Officiis (1848). The first of these, 
Henrichsen (1800— 1871), was one of the students 
associated with Madvig and Elberling in their joint 
edition of Garatoni'. He was afterwards a schoolmaster at Soro 
and Odense, and was specially interested in the Anthologia 
Patatina, and in Byzantine and modem Greek ; but his principal 
work was the above-mentioned Dt Oratore, in which he was 
further aided by Elberling. Carl Wilhelm Elberling 
(1800 — 1870), the rector of a school in Copenhagen, 
produced a useful edition of Plato's Apology and Crito ; he also 
studied the Greek lexicographers, and contributed to the London 
edition of the Greek Thesaurus tyl H. Stephanus. 
E. F. C. Bojesen (1803 — 1864), whose Copenhagen 
dissertations on Greek Music and on Aristotle's Problems ac- 
quired some celebrity in Germany, was ultimately rector of Soro. 
He edited Sallust; his Handbook of Roman Antiquities (1839), 
mainly founded on Madvig's lectures, and his similar work on 
Greek Antiquities', were translated into German and other lan- 
guages. His later papers on Aristotle's Polities', and his trans- 
lation of Ethics viii and ix', attained a considerable popularity. 
A. S. Wesenberg (1804—1876), who was a pupil 
and afterwards a master at Viborg, owes his repu- 
tation to his critical edition of Cicero's Letters', which was pre- 
ceded and succeeded by the publication of ' Emendations ' on the 
text. He also published Emendatiunculae Livianae in modest 
imitation of Madvig's Emendationes. The editor of the Tusculan 
Disputations, P. H. Tregder (1815—1887), rector 
of Aalborg, wrote a Danish history of Greek art, a 
handbook of Greek and I^tin literature (twice translated into 

' p. 110 supra. ' E. T. 1848. 

' Soro prc^r. 1844 f, 1851 f. * 1838. 

' Teubnertext, Lcipiig, 187J-3. 



German), a handbook of Greek Mythology, and a distinctly 
meritorious Greek Grammar (1844). Lastly, G. F. 
W. Lund (rSzo — 1891), who began his scho- 
lastic career at Christianshavn and Copenhagen and ended it 
at Aalborg and Aarhus, was 'adjunct' to the cathedral-school of 
Nykjobing during the intermediate time when he was editing the 
Cato Major and Laelius as well as the De Offidis of Cicero, and 
the Fhiiippics and De Corona of Demosthenes. 

The scholar associated with Madvig in his edition of the text 
of Livy was Johan Louis Ussing {1820—1905). 
As a student at Copenhagen, Ussing was not 
attracted by Brondsted to the study of classical archaeology, 
for Brondsted was then lecturing on classical philology. He was 
fer more distinctively a pupil of Madvig, who inspired him with 
a keenly critical temper, without succeeding in interesting him 
either in Roman Institutions or in Latin Syntax. Madvig, in 
fact, recommended Ussing to devote himself to archaeology, and 
introduced him to the art-critic Hoyen, who prompted him to 
study Greek vases, and thus led to his writing the dissertation 
de nominibus vasorum Graecorum (1844), 

After travelling for two years in Italy and Greece', he lectured 
on the topography and monuments of Athens, and was appointed 
Reader in Philology and Archaeol<^y in 1847, the date of his 
publication of certain Greek inscriptions. Madvig's absence on 
public service led to Ussing's taking a larger share in the philo- 
logical lectures, and he became a full professor three years later. 
While he was associated with Madvig in his edition of I-.ivy, his 
own masterpiece was his annotated edition of Plautus (1875-87). 
In that work his sobriety as a textual critic is suggestive of the 
influence of Madvig. He published critical observations on 
Aristotle's Rhetoric and PoetW; and a commentary on the Cha- 
racters of Theophrastus, and on Philodemus De Vitiis (1868). His 

1 Cp. ReJMhitltdtr fra Sydtn, 1847; the 'Thessalian tout' and the paper 
on the Parthenon are included in Gr. Rtisen und Sludicu, 1857. His later 
reminiscences are entided Fra en Kijse (1873), Fra Hellas eg lAUeasien (1883), 
and Nfdre-Mgypten {r889). 

' Opuscula ad Madoig'mm mislay \i\ i. 




brief sketch of Greek and Roman Education', and his manual 
of Metrik* (1893), were translated into German. One of his 
papers (1896), in which he proposed a new date for Vitruvius, 
was translated into English'. He was the founder of the Museum 
of Classical Archaeolc^y at Copenhagen, and bequeathed to the 
Museum his collection of archaeological books. Even in extreme 
old age he was one of the keenest and most eager of workers, 
and we are assured by the author of a tribute to his memory that 
the expression of weariness prominent in his portrait at Copen- 
hagen is untrue to his real character'. 

One of the ablest and most promising of the pupils of 
Madvig, H. F. F. Nutzhom (1834—1866), began 
his brief career by publishing valuable papers on 
Greek mythology, and on the history of Greek literature, and the 
lost Epics of the Trojan Cycle'. As a candidate for the degree 
of Doctor, he discussed the origin of the Homeric poems, and his 
treatise on that subject was published in Danish in 1863. He 
soon began to lecture with remarkable success on Aristophanes; 
and, with a view to his further studies, he paid two visits to Italy, 
late in 1863 and in 1865. On the second of these visits he 
collated the Venice Mss of Aristophanes, and was looking forward 
to visiting Greece for the purpose of studying its modem lan- 
guage and literature, when, at the early £^e of thirty-one, he 
died of typhoid fever in February, 1866'. A German translation 
of his treatise on the Homeric poems, which had been con- 
templated while he was still living, was successfully completed 

' rSfij-s; Germ, trans. 1874, 1885'. 

» New cd. 1895. 

' Refuted by Krohn, Birl. Pkilol. Week. 1897, 773 i cp. Schaiu % 355. 
p. 350; and M. H. Morgan, in Harvard Studies, xvii (1906) 9; also Degeriiig, 
in Rhein. Mas. 1901, and Bert. Phil. Woch. 1907, nos. 43—49- In 1894 
Ussing deall with the 'developement of the Greek column', and in 1897 wilh 
the 'history and monuments of Pecgamos' (Germ, trans. 1899). 

* J. L. Heiberg, Danike Videmiaderaes Selsiab (Copenhagen), 3 Nov., 
•9051 7' — 75 '• <^P' ^- Trojel in Nordisk Tidsskrift. Set. Ill, xiii 91 — 96, with 
porlrail and bibliography; and Sam Wide in Bert. Phil. Wxh. 1898, 87Sr; 
also bii^raphical sketch and liibliograph]' by Drachmann in Biegr. Jakrb. 
1907, 115— 15 r, partly founded on Ussing's autobiography (1906). 

' Tidiirifi, Ser. 1, ii-vii. 

• Cp. Gerli, in Bricka. 

h. !■, ii,l^.OOglc 


three years after his death, when it was published with a preface 
by Madvig'. Woirs views had been criticised by Madvig in his 
lectures on Greek literature, and it was these lectures that had 
impelled his pupil to take up the question. Madvig, while 
admitting the importance of Wolfs famous Prolegomena as a 
stimulating work, which had justified its existence by destroying 
a 'far too naive tradition,' himself describes it as lacking in 
perspicuity, as illogical and inconclusive, and as having turned 
the criticism of Homer on to a wrong track'. 

Nutzhom compares the consequent condition of Hometic criticism to "a 
pathless wililemess in whicii the 'guiding star' might possibly prove a mere 
will o' the wisp"'. Dividing his own work intolwoparts, 'historical evidence', 
and 'internal criteria', he deals with the Toimer under four heads;— {■) the 
evidence on the text; {■x) the story about Peisistratus ; (3) the Homeridae ; 
and (4) the contrast between the earlier ojiiioi and the later pa<i»fial. He 
shows (1) that the known variations of reading do not point to more than 
one ancient redaction ; (i) that the evidence as to Peisislratus is late, con- 
flicting, and, in general, unsatisfactory, while'Wolfs inference, that the Jliad 
and Odyssty did not exist in a complete form before the time of Peisistralus, 
is disproved by 'Homeric reminiscences' in poeis as early as Hesiod, Archi- 
lochus, Alcman and Hipponax, and by scenes from the Iliad on the chest 
of Cypsclus. (3) Modem criticism is not justified (he urges) in regarding the 
Chian clan of the Homeridae as rhapsodes; this chapter is less satisfaclaiy 
than the rest of the work. (4) Tlie contrast betureen the leisurely bards 
of the olden age, who sang successive portions of lengthy epic poems at the 
courts of chieflains, and the rhapsodes of a later time, who huniedly rehearsed 
selected passages amid the excitement of a popular festival, suggests that 
the former is the mode of recitation for which epic poeliy was originally 
intended, and shows that, in form as well as substance, the Homeric poems 
are the creation of a pre-historic age. The rhapsodes were 'an uncongenial 
and even destructive element ', but the mischief done by them was counteracted 
by statesmen like Solon*, and by the more eilended use of writing in Greece. 

In the second part Nulzhorn criticises the various attempts that had been 
made to resolve the Iliad into short lays, and contends that the small 
discrepancies, which had been noticed by modern 'critics with the printed 

' Dit EnlslthungSToeist der HonterischtH Gcdiehtt; [/n/trsucAungen iilier 
dii Btrtchtigung der aufioimden Homtrkrilik (Teubner, Leipzig, 1869, ^68 



pige before Ihem, would have passed unobserved by the original audience, 
and did not suffice to prove a difleience of authorship. He also discusses 
Grole's Ackilltid, pointinj; out that the lengthy porlioos of the Iliad, which do 
not beloi^ to the AchilUid, nmy be regarded as episodes characteristic of 
the earliest epic poetry, and as serving to help the original audience to realise 
the long absence of Achilles from the field of battle. 

The author is perhaps unduly violent in his inveclive against the views 
then prevalent in Northern Germany, and political diHerences between 
Denmark and Prussia appear to give a keener edge lo his controversial 
temper. But the permanent value of his work is hardly impaired by the 
patriotic spirit which makes il (for out present purpose) a characteristic 
product of the scholarship of Denmark'. 

From the classical scholars we may now turn to four of the 
Danish translators of the Classics : — (i) the learned lady, Birgitte 
Thott (1610— 1662), who translated Seneca (1658), and Epictetus 

and Cebes (1661); (2) the Danish poet, C. F. E. 

Wilster(i797 — 1840), whose renderings of Homer 
and of eight plays of Euripides are among the classics of his 
country; (3) the scholar and schoolmaster, H, K. Whitte 
{1810 — 1894), who translated Terence into Danish verse; and 
(4) C. P. C. Schmidt (1832—1895), who continued Wilster's 
translation of Euripides, and also published excellent renderings 
of Hesiod', Heliodorus and ApoUonius Rhodius', Meanwhile, 
in Iceland, Sveinbjorn Egiisson (1791 — '852) had produced, in 
verse as well as prose, a magnificent translation of the whole of 
Homer, revealing in his vigorous poetic rendering of the Odyssey 
in particular* a perfect consciousness of the kinship between the 
spirited style of the old Greek Epic and that of the Northern 
Sagas. His marvellous command of the poetic resources of the 
old Norse language is also fully proved by his important Lexicon 
poetkum antiquae linguae Sepientrionalis (1860)°. 

In conclusion we must briefly mention two Comparative Phi- 

' See esp. D. B. Monro's discriminating notice in the Aeadimy, i 16 f, 
' Opmcuia ad...Madvigium...mlisa (:876), 179—393. 
' Life in Tidsskrifl, Ser. in, iv 94; papers on Greek Syntax, ib. Ser. 11 

* Ed. 1S54; Iliad in prose, Reykjavik, iSjj ; LjSdmaiU, ib. 1856 (Latin 
poems on pp. 147—193 ; Greek, 193). 

• Late in the previous century an edition of Terence (1780) had been pro- 
duced in Iceland by Gudmundur Magnusson (1741 — '798) ; p. 318 lupra. 




lologists, Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787 — 1833) and Karl Adolf 
Verner (1846 — 1896). Rask studied Icelandic in comiJ»T«tiv« 
Copenhagen in 1807 and subsequently visited Ice- Phiioioeim ; 
land. His ' Investigations on the origin of the old 
Northern or Icelandic language' were completed in 1814, but 
the work was not published until four years later. Meanwhile he 
was enabled to extend his knowledge of European and Asiatic 
languages by going abroad for six years (1816-22). The first 
third of this lime was spent in Stockholm, the next in Finland, 
Russia and Persia, and the third in India. It was during this 
memorable tour that he wa^ the first of European scholars to 
acquire a grammatical knowledge of ' Zend '. In 1825 he became 
professor of the history of Asiatic literature at Copenhagen, and, 
late in life, attained the goal of his ambition in a professorship of 
oriental langu^es. But he was already in failing health, and 
died soon after at the early age of 45 '. 

The point of interest in Rask is his partial anticipation of a 
law laid down by Jakob Grimm. Rask, in his work on Icelandic 
and other languages, gave proof of his having already partially 
discovered the law underlying the relations between the mute 
consonants (more especially the dentals) in Gothic, Scandinavian, 
and German. The work (published in 1818) did not come to 
the knowledge of Grimm until the eve of the publication of the 
first edition of his Deutsche Grammatik (1819)'; he immediately 
recognised its importance, and this recognition left its traces on 
bis second edition (1822)', It was here that he fully and scien- 
tifically enunciated the law as to the consonantal relations between 
(i) Sanskrit, Greek and Latin; (z) High German and (3) Low 
German (including English), which in England has always been 
known as 'Grimm's law". But the law has its exceptions. The 
discovery that these exceptions were due to the original accentua- 
tion of the Indo-Germanic languages was made by Verner. The 

■ Life by N. M. Petersen in Rask's and in Tetersen's Afhandlingtr ; and 
by V. Thomsen, in Bricka; cp. Max Mliller's Leclurrs.x 185, ijr'. 

' Pref. p. xviii (quoted by R. von Raumer, 508). 

' R. von Rauraer's Gtsch. der Girm. Pkilot. (1870) 470 — 486, 507 — 515 ; 
H. Paul's Gruttdriis (ed. 1901) 80 — 83; cp. Giles' Manual, § 39. 

* Giles, g 99. 


son of a Saxon father and a Danish mother, he was born and 
bred in Denmark, was absent, for six years only, 
as a librarian at Halle, and on his return in 18S3 
became, for the last sixteen years of his life, lecturer and ultimately 
' extraordinary ' professor of Slavonic languages at his own university 
of Copenhagen'. He was not a classical scholar ; he never wrote 
on anything but comparative philology, phonetics, and Russian 
literature, and, except at his matriculation, never passed a clas- 
sical examination. Even in his special province of Comparative 
Philology he only published three papers, but the name of the 
author of ' Verner's law ' will probably be perpetually remembered 
in the history of the science of language'. The discovery of 
'Grimm's law' had been partially anticipated by a Dane; and it 
was another native of Denmark who happily explained its apparent 

So long as Norway was united to Denmark, Copenhagen was 
J, . the university frequented by students from both 

university of Countries, except so far as they resorted to seats 
of learning in foreign lands'. The desire of the 
Norwegians for a university of their own, first openly expressed in 
r66i, remained unsatisfied until 1811, when the university of 
Christiania was founded by Frederick VI*. Three years later, 
Norway was separated from Denmark and was united with 
Sweden,— a union recognised by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 
and peacefully dissolved in 1905, when the throne of Norway was 
accepted by a prince of Denmark. 

In 1814 the separation of Norway from Denmark gave a new 
impulse to an independent Norwegian literature; but the literature 

' Life by M. Vib*k (wilh Ihree porlrails) in Verner's Afhandlingir og 
Breve (Cop. 1893). Cp- V. Thomsen, in Bricka. 

' The law was first propounded in Kuhn's Zcilsckrift, xxiii {li^!^) 97 — :30, 
Eint Atisnahinf der ersUn Lauivcrsehitbung (reprinted in the Afhandlingtr, 
wilh Iwo other papers, and with reviews and lettera, and phonometric investi- 
gations). Cp. H. Paul's Grundriss (1901) 116 f, 569, 386—506 ; King and 
Cookson's lutroditclion (1890) 83 f ; and Giles, §S ^i, 104. 

^ e.g. Cologne, Prague and Rostock {ep. L. Daae, Nordiski Sludtrende, 
Chr. 1875, 1885). 

' Minei-Ka, 11. 

„.,.,, .A.tXYSic 


of Norway has proved to be more independent than its scholar- 
ship. As we shall see in the immediate sequel, the foremost 
representative of classical and comparative philology in Christiania 
owed much to his training in Copenhagen and Berlin. But, in 
more than one point, his work is marked by a distinct in- 

'Vemer's law', propounded (as we have seen) by a native of 
Denmark', was further investigated by a native of 
Norway. The investigator was Soph us Bugge 
('833 — 1907). At the age of seventeen, while he was still a 
student in Christiania, he produced a paper on consonantal 
changes in the Norwegian dialects'; and he was barely twenty 
when he began to contribute to Kuhn's Zeitschrift". His high 
promise in the science of language was recognised by his receiving 
a royal grant which enabled him to spend two years at the 
universities of Copenhagen and Berlin (1858-60). In Copen- 
hagen he studied I^tin under Madvig, and Sanskrit under. 
Westergaard ; in Berlin, Sanskrit under Weber and Bopp, and 
Germanic philology under Haupt. In 1864 the offer of a 
professorship of Old Norse at the Swedish university of Lund 
expedited his appointment to a professorship of Comparative 
Philology in Christiania, a position which he held for the more 
than forty remaining years of his life. His numerous distinctions 
included honorary degrees at the fourth centenary of Upsala 
(1877), and at the third of Edinbui^h (1884). His reputation 
mainly rests on his researches into (he languages and literatures 
and mythology of Scandinavia, on his works relating to the 
ancient Italic dialects, and on his acute (though perhaps unduly 
bold) emendations of the text of Plautus'. In 1873 he edited the 
Mastei/arta\ and, two years later, the play was performed in 

' p. no supra. 

" Gubemalis, Diet. Int. 1888 j.i/. 

" ii 38J-; (on Oscan). 

* Tu/skrifl for Filelogt, I vi (1865-fi) i-io, vil 1—58; Phiklogus, 
XXX 636, xxxi 147-61; Ncue/ahrb.cVa (1873) 401-19; Ofun. ad Madvigiuia, 

'• Reviewed by Loienz in Philol. Anzeiger vii sis-g (on Lofenz. cp. 
MfSm^i Suam mique m Tidskrifl, I viii (1868 f) 104—111). 




honour of the jubilee of one of the professors of Christiania', The 
papers which he published in German included etymological 
contributions to Curtius' Studien', and studies on ' Verner's law", 
and on the old Italic dialects' ; he also aided Whitley Stokes in 
his ' Old Breton Glosses '. In his ' Studies on the origin of the 
old Northern legends of gods and heroes ' he aroused considerable 
controversy by maintaining that the Scandinavian mytholc^y was 
partly derived from Greek and Latin, and Jewish and Christian, 
sources, and by further su^esting that this element was imported 
in the age of the Vikings by Northmen who had visited the 
British Islands *. From Scandinavian mythology he suddenly 
turned to the study of runic inscriptions, and to the investigation 
of the Etruscan language*, the origin of which he endeavoured to 
elucidate by means of two inscriptions of Lemnos'. By all these 
vigorous incursions into several important provinces of learning 
he gave signal proof of being a most versatile representative of 
Scandinavian scholarship'. 

During the Revival of Learning it was the school of Law at 

Perugia which supplied the link between certain 

^RMg" scholars of Sweden and the Italian humanists. 

Conrad Ro^e, a Swede of Westphaltan origin, who 

had graduated at Leipzig in 1449, resumed his studies by spending 

live years (1455-60) at Perugia*. He there transcribed for himself 

' L. C. M. Aubert (born in 1807), f rofessor of Lalin ; a writer on Terence, 

and on Lalin Verbal jlixion (1875). 

" iv (i87i)30if.3»S— 354- 

' Paul and Braune's Beitrase K^&We), xii (1887) S99— 4J0; xiii (1888) 167— 
186, 3"— 332. 

* ChrUliania, i8;8; and Kuhn's ZtUickrifl, xxLi 385—466. 

' Chr. 1881; Germ. Trans., Munich, 1881-1; criticised by G. Stephens 
(London, 1S83), and olhers; cp. A. J. P. iii 80, and further literature in 
Halvorsen's Nonk FarfalUr- Lexikon {:885— 1901), i 513 f. 

' Deecke's i'/r. Forschuttsin,\y (i9&^\ Bezzenberger's Stilragr xi (1886); 
Elr. utid Armenitch, Chr. 1890. 

' Chr. tS86 (Bursian's/<iV»j. Ixxxvii 111). 

' Bibliography in Halvorsen's Ltxiton, and in Upsala Juttlfest^ 1877, 
P- 3.'3- 

* Similarly Bi^erus Magni, the future bishop of Vester&, had graduated at 
Leifizig (1438) and Perugia (1448); Annersledl, Upsala Univtrsilels Hisleria, 


a speech of Demosthenes and several of the works of Cicero, 
besides two of the recent orations of the Italian humanist, Aeneas 
Sylvius Piccolomini. During his stay in Italy he purchased a fine 
MS of Lactantius, 'the Christian Cicero', and, on the blank pages 
at the end, preserved a copy of the brief and unimportant Latin 
speech delivered by himself in 1460, with a view to his receiving 
the Doctor's degree. As the first of the long series of Latin 
orations written by natives of Sweden, it has a peculiar interest ; 
it is clearly founded on classical models, it is rich in rhetorical 
phrases, but it has hardly any other merit*. Before returning to 
Sweden, Rogge visited Florence, and stayed for two months at 
Siena, where Aeneas Sylvius was then residing. From 1479 to his 
death in 1501 he was bishop of Strengnas, where his hs of 
Lactantius is still preserved'. He deserves to be remembered as 
the earliest of the humanists of Sweden'. 

The spirit of the Revival was still more strongly represented 
by the brothers Johannes and Olaus Magni. The 
elder of these, Johannes Magni (1488 — 1544X had '^'"m)!^*'" 
studied at the Catholic universities of Louvain and 
Cologne ; and his character was doubtless fully formed when, at 
the age of 32, he was sent to Rome as the envoy of Sweden, and 
received a degree in Theolc^y at Perugia*. The influence of 
Italian humanism is nevertheless clearly visible in the correctness 
of his Latinity and in his inordinate passion for fame. In 1523 
he was sent as Legate to Sweden by Adrian VI (his former 
preceptor at Louvain). He was soon elected archbishop of 
Upsala, but in 1536 was compelled to go into exile, living first 
at Danzig and finally in Rome. As the last of the Catholic 
archbishops of Sweden, he wrote a Latin history of all his 
predecessors, and also a history of 'all the kings of the Goths and 
Swedes ', The latter, with its infinite series of fabulous princes, is 

1 Printed in Beiuelius, Monum. acUs. (1709) 106; cp. Henrik SchUck, in 
SchUck a.nd. ViMhaT^s Illustrerad Svm.<i LiStrraturAislBria, i (1896) nS7- 

' Aminson, Bibl. Timpli Calh. Slrengensis, Praef. iv, and Suppl. 

• Svtnskt Biegrafiskt Ltxikan (Upsala, 1835 0- N. F. (1883) i.!/. For lives 
of all (he natives of Sweden mentioned in this chapter, cp. the above Ltxikon, 
33 vols-, and Linder's Nerdiii Familjebsk, 18 vols., Stockholm, 1876-94. 

' Life by Olaus Magnus in Script. Rer. Suec. iii (1), 1876, p. 7+, 'accepto 
in theologia magisteiio ' during his residence at the ' gymnasium Peiusinum '. 


334 SWEDEN. [cent. XV f 

a still more uncritical performance than the elaborately written and 
curiously illustrated ' history of the northern nations ', which was 
published in Rome in 1555 by his younger brother, 'Olaus 
Magnus' (1490— 1557)'. 

Meanwhile, not long before the birth of the brothers Magni, 

the university of Upsala had come into being. In 

"t^'u " accordance with a solemn decree of the Swedish 

clergy, the university was formally founded by arch- 

. bishop Ulfsson in 1477- In that year, Sixtus IV sanctioned the 

-institution of a studium generale in Sweden, on the model of 

Bologna; the actual pattern adopted was probably that of Cologne 

or Rostock, while the archbishop and the regent of the realm 

conceded to the new seat of learning'the royal privileges of Paris'. 

Hitherto the Swedes had studied mainly in Paris, Prague, Erfurt, 

Leipzig, Rostock or Greifswald^. Even after 1477, they resorted 

to the last three universities*, and, early in the next century, to 

the Protestant university of Wittenberg or the Catholic university 

of Cologne'. The university of Upsala, founded during the 

regency of Sten Sture (1470 — 1503). ""^^ splendidly endowed by 

Gustavus Adolphus (1611-31), who, in 1630, followed up his 

conquest of Livonia by founding the university of 

and Abo Dorpat. Ten years later, during the minority of 

his daughter, Christina, a university was founded 

for Finland at Abo, there to remain until the town was destroyed 

by fire in 1827 and the university transferred to Helsingfors- 

The first Swede who certainly studied Greek was the turbulent 

archbishop, Gustaf Trolle {c. 1485—1535), who, as 

Sweden: a Student at Cologne in 1512, was instructed in the 

Trolle Erotemata of Chrysoloras. His own copy of that 

catechism of Greek Grammar, dated 1507, passed with the books 

of the younger Benzelius into the library at Linkoping. On the 

blank leaf next to the preface, Trolle wrote a short Latin life of 

Chrysoloras, preceded by the items given below : — firstly, his own 

' Sehilck, 167-9. ' Anneraledt, i 13 f; Rashdall, ii igof. 

' Annersledi, i S^l^. . 

* Slieriihielm (p. 338 ify9-a) graduated at Greifswald, which subsequently 
belonged to Sweden from 1648101815. 
' ' Annerstedt, i IJ, 44. 

h, i.MiA.OOt^lC 


name written in the capital letters of the newly acquired language, 
and next, the name of his instructor, and the date on which he 
began his study of Greek. 


Pfcuiiarii if la Greet Liltrrature inftilalio a Jokanne Ci/ario Juliaccn/i* 
in Cotonimfi AckacUmia pridie Kalend. Majas Anni duodtHmi fupra <.diclii-3- 
fcculs profftro Herculi ftliciler aufpicata^. 

In the same age l^urentius Andreae, or Lars Andersson 
(1482 — 1552), archdeacon of Upsala and chancellor 
of Gustavus Vasa, gives proof of an independent Andrea" 
knowledge of the Greek text in his Swedish version 
of the New Testament founded on Luther's translation and 
published at Stockholm in 1526'. The same holds good of the 
Swedish Bible produced in 1541, and partly revised oibu« »nd 
in 1543-9. by the brothers Glaus and Laurentius Laurentiu* 
Petri, or Olof and Lars Petersson, both of whom 
had studied Greek under Melanchthon at Wittenberg*. Laurentius 
Petri {1499 — 1573) was archbishop of Upsala from 1531 to his 
death in 1573- His son-in-law, Laurentius Petri 
Gothus {1529—1579), who similarly studied Greek ^^^"ciothus 
at Wittenberg, prefixed to his I^tin elegiac poem of 
•559 * Greek epigram of his own composition*. In 1566 he was 
appointed by Erik XIV to leach Greek at the university (which 
had meanwhile passed through a period of decline), and in 
1573-9 he was the successor of his father-in-law as archbishop of 

In 1580, under the catholic king, Johan III, the university 
was closed, and the professors imprisoned ; but the king was not 
uninterested in Greek, for he instructed Erik, bishop of Abo, to 
translate the Swedish liturgy into Greek and to present it to the 
patriarch of Constantinople'. In 15S4 the first item in a collec- 
tion of Carmina congratulating Christian Barthold of Viborg on 

' Of Juliets or Jlilich, near Cologne {1460—155:). Cp. Jocller, t.v. 
' E. M. Fanl, Nisleriola LUttralurae Graecat in Suicia (id ann. 1700), in 
14 parts forming two vols, with Suppl., Upsala, 1775 — 1786, i i|. 
' Fant, i 13; Colophon in Schilck, 177. 
* Fant, i isf- ' I'i. i 19. 


336 SWEDEN. [CENT. XV f 

■ Martini 

receiving a degree from Johann Possel (1528 — 1591), the Greek 
professor at Rostock, was a set of 24 Gret^k hexame- 
ters contributed by Olaus Martini, archbishop of 

Upsala,— one of the first Greek poems produced in Sweden'. 
In the same year, Jacob Erik, Greek professor at 

Jacob Brik . 

Upsala, published an edition of Isocrates ad Demo- 

In 1604-13 professorships in Mathematics and Hebrew were 
held by Johan Rudbeck {1581— 1646), the future 
bishop of Vester^s, who studied Greek at Witten- 
berg, and required his pupils always to speak either Latin or 
Greek'. In a synod which he held at Reval in 1627, the less 
learned clei^ listened in amazement while his secretaries dis- 
puted in Greek with Gabriel Holsten of Vesteras (1598^1649), 
who, like Rudbeck, had learnt his Greek at Wittenberg*. In 
[621 a professorship of Greek was instituted at Upsala by Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, the Chair being filled in 1622 by Laurentius 
Matthiae, and in 1624^40' by Johannes Stalenus, 
who held disputations in Greek and produced 
fifteen sets of verses in that language*. 

The 'Constitutions' of 1616 required the professor to teach the Gram mai 
of Clenardus or Gvalperius', and to Illustrate it in a ' Si>cralic ' manner from 
the Greek Testament and the Fathers, and from Homer, Euripides, Hndar, 
Theocritus, Sophocles and Gregory Naiianien, at 7 o'clock in the mornbg. 
At 3 P.M. the professor of Poetry was 10 give instruction in the att of writing 
verses in accordance with the precepts of Aristotle, or any other approved 
author, with examples from the Greek poets and from Virgil, Horace, 
Buchanan, Ovid etc." In the Cotligium Ripum, founded at Stockholm in 
161s by the celebrated statesman Johan SkyUe, the study of Latin and Greek 

* Quoted by Fant, i it— iSi wt*" '" 'he note adds a list of jo sets of 
Greek verses by other Swedes, not mentioned elsewhere in his work, with 
50 more on pp. ii7f. 

> Fant. i 15 f. 

■ Fant, 141; Annersledt, i ii6f, iiif; portrait in SchUck, 193. 

* Fant, i 53. * Annerstedt, i 194, ijfi. 
' Fant, i 64, ii 107. 

' 'Otho Gualtperius' of Witlenbei^ ('54*' — i6i4). 

* Lundstedt, Bvfrag till kiinmdemen om Grtkiika SprHi/ls S/mHum vidiit 
Svtiuka Larovtrken fraH dtdsta till ndrvarande rfif {Stockholm, 1875, 84 pp.), 
18, with many other details as to the leaching of Greek in schools. 




is enjoined, quia at Lalina line Gratra reclt nen intelligftar, sic ni Graeia 
siut Latins fxplicari guidmi il Iradi fvial^. Greek is to be studied, not 
merely in the Grammar, but also in some libdlus sued plmta. Tlie authors 
specialty named are Demosthenes, Isocrates, and Homer*. 

The Study of Greek rose to a higher level under a pupH of 

Stalenus named Henricus Ausius (1603 — i6s9). a 

"^ '" Auaiua 

man of such high reputation in his day that no 
foreigner (we are informed) visited Upsala without calling upon 
him. He was professor of Greek in 1641-6, and his inaugural 
oration de ntcessitate Graecarum liiterarum led to his being recog- 
nised as the stator, or true founder, of the study of Greek in 
Sweden. He published tive disputations and fifteerveptgrams in 
that language'. He was a many-sided man, being also proficient 
in Law and Natural Science. 

In Sweden Che Reformation of 1527 was followed by a pale 
reflexion of the Italian Renaissance. Even the 
distant North awoke to a new admiration for the 
unapproachable perfection of the ancient Latin poets, and en- 
deavoured to realise the literary associations of the Augustan age. 
Every princeling was eager to play the part of an Augustus or a 
Maecenas, and looked for a new Virgil to sing his praises. The 
demand soon created the supply. By the orders of 1571 and 
1611, the boys in the highest class of the public schools were 
required to write a set of Latin verses once a week. The model 
for these verses was Vii^il, just as Cicero was naturally the model 
for prose ; and, even in the case of versifiers of maturer years, the 
poem which was a perfect cento of Virgilian phraseolc^y was 
invariably deemed the best. This type of artificial 
composition was introduced by a German humanist, 
Henricus Mollenis, Hessus <^. 1557-9), who was summoned to 
Sweden by Gustavus Vasa to celebrate her ancient kings'. The first 
Swede to win repute as a Latin poet was Laurentius 
Petri Gothus, who was followed by Ericus Jacobi, ^p"Jri"Qo*h 
by the prolific versifier Sylvester J ohannis Phrygius, 

' Lundstedt, 17 f. * ib. 18. 

' Fanl, i 78—81. ii 108, Annerstedt, i 4o8f. 

' Ke was one of the tutors of the youngirr sous uf Gustavtu Vasa ; cp. 
Gvatt'va, De Statu Rd Litl. in Sutda, i (ijSj) 9 (ap. Font, ii 1); and Sditick, 



and byLaurentius Fornelius (1606 — 1673), the compiler of an art 
of poetry, the Poitica Tripartita (1643), whose own 
verses (we are assured) could not be distinguished 
from those of Vii^il, for the simple reason that they were exclu- 
sively vinlttn phrasibus Virgilianis'. The only importance of this 
kind of ' poetry ' lies in the fact that it taught the Swedes to 
appreciate for the first time the significance of form, not only m 
Latin, but also in their own language'. A few hexameters were 
written in Swedish by the royal librarian, Buraeus (1568 — 1652)', 
the tutor of Gustavus Adolphus. Buraeus was also 
stinnhie'm'' ^^^ tutor of Stiemhielm, the 'father of Swedish 
poetry' (1598 — 1672), who, by his greatest poem, 
the didactic allegory on the Choice of Hercules, made the classical 
hexameter one of the national metres of Sweden*. Stiemhielm 
was at once poet and geometer, philosopher and philolc^st. As 
a philologist he held the patriotic view that almost all languages 
were descended from Old Norse', 

A sounder and more scientific study of the Classics was 
represented by his contemporary, Johannes Loc- 
cenius (1598 — 1677), a native of Holstein, one of 
the three foreigners who were offered professorial Chairs at 
Upsala in the reign of Gustavus Adolphus. The Chair accepted 
by Loccenius in 1625 was that of History; he was afterwards 
extraordinary professor of Political Philosophy, and (in the reign 
of queen Christina) professor of Law, librarian, and historio- 
grapher. He was the first librarian of Upsala who constructed 
and printed a catalogue, the first foreign scholar who made 
his permanent abode in Sweden. His Curtius went through 
twenty editions, only one of which, however, was printed in the 
North*. His other works were connected with the history and 
geography, the law and antiquities, of his adopted country'. 

> L. O. Willius to Job. Strlle. 1631 (Fanl. i 66 note v). 

' Schilck, 1 19 f. ■ ib. 14S f (portrait facing 156). 

* a. 148, 158 f, 311—330 {portrait facing 313). 

' Origints VBcabulfmm in Unguis patnt omnibus ex lingua Svtiica vetiri, 
Upsala, s.a. 

• Stockholm, 1637; Nepos, ib. 1638. 

' Schilck, 361 r (with portrait); and Annersledl, i logf. ,^]6; further details 
ill the Swedish biogri|>liica1 dictionariea. 



Queen Christina (1616—1689), 'he daughter and successor of Gastavus 
Adolphus, is connected with Ihe history of scholarship by 
het wide and varied attainments and also by her patronage of Timpn^/ 
learning durii^ the ten years of her reign (1644-54) and the of leomins 
thirty-five years of her exile (16S4-S9). At the age of ten she 
wrote a Latin letter to her tutor with the solemn promise poslhat velli loqtii 
Latim cum tteliro PraaiflariK In Latin her favourite author was Tacitus. 
At fourteen she knew all the languages and all the sciences and accomplish- 
ments her instructors could teach her^ At eighteen she could read Thucydides 
and Polybius in Greek ; in 1649 she reminded Descartes how much he owed 
to Plato'; in 1653 Naudi wrote to Gassendi :— ^//^ a teul vH, eili a loul 16. 
clle sail l»uC*. Educated far in advance of her subjects, she made a spirited 
attempt to ' engraft foreign learning on the Scandinavian stock''. In pursuit 
of this aim she turned to the Netherlands and France, to Northern Germany 
and to the free imperial city of Strassburg, which, owing to its neutral position, 
remained unmolested as a seat of learning, while Germany at large was suffer- 
it^ from the Thirty Years' War {(618-48). The Peace of Westphalia, largely 
due to her own efforts, left her at liberty to carry out her plan. 
Grotius, her envoy in France, had already visited her court , y^T"' 
on the occasion of his recall, but he had soon withdrawn, to N. Heiniins 
die on his homeward journey (1645)' Isaac Vossios. who 
obeyed her summons in 1649, besides acquiring on her behalf the library of 
Alexander Petavius of Paris^, sold her his own father's library, reserving to him- 
self its superintendence, and subsequently appropriating part oF its contents'. 
Nicholas Heinsius, a man of tai nobler character, who arrived in the same 
year, was sent to Italy in i6{[ to purchase books and Mss on her behalf, and, 
after her abdication, returned twice as \m country's envoy. Of two distin- 
guished natives of France, who had recently resided in the 
Netherlands, Descartes 'found an honourable asylum and a ^^"'^' 
premature death' at her court'", while Salmasius left Leyden 
late in life to spend a single year under the patronage of Christina, who, in rect^- 
nition of his pedantry, as well as his learning, once described him as omnium 
faiuemm doclissimutH^^, and, by her supposed preference for Milton, in his 
great controversy with Salmasius, won from the author of the 'Second Defence 
of the English People ' the splendid encomium beginning with the words ; — Ti 

' J. Arckcnholtz, Hist. Merkmurdigkiilcn, iv 164. 

* J. Arckenholtz, Mimoira ; French ed., iii jj. 
' Arck. Mim. i 344 f ; cp. Fant, i S9 f. 

* Arck. ii Appind. 39. ' Pattison, i 147. 

* Cp. Arck. i 77—81 ; ii jr7 supra. ' Arck. i 368, 170. 

' Heinsius and Vossius, in Eurman's Syllagt, iii 333, 6S3 ; Arck. i 171. 
' lb. i 178 — 188, and Heinsius to Christina, in Burman's SjUogi, v 734 — 
774- The MSS included Dioscorides and PoUum. 

" Hallam, ii 461*; Atck. i 113— 131. " Arck. i 136. 


c™en'i« pension > 

340 SWEDEN. [cent. XVIL 

%iiro magnammam, Augusta, le ttilam undique divina plane virluie ac 

sapientia munilam^. Marcus Meibom {[630^ — 'T'o)! the 
NaudT author of a treatise on ancient music, cnme from Uenmark, 

and Gabriel Nauiid (1600—1653). a Frenchman, wbo had 
lived long in Rome, waa now her librarian in the North. He had written on 
Ihe art of dancing, and when, to amuse the queen, her French physician com- 
pelled Naudj to dance to the singing of Meibom, the scene which ensaed led 
to the student of ancient music being banished from the court'. Samuel 

Bochart, the geographer and orientalist, arrived from Caen, 
.nd^"Jilt bringing with him the youthful Hnet, who spent his time in 

Iranscrihing a MS of Origen in the royal libiai^, and soon 
returned to Normandy*. Hermann Conring, who had vigorously refuted the 

Papal Bull condemning the Peace of Westphalia, received a 
I Councillor of Sweden, and went back to his 

learned labours at Helmiititdt, uhere he eloquently maintained 
the cause of Sweden against Poland*, and gained a high reputarion as the 
earliest historian of jurisprudence in Germany'. Comenius, whohad published 
his/an«a linguarum reserata in 1631, was invited to reform the schools of 
Sweden in i6j8, but declined on the ground that he bad already been invited 
to reform the schools of England, and his subsequent visit in 1641 had no 
permanent result'. Strassburg sent no less than three of the representatives 

of her flourishing school of Roman history. The hrst of these, 
Fre n« eim Frejnsheira, the editor of Florus and Curtius, whose Latin 
panegyric on Gustavus Adolphus (1631) led to bis invitation to Sweden ten 
years later, remained for nine years as librarian and historiographer, delivered 
at least twenty-lhree Latin orations', lauded Christina in prose, apostrophised 
her in verse as l\te unicum leflim columtn liioaum^, and ultimately returned to 
a more genial clime to complete his restoration of Ihe lost decades of Ijvy*. 

Freinsheim's fellow.pupil, Boekler, was made professor of 

Eloquence at Upsala in 1649 and historiographer in the 
following year', but the favours granted him made him unpopular nith the 
Swedish professors, nor was he more successful with the students. Once, in 
1650, during a lecture on Tacitus, he unfortunately observed that 'he would 
say more, if the plumbta capita of the Swedes could comprehend it,' where- 
upon be was soundly beaten by the students outside the lecture-room, and 
found himself compelled to return to his native land, but not without goldeii 
consolations on the part of Christina, as well as the perpetual title of historio- 

' Milton's iVi>« IVarki.iv 181 Mitford, 

• Aiek, i 141- 

» Huel, Cirmment. Jt rebus suis, 107 ; Arck. i 151 J"; cp. ii 

• Arck. i 197, 37S- 

' O. Stobbe, Berlin, i8;o; cp. ii i6& supra. 

• Arck. ii9i f. ' Ell. rfisj- 

» Arck- i 19a * ii 3^7 supra. 



grapher of Sweden, which he fully justified by writing the history of the war 
with Denmark*. Boekler had been accompanied by his 
papil, Scheffer (1611 — 1679), who, while the rest were only 
birds of passage, mule Sweden his permajient abode. During the remaining 
jr years of his life be was at first professor of Eloquence and Political Philo- 
sophy, and afterwards librarian and professor of Inlernalional Law at Upaala. 
He publislied treatises on Latin style and on Roman antiquities, together with 
editions of Fhaedrus and Aphthonius, and of writers on tactics (Arrian and 
Manricius], which gave proof of an aptitude for textual criticL^im, though the 
library of Upsala afforded him few opportunities for the study of ancient MSS. 
His own Greek Mss were ultimately purchased for the Library'. In a far 
higher sense than l.occenius of Holstein (whose daughter he married), or than 
his own countryman, Freinsheiro, he was the true founder of classical philology 
in Sweden. His work in Sweden was in fact the principal permanent result 
of Christina's patronage of learning in the North". 

Having long resolved on leaving the Lutheran communion, Christina 
found herself constrained to resign the (hrnne in 1654. The daughter of the 
great champion of the protestant cause in Europe joined the Church of Rome 
at Innspnick, rode into Rome in the garb of an Amazon, received the rile of 
confirmation from Alexander VII, and, in compliment to the Pope and in 
avowal of her favourite hero, assumed the name of Christina Alexandra. 
The rest of her life was mainly spent in Rome, varied with visits to Paris 
where she attended a meeting of [be Academy, and where Manage once bored 
her by presenting to the impatient Amazon an inordinate number of ' men 
of merit''. In Rome she took up her abode at ihe Famese palace, though 
this was not her only place of residence. As in the North, she surrounded 
herself with savanls. She enlai^ed her choice collections of manuscripts and 
of works of art'. She permitted Spanheim to reproduce her . 

. coins and medals in his work on Numismatics, and to dedicate 
that work to herself in gratitude for her aid and her inspiration*. Manyof 
the coins were also published by Havercamp' and Ihe gems engraved by 
Bartoli". Early in 1656, she formed an Academy whose members met once 
a week at her palace'. The first rule of literary style laid donTi for her 
Academy shortly belore i58o was the avoidance of false ornament, and Ihe 

' Arck. i 395 f. " O. Celsius, BIN. Ups. Mist. (174}) 49. 

^ Cp- Arck. i 194 ; Fant, i iij — i jj| ; SchUck 161 I (with portrait, 164); 
and ii 368 supra. 

* JUtaagiana, iv 34'; Arck. i 555. 

' Catteau-Calleville, ii 191 f ^ Grauert, ii 31] f. 

' 'ConsCriplus hie liber non solum luo nutu sed gazae tuae opihus instnic- 

'' Namophylaaum Christinae (1741) ; Arck. ii S3, 314 f. 
» Musaita Odmalcum, Rome, r747-ii. 

• Arck. i 501 f, Jan, 1656. 


342 SWEDEN. [cent. XVII. 

imitadon of Ihe models followed in the ages of Augustas and of Leo X'. Sbe 

was also recognised as ihe virtual founder of the quaint Academ]' of the 
Arcadians'. In 1668 she had some passing hopes of receiving (he crown of 
Poland, but the self-exiled queen of Sweden was never really happier than 
when she whs breathing the atmosphere of Rome. Thirty-five years after her 
abdication she died and was buried in the Basilica of St Peter's. In 1690 her 
Mss, which had been caiali^ed by Montfaucoo', were purchased for the 
Vatican by Alexander Vlll, who caused a medal to be struck in commemora- 
tion of the event*. Her collection of gems, medals, statues and pictures was 
bought by Don Livio Odescalchi, the nephew of Innocent XI. Many of the 
works of sculpture were removed to Spain, and one of theK is well known as 
'the group of San Ildefonso'*. The Vienna Cameo of Ptolemy Philadelphus 
and Arslnoe, and Correggio's picture of ' Mercury teaching Cupid to read in the 
presence of Venus,' now in the National Gallery of England, once belonged 
to the vii^n queen Christina, while the Royal Library of Stockholm still 
possesses seventeen of her marblebusis of famous men of old, including Homer, 
Demosthenes and Zeno*. 

The minority of Charles XI, the son of Christina's martial 

successor, Charles X, was marked by two events 
"tv^^ connected with the history of learning. The first 

of these was the foundation of the university of 
Lund (1668) in the district of Scania in South Sweden, which 

had ceased to belong to Denmark in 1658'. The 
An" quitatum second was the institution of the Collegium Anliqui- 

tatum for the study of the languages, legends, laws, 
ecclesiastical history, and antiquities of Sweden (1667). Its 

' Arck. iv 18 (p. 41 of Germ, ed.), § 18. ' Arck, ii 137 f. 

' itii MSS in Bihliolheia Bibl. 14 — 97; about 1900 was the number which 
passed into Ihe Vatican; cp. Dudtkii Iter Romanitm (Vienna, 1855), Codua 
mil. Graid Reginai Sut!iat...eA. H. Stevenson sen., including Plutarch's 
Moraliii and Strabo and a few other clas^cal MSS (188S), and Mantheyet in 
Melanges (tarckJalogieet ^hisloiri, ivii — xix, also Narducci's flilW. AUxandrina 

* Copied in Arck. ii jji. 

' HUbner, Anl. Bild. in Madrid, :i f, 73-g; Friederichs-Wolters, Anl. 
Bild. no. i66s. 

■ Fant, i 96. Cp., in general, J. Arckenholli, Mfmoira cotKernant Chris- 
tim..., 4 vols. 4" (Amsl. and Leipzig, 1751-70), the French ed. of the same 
author's Hist. MtrkwHrdigiiitm (1751-60); Catteau-Calleville's Hisloire, 
I vols. (Paris, 1815): Ranke's/'n/w^/jVoiB*. Book viii §g;Grauert's Christifia 
and ihr Hof (Bonn, 1837-41) ; Pattison's Essays, i 146—355 ; F. W, Bain's 
Christina (1890), and the authorities quoted in most of these works. 

^ WeibuU and Tegnir. Lunda Universilets Niitaria, 1868. 

■ !■ i.iiA.OOgIC 


founder was Count Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie ; Stierahielm 
was its first president, while its earliest members included classical 
scholars, such as Loccenius and Scheffer, whom we have already 
noticed, and Veretius and Normann, to whom we shall shortly 
return. In the autograph list of their undertakings {1670)', Stiem- 
hielm proposes to write on the origin and affinities of languages', 
while Loccenius announces that he is already engaged on a Latin 
translation of the laws of Sweden. In 1684 the Collegium was 
transferred to Stockholm, and, in 169a, merged into a department 
of the State. 

At the time when Christina was gathering scholars around her 
in the North, an excellent Latinist of Dorpat and - 
Upsala, Olof Verelius (1618 — 1682), was travelling 
abroad and delivering I^in orations in Paris on the Coronation 
of Christina, and at Leyden on the Peace of Westphalia. He was 
afterwards professor of History, and of Swedish Antiquities. His 
Latin Opuscula were deemed worthy of publication 
in 1730'. The tutors of Charles XI included (ort^hWm) 
Edmund Figrelius (1632 — 1675), professor of His- 
tory, and subsequently librarian and chancellor to his royal 
pupil. Figrelius was a capable composer of Latin verse, and 
was the author of eighteen learned dissertations in Latin prose, 
while his treatise De statuis illustritim Romanorum (1666) makes 
him an exception to the rule that the Swedish successors of the 
Gennan scholars patronised by Christina mainly confined them- 
selves to attempting the composition of Ciceronian prose or 
Virgilian verse*. Among these typical Swedish 
humanists was Johan Columbus (1640 — 1684), who 
married a daupjhter of Scheffer. Columbus was professor of 
Latin poetry at Upsala. He corresponded with N. Heinsius'^ on the 
text of Valerius Flaccus, and was one of the best of the Latin poets 
of Sweden'. He gave proof of an interest in Greek by translating 

' Facsimile in Schilck, facing p. 184. • p. 338, n. 5 supra. 

1 Portrait in SchUck, 165. 

* Schuck, 306 ; ennobled under Ihe name of Gnpenhlelm. 

' Barman's Sylloge, v 163 — 187. 

' 'Onimuin,,.suavissimu5', says Ihre in his /}m«r/. De Po'elU, ■^. Y}. His 
contemporacf, A. Nordeohielm {1633 — 1694), professor of Eloquence at Up- 
sala (1671), was a master al Latin style. 

h. i.MiA.OOt^lC 


and annotating 'an uncertain Greek writer's' Homeric allegories 
on the wanderings of Ulysses {1678)'. Lastly, he wrote Swedish 
verse and had a wide knowledge of modem languages'. An 
interest in Latin and Swedish literature was also 
combined in the person of Petrus L^ertof (1648 — 
r699), who, at the age of 30, distinguished himself as a Latin poet 
and orator, and alter travelling on the continent and in England, 
was professor successively of Logic, Poetry, and Eloquence at 
Upsala, and finally historiographer of Sweden. In his T^tin 
' Introduction to Swedish poetry ' he opposed Stiemhielm's adop- 
tion of the Latin hexameter as the metre of vernacular versed 
His Latin 'orations, programs and poems' were published in 
1780, nearly a century after his death. The Latin 
rof a 

dignified type of Academic Latinity, whose gravest and most 
solemn orations were not unfrequently enlivened with flashes of 
wit*, was ennobled under the name of Rosenadler, and ended his 
days as an honorary Secretary of State. Norrman 
(1651 — 1703) was professor of Oriental languages 
and Greek at Lund (1682) and of Greek at Upsala (1686), and 
was ultimately archbishop of Upsala, and bishop of Goteborg. 
During the third of his tours abroad he examined all the mss of 
Vossius and Scaliger at Leyden, collected a large number of 
books, and, on his return, was appointed librarian at Upsala. 
From a ms of c. r35o, brought from Constantinople in 1658 by 
the diplomatist, K. B. Rfllamb, he published two orations of 
Aristides' (1687-8) and the edi/io princeps of the encomium of 
Thomas Magister on Gregory Nazianzen, with four other speeches 
and eight letters (r693). The same ms contained 154 Let/ert of 

' Reprinled L. B. 17+5, as Porpliyrius, De crroribus Ulizis, but really 
writlen by Nicephorus Gregoras (Creuzet, D/iitsche Stkr., V ii r6j). It had 
already been prinled by Conrad Gesner, 1541- 

> Cp. Fant. ii 13—16. » Cp. SchUck, 334 f. 

* Lunitvalt, in Lioder, s.v. 

' Or. JO, Dt inepiiis Sopiistarum (i68ji; Or. 51, Ad AchilUm, with the 
Aldine Art Rhttorica (1-687). Norrman was not at first aware, that Or. %i had 
already been edited by Camerarius (1535) and translated, wilh Iheresl olthe 
orations, l^ Canter (r566). 


Libanius', originally collected by Lacapenus, and afterwards 
edited, mainly from other mss, by J. C. Wolf. Norrman wrote 
Greek as well as Latin verses, and produced no less than 72 
academic dissertations. Olaus Rudbeck the elder (1630— 1702), 
the celebrated anatomist, botanist, and antiquarian, the ' zealous 
patriot', who r^arded Sweden as the veritable land of the 
Hyperboreans and the true prototype of Plato's Atlantis', had 
so high an admiration of Norrman 's Latin prose that, if the 
occasion were to arise, he was prepared to say of him : Ciceronem 
vidimus, audivimus, amisimus, but' it so happened that Norrman 
survived his earlier contemporary by a single year. Many of 
Norrman's books were purchased for the Upsala Library'. His 
Oratiotus pamgyricae, parentalts, et programmaia were collected 
in 1738, and his Addenda to the Greek Thesaurus of Stephanus 
published by J. H. Schroder in 1830. His services to scholarship 
have been recounted at considerable length by Fant, who describes 
him as multiplici erudilione celtbrem and as Graecae litteratiirae 
in Sueda ferHissimum'. 

Norrman was doubtless a scholar of wide attainments, but, 
with his contemporaries even more than with himself, the main 
interest lay in the imitation of ancient models of style. Like the 
early Italian humanists, they regarded the old classical world less 
as a vast empire of learning, every part of which was to be 
systematically subjected to historical research, than as a realm 
of beauty, rich with varied treasures which were to be enjoyed, 
and replete with perfect patterns of art and literature which were 
to be faithfully reproduced'. 

In editing classical authors the scholars of Sweden were 
hampered by the absence of mss. Gustavus Adolphus had 
enriched the Library of Upsala with the spoils of Wiirzbui^, and, 
after his death, Christina had added those of Olmutz and of 
Prague. Among these last was the Codex Argenteus,. Ulphilas' 

' Cp. R. Fiirster, Di Liianii libris MSS Upsalieusibus it Lincffpienslbus, 
Roslock, 1877. 

' Amst. 1738 (preface); cp. O. Celsius, Bibl. Ups. Hist. (\ui) nj— "32. 
and Anonymi (sc. A. Norrelii) Slriclurae (1746}. 48 — 60. 

' Attanliea {,i6-ii^\ Gibbon, 1117 Bury ; Schilck, 368—181 (with portnui). 

* Celsius, 48. ° fiisleriola, ii 53 — 76. 

■ Cp. SchUclt, 306 t 

h, i.MiA.OOt^iC 


Gothic translation of the Greek Gospels, formerly in the Abbey 
of Werden near Cologne, a MS which was sent by Konigsmark 
to Christina, and, after passing into the hands of Isaac Vossius, 
was purchased by Count Magnus de la Gardie and presented 
to the Upsala Library'. Of the 66 niss which the Count gave to 
that library in 1669*, it is the only one of supreme impiort- 
ance. By the removal of Christina's collection scholars in the 
North were deprived of the best opportunity of consulting or 
editing classical mss in their own country'. The ancient classics 
were entirely unrepresented in the few Greek or Latin hss 
included among the hundred given to Upsala in 1705 by the 
great traveller and diplomatist, Johan Gabriel 
Sparwenfeldt' (1655 — 1727), who spent five years 
in visiting all the great libraries of Europe (including that of the 
Vatican), and in diligently noting down his observations and in 
transcribing mss. As a diplomatist, he afterwards studied Slavonic 
and other languages for three years in Russia and the adjoining 
parts of Asia; and, finally, he was sent abroad for a second period 
of five years to search in Southern Europe and in Northern Africa 
for ever>' vestige of the ' Goths and Vandals ', who, even down to 
the present day, are named among the subjects of the king of 
Sweden'. Late in life, Sparwenfeldt, a descendant of an ancient 
Danish king, and a man of majestic presence', was Master of 
Ceremonies at the Court of Sweden. He spoke and wrote 
fourteen languages, and in the evening of his days, when he had 
retired to his ancestral estates, he kept up an extensive correspond- 
ence with the foremost scholars of Europe- But, from the begin- 
ning to the end of his brilliant career, his main interest, lay far 

' Arckeoholti, i 307 t. ' Celsius, Bibl. Ups. 76—115. 

. ■ On UpsaJa mss, cp. P. F. Aurivillius, ^n/rVia Co^iVun (Lalin), 1806-13; 
(Greel), 1806; Graux, Notices, ed, A. Martin. Paris, 1S89; MS of Wvj, 
J. H. Schrbder, Ups. 1831-1, and A. T. Broniann, ib. 1855; of Tibulius, 
J. Bei^man, ib. iS89;.and of Libanius. Forslet, Ri>stock. 1877. See also 
Annecsteitt, in Upsala Ftslskrift, 1894, ii 41 — 66 passim, and in Bibtiographe 
moderru, 1898, 407 — 436. 

* (E. Benzelius), Catalogtis Centuriae Librorum (Ups. 1706); Cp. Celsius, 
Bibl. Ups. SO— 57. 

' A confusion due lo the Tad thai medieval writers applied (he name of the 
Teutonic Vandals lo [he Slavonic Wends (Bury on Gibbon, iv 196). 

' Portrait in Schiick, 193. 



less in classical than in oriental and Slavonic literature. However, 
in 1721 he prepared for the press a Swedish translation of Epic- 
tetus, and, among the rarer works which he presented to the 
Upsala Library in the following year, was his own Russian trans- 
lation of Epictetus and Cebes'. 

AH the scholars above mentioned, beginning with Stiemhielm 
and ending with Sparwenfeldt, belong to the seventeenth century, 
in which Sweden was one of the greatest powers in Europe. In 
the next age learning was well represented by Erik 
Benzelius the younger (r67s — 1743). who, like 
Sparwenfeldt (his senior by twenty years), spent three years abroad, 
collecting mss and making the acquaintance of men of mark 
(1697 — 1700). He returned to Upsala with a goodly store of 
Greek and Latin mss, and was promptly appointed librarian. In 
and after 1716 he was bishop of Gdteborg and of Linkoping; he 
was archbishop of Upsala for the last year of his life'. 

In r7o8 he produced an edition of the Characters of Theo- 
phrastus, the only original element being the emendations pro- 
posed here and there in the index'. In one of the Selden mss in 
the Bodleian he detected the fourth book of the ' Special ' 
of Philo; he afterwards collected considerable materials for an 
edition of that author, and handed all of them over to Thomas 
Mangey, canon of Durham, whose edition appeared in two 
large folio volumes in 1742, with a very inadequate acknowledge- 
ment of the generous aid he had obtained from Benzelius*. In 
contrast with this conduct, we find J. C- Wolf, the editor of the 
Letters of Libanius (1738), warmly thanking Benzelius for the 
loan of two of his own mss, which were among the fifteen subse- 
quently purchased from his former library by the gymnasium of 

In 1 7 10, in a year remarkable for the ravages of fire and 

. sword and pestilence, he founded the first of the learned societies 

of Scandinavia. It was known as the Collegium Curiosorum. In 

' Fanl. Suppl. I4. ' Schllck and Warburg, ii (189;) II, wilh portrait. 

• Cp. J. F. Fiicher, ed. 1763, Praef. (Fani, ii 96 i). 

' Praef, p. xvii. The discovery made by Benzelius is ignored in vol. ii 


348 SWEDEN. [CENT, xvni f 

1716 it produced its first publication, iinder the fanciful title of 
Daedalus kyperborevs; in 1719 it was transformed into the Soaetas 
literaria Sueciae; in 1728 (after its founder had become a bishop) 
it was definitely placed under royal patronage, with archaeoli^y 
and linguistics as part of its province, and finally (in the year of 
its founder's promotion to the archbishopric of Upsala) received 
the fiermanent designation of the Socieias Regia Scientiarum Upsa- 
liensis^. Benzelius was one of the first members of the Swedish 
Academy of Sciences, founded by Linnaeus and others at 
Stockholm in 1739- 

A brief survey of the early history of the study of Greek in 
Sweden was published at Wittenberg in 1736 under 
the title of Hellas sub Arcio*. Its author, Olaus 
Plan tin, then residing in Germany, was born in 1701 on the little 
island of Hernosand, where he afterwards superintended the local 
school. He -is the last of the long series of Greek scholars of 
Sweden enumerated in a more elaborate work on the same subject, 
the Historiola completed in 1786 by the erudite Swedish historian 
and archaeologist, E. M. Fant (1754 — 1817)^ Not 
a few of these scholars were in the habit of writing 
original Greek compositions, either in prose or in elegiac or 
hexameter verse, but they very rarely produced any edition's of 
Greek authors, and such authors as they happened to edit were 
seldom of sfiecial importance. Only the most prominent scholars 
have been selected for the briefest mention in the previous pages, 
but all of them deserve credit for continuing to tend and cul- 
tivate in that northern clime the exotic plant of Greek learning, 
which had flourished for a while in the Adonis-garden of queen 

Fant does not profess to trace the fortunes of Greek beyond 
the year 1700. In contrast with his detailed notice of the thirteen 
professors of Greek before that date, he only records the names of 
the six who were subsequently called to that Chair, beginning with 

* Sett Vindimiola Lilltraria, qua merita Svecorum in Utiguam Grateam . . . 
ixponuniiir, 84 pp. 

° p. 335 n. 1 supra. The author is best known as editor of Ihe ScrifUms 
renim Suecicarum Medii Arm, posthumously published in 1818 f.' 

n, I', 11,1^.001^10 


Olaus Celsius (1703) and ending with Johannes Floderus (1763), 
under whose auspices he began the work. We must here be con- 
tent with noting that Olaus Celsiusthe elder {1670 — 1756)1 the 
polykistor who filled the Greek Chair for some twelve years only, 
is less well known as a professor of Greek than as the author of 
the HieroboiartUon and the earliest patron of Linnaeus, and that 
Hoderus {r72i — 1789) was also an able Latin 

, , . , , Plodirus 

orator, who took a prominent part in no less than 

108 Latin disputations, and left behind him a large number of 

Opusaila oratoria et poelUa, posthumously published in 1791. 

The above professors belong to Upsala. At Lund, the Chair 
of Greek and of Oriental Languages was filled in 
1780 by the Syriac and I^tin scholar, M. Norberg ^"^I'^j 
(1747 — 1826), and that of Latin in 1789 by J. Lund- Undfon 
blad (1753 — i8zo), an able writer of Latin verse. 
The same chair was held in 1826 by his pupil, A, O. Lindfors 
{1781 — 1S41), the author of a successful Handbook of Roman 
Antiquities and a Swedish-Latin Dictionary. 

Lund was also the university of a versatile professor of Greek, 
who is far better known in the history of Swedish literature than 
in that of classical scholarship. Esaias Tegner 
{1782 — 1846), the son of a pastor whose parents 
were peasants, graduated at Lund in r832, was lecturer in 
Greek in iSio, and professor from 1812 to 1824, and finally 
bishop of Wexio for the remaining twenty-two years of his 
life. He is famous as the most popular of Swedish poets,— 
the author, not only of the modern version of the Frithiofsaga, 
but also of the dithyrambic war-song which made him in 1808 the 
Tyrtaeus of Sweden. Many of his early poems were written in 
the little room at Lund which was then the study of the professor 
of Greek, and is still a place of pilgrimage for the votaries of 
Swedish literature'. It may be added that, in two of his letters, 
he expresses his strong approval of Latin verse composition as an 
indispensable part of a classical education ^ 

- SchUck and Warburg, ii 674 — 719, with several portraits, etc 

" Eflerlemiiaiie Sirifler, i {Bref) 361, 376, Letters 10 ihe accompMshed 
diplomatist. Von Brinkinan (17(1+— 1847), on his admirable Eli^ia ad 'J'ra- 
Hemm. Tegner considers Ttanir superior to Lundblad in poetic fancy but 
inferior in his command of llie Latin language. 

h. i., ii,l^'.00'^lC 

350 SWEDEN. [cent. XIX. 

Greek scholarship is more distinctively represented by Karl 
Vilhelm binder {1825 — 1882), professor at Lund 
(1859-69), who produced a critical edition of 
Hyperides, pro Euxmippo (1856), and a treatise on the arrange- 
ment of the topics in Antiphon and Andocides (1859). He 
published a commentary of Psellus on Plato's opinions as to the 
origin of the souF, and an extract from an Upsala ms on Plato's 
theory of ideas'. In conjunction with K. A. Walberg, he pro- 
duced a Swedish-Greek lexicon (t86z). He also published papers 
on the Greek Theatre and on Greek Synonyms, and on the longest 
of the elegiac poems of Solon'. Finally, he was the author of a 
collection of original Latin poems. The latest of these was a 
Carmen Saecttlare in elegiac metre, written in commemoration of 
the second centenary of the university of Lund (1868)'. For the 
rest of his life he devoted himself to theological studies as dean of 
the cathedral churches of Vesteris and Linkoping. As professor 
he was succeeded by Walberg, his fellow- labourer 
Cavauin '" lexicography'. Walberg was, in turn, succeeded 
in 1875 by Christian Cavallin {1831 — 1890), who 
edited the PhilocUtes and the Iphigeneia in Tauris, and produced 
a Greek Syntax, as well as a Latin-Swedish and Swedish-Latin 
Dictionary (i87r-6). 

Meanwhile, at Upsala, Greek was represented by J. Spongberg 

(1800 — 1888), the Greek professor of 1853-74, and 

^^^ifii'n'* author of a Swedish translation of the Ajax, and by 

Lefttedt Lars Axel Aulin (1820-^1869), ^ lecturer on Greek 

at Upsala and a schoolmaster in Stockholm, who 

not only published a translation of Kriiger's Greek Grammar and 

various text-books on Homer, Herodotus and Xenophon, but also 

wrote on the style of Callimachus (1856), Einar Ldfstedt (1831 

— 1S89), who had studied in Germany in 1869, succeeded Spong- 

bei^ as professor in 1874, and worked at archaeology in Italy, 

Greece, and Asia Minor in 1876-7. His published works 

included a highly successful Greek Grammar', and an outline of 

> Ups. 1SJ4; published by Vincent in Not. et Exir. xvi (1S47), 1, 316 f. 
» Philologus, 1H60, 513 f. 

* Phihhgus, 185S. He had ahead)' iranslaled it inlo Latin verse. 

* Lnmli-.-Seailarf est, 16 — 30; bibliography in Upsala /uiel/ist [li'ii) -^oi. 

> iBa; -1374. Cavallin, in Tidsk.ifi, Ser. 11 ii 73. » iS63; 1885'. 



lectures on Greek 'philological criticism' (1871). Admirableas 
a teacher, he is gratefully remembered by his former pupils, four 
of whom are now professors in the university'. His younger 
contemporary, O. V. Knbs (183S — 1907), appointed Greek 
lecturer in 1873 and 1S80, is best known for his papers on 
the digamma (1872-8). 

In the early part of the same century, at Upsala, Olof Ktrf- 
modin the younger (1766— 1838), who, as professor 
of political philosophy, included the Roman histo- 
rians in his province, published translations of lai^e portions of 
Liry and Tacitus'. Towards the end of Kolmodin's life, the 
Chair of Latin was held by Adolf Torneros (1794— 
1839), a Ciceronian scholar, who began his career 
by supplementing the current lexicons of Greek and ended it by 
leaving behind him materials for completing a Swedish-Latin 
lexicon, edited by Ljungberg in 1843. Among the subsequent 
professors of Latin, we may mention P. J. Petersson 
(1816 — 1874), the orator and poet, who translated Hitefiitrfm 
Stagnelius' 'Vladimir the Great' into Latin hexa- 
meters {1840-2), and TibuUus into Swedish verse (i860). He 
held the professorship in 1859-74. His successor from 1875 to 
1879 was F. W. Haggstrom (1827 — 1893), who had studied in 
Germany, France and Italy, and had produced a successful edi- 
tion of Caesar's Gallic War. His contemporary, 
Anders Frigell (180a — 1898), 'extraordinary' pro- 
fessor of Latin, besides editing Caesar and the Odfs of Horace, 
paid special attention to the textual criticism of Livy', insisting 
on the importance of taking note of the readings of other mss 
besides the Medicean, He also translated and expounded the 
Tadula of Cebes (1878). Not many years later, 
J. P. Lagergren (bom in 1842), rector of the school s'SIu^m 
at Jonkoping in 1889, produced a comprehensive 
treatise on the life and style of the younger Pliny (1872), while 
C. E. Sandstrom (1845 — 1888), lecturer on Latin (1872), pub- 

' O. A, Danielsson, P, Persson, K, J. Johansson, S. Wide. 

• His contemporary, J. V. Traner (1770—1835), titular professor of Latin 
in i8i,(, gave proof of high abilil; as a Latin poet nnd also as a (ran<:lalor 
from Ovid, and from Homer, Sapgiho and Anacreon. 

' CuIlaliB CodLam, lib. i— iii (l8;8) ; EfHigomtita ad lib. i 11 j-ji' (1881) ; 
miigomtna ad lib. xxU—xxiii (1883-5). Viaxata. Jahrttb. So, !<9r~,W(M;iC 

352 SWEDEN. [cent. XIX. 

lished a dissertation on Seneca's Tragedies, followed by emenda- 
tions of Propertius, Lucan and Valerius Flaccus, and critical 
studies on Statius (1878)'. 

The prosperity of the university of Upsala under the rule of 
the late king Oscat II has been fully set forth in the comprehen- 
sive Festskrifl of 1897, commemorating the completion of the 
first 25 years of his beneficent reign, and including an import- 
ant monograph on the history of the university, with a detailed 
description of all its departments, an account of the classical 
Seminar, and a complete list of publications. 

The above survey of the careers of scholars in Scandinavia 
has incidentally shown that not a few of the foremost of their 
number have derived considerable benefit from studying in foreign 
universities, and from travelling (or residing) in Italy and Greece. 
It is the lands last mentioned that have naturally supplied the best 
training to her archaeologists, from the time of Zoega down to the 
present day. Again, an intimate knowledge of the Scandinavian 
languages has been the starting-point from which men like Rask 
and Verner and Sophua Bugge have attained a notable position 
among the Comparative Philologists of Europe; and, lastly, in 
the province of the language and institutions of ancient Rome, 
any country might well be proud of a Latin scholar like Madvig. 

Norway is no longer politically united with either Denmark or 
Sweden ; but, although the ancient Scandinavia has been parted 
into three separate kingdoms, friendly relations have been main- 
tained in the domain of scholarship by means of a classical 
periodical common to all three countries', by philological con- 
gresses held in a regular order of rotation', and also by a common 
interest in the Greek and Latin languages and in classical 
archaeology. Among the scholars of the three countries,' all 
these three elements of union have combined in forming a ' three- 
fold cord ' that ' is not quickly broken'. 

' For lome of the above details as 10 recent scholars 1 am indebted to 

- Prof. Sam Wide j for others to the Swedish bit^raphical dictionaries, and to 

Aksel Andersson's ' Bio-bibliografi ' in the Upsala Ftstskrift of 1897, vol, ill. 

' Tidskrifl for Filologi, begun in i86j, and continued ever since, with 

slight changes of lille. 

' Nordiska filologmoiin, Copenhagen, i8;6, '91; Cliristiania, 1881, '98; 
Slockholm, 1886, and Upsala, 1902. , ~ 1 

^ ^ D„:,i..ii,L.OOglc 



However deep may be the debt that Europe owes to Italy for 
the part she played in the Revival of Learning, the 
debt of Italy to Greece is deeper still. To a large 
extent the very learning that was then revived in Italy had its 
ultimate or immediate origin in Greece. In the age of the 
Revival Italy became the heir of the renewed interest in the 
Greek Classics represented in Constantinople about 1150 by 
Eustathius and about 1300 by PlanddSs and MoschiSpQius ; and, 
even before the Eastern Empire fell beneath the tyranny of the 
Turk, the old Greek learning had gained a new lease of life by its 
transfer to a land that was ready and even e^er to receive it. 

We have already noted the names and recorded the services 
of the most prominent of the Greek scholars who fled to Italy, 
whether before or after the fall of Constantinople'. Little is 
known of those who remained in the East ; much more, of those 
who left it. Not a few of these came from the lands that were 
free from the Turkish yoke, and, in particular, from Crete and the 
Ionian Islands. Crete, which for four and a half 
centuries belonged to Venice (1204 — 1650), became 
one of the strongholds of Hellenism', and Venice was naturally 
the immediate destination of the scholars who left this island 
for the West. Among the earlier Cretan immigrants was 
Geoi^us Trapezuntius'; among those of later date were Marcus 
Mdsurus, 2^charias Calliei^es' and Nicolaos Blastds. The Mty- 
mologitvm Magnum of 1499, the first book produced in Venice 

' ij 59—80 sujra. 

' Thereianos, A'fl™«(i890), i 18: Bikelas, -O/o/ejiir (1893), I04f. 
' ii tisufira. ' ii 79f. 

s. III. ,..,■, II, l^^-)Oglc 


by Caljierges under the supervision of Musurus, was printed at 
the expense of the patriotic Blast6s, who is described by Musurus 
as 'full of the Hellenic spirit'. The Greek press of Calliei^es 
was in fact a Cretan workshop ; Cretans cast the types, Cretans 
printed and corrected the proofs, and Cretans were the publishers'. 
Even when the press was removed to Rome in 1515-7, it con- 
tinued, under the promptings of Lascaris, to do good service to 
Greek scholarship by printing the icholia to Pindar and Theo- 
critus, and the eclogae of Thomas Magister and Phrynichus'. It 
was a Cretan, Demetrius Dukas, who aided Aldus in editing the 
Rhttores Graeci, and the Moralia of Plutarch; a Cretan, Arsenios, 
who published the scholia to Euripides*; while the same island 
supplied the West with its most noted calligraphers*. Crete, 
again, was the native land of Franciscus Portus (1511—1581), 
professor of Greek in Venice and elsewhere, and an industrious 
commentator on the Greek Classics". A century later another 
Cretan, Franciscus Scuphus, a teacher in Venice, published his 
Rhetoric in Vienna (1681)*. Crete can also claim Cyril Lucar', 
who studied in Italy and the Netherlands and England, and was 
the patriarch of Alexandria and Constantinople. He it was who 
in 1627 received the first printing-press brought to the latter dty 
from London by Nicodemus Melaxas of Cephalonia', and in the 
following year presented to Charles I the codex AUxandrinus 
of the Greek Scriptures. Of the 350 scholars enumerated by 
Sathas', under the years 1500 to 1700, as many as two-fifths were 
natives of Crete or of the Ionian Islands. 

' Musurus in Etym. Magtt. ; cp. Didol, Aide Mantici, ;jo. 

» Didol, 544— S78- » 1544! ^- 443- 

' «■*■ 579-586. 

» Nicolai, Geschkhtc der neugritcAischm LUeralur (i8;6), 41 f ; Legrand, 
Bibliogr. Hellln. xv, xvi i., ii pp. vii— kx. In the next generation the Cretan 
Emmanuel Margunius (f. 1549 — 1601), after sludying at Padua, was for five 
yeais an inmate of a Cretan monastery, and in 1584 was consecrated bishop in 
Constantinople. At Padua he produced a merilorious edition of Aristotle Dt 
Colorilnts {'57j)i his Hymni Anaereonlici were published at Augsburg (iGoi), 
and, al the time of his death in Venice, he was proposing to lake part in Sir 
Henry Savile's Chrysesiom (viii \nf). Cp. L^rand, ii pp. xxiii — Imvii. 

• Thereianos, i 18. ' 1575 — 1638. 

■ Nicolai, 49 f. * NiimXX. ^tkoKrfia (1453— rSii), 1868. 




The Ionian Islands belonged to Venice for four centuries 
(1386 — 1797). In the fifteenth century Corfu gave 
birth to Nic61aos Sophian6s, a pupil of the Greek 
school in Rome, where he edited the ancient scholia on the Iliad 
and on Sophocles (1517-8). He was the first to produce a 
Grammar of modem Greek {1534)', and to translate Plutarch's 
treatise on education into the ordinary Greek of the day, which, 
in a purified form, .was regarded by him as the best medium for 
literature and for instruction in modern Greece', Modem scholia 
on Pindar were written by Al^xandros Phdrtios of Corfu', while 
Leondrdos PhiSrtios wrote a rhyming poem on the soldier's life 
(Venice, 1531)- In 1537 another native of Corfu, Antdnios 
Eparchos, fled to Venice, where he supported himself by teaching 
Greek. Though he was compelled by poverty to sell most of his 
MSS, he generously presented as many as thirty to Francis I. A 
devoted adherent of Greek learning, he pleaded the cause of the 
Greek Church at the diet of Ratisbon, and also composed a 
celebrated elegiac poem on the unhappy fate of Hellas*. The 
Corfiote, Nikandros Nukios, visited England in the time of 
Henry VIII, and described his travels in the style of Aiiian'. 
Lastly, Fhlangines devoted the whole of his fortune to establish- 
ing a Greek school in Venice", while Venice herself in the seven- 
teenth century made Italian the official language of the Ionian 
Islands. But the clei^y and the people happily remained true to 
their native tongue'. In the previous century Zante had given 
birth to'Nicolaos Lucanos', whose paraphrase of the Iliad was the 
first work printed in modem Greek', and to Demetrios Z^nos, who 
translated the Battle of the Frogs and Mice into a popular form of 
rhyming verse". We shall see in the sequel that the Ionian 

I Reprinted by L^;ran<], 1874. 

• Nicolai, 40, 49 ; Thereianos, i it f. 
" Sakkelion, in Pandora, nv 354. 

• Venice, 1544 (Legrand, Bibliogr. Hellht. mi, xtii 1., i 159); Nicolai, 86; 
Thereianos, i 13 — 17. 

• Book ii, ed. J. A. Cramer (Camden Soc), 1841. 
■ 1664. ' Bikelas, 106. 

' Also called Lucanis, cp. Legrand, I.e., \ 188 f. " Venice, iji6. 

"• f. 1539, adia rtpnntcA {'Lvs^ni, Bibliogr. HilUn. XV, rvi s., i ilgi; 
Constantinides, //ta-ff./Uw>a {1S91) i;6— r83). 



Islands (as well as Crete) became the home of the popular type 
of Greek literature'. 

Chios was subject to Genoa for two centuries {1346 — 1566), 
It was not until twenty years after its conquest by 
the Turks that its most prominent scholar, Leo 
Allatius, was bom (1586^1669). He was educated in Calabria 
and in Rome, whither he returned to study medicine after living 
for some time in obscurity in Chios, In 1622 he was the papal 
agent for the transfer of the Heidelberg mss to the Vatican 
Library, over which he presided for the last eight years of his life. 
Alienated from Greece by his adhesion to the Latin Church, it 
was solely for the benefit of the Catholic inhabitants that he 
founded a school in his native island. He is best known for his 
valuable services to Byzantine literature and for his patriotic paper, 
De patria Homeri (1640), He holds, in fact, the highest place 
among the Greek scholars of the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury'. As a writer of panegyrical poetry he was followed by other 
Chiotes of less distinction, AntOnios Koraes, who travelled in Italy 
and dedicated a Pindaric ode to a chancellor of France, and C6n- 
stantinos Rhodokandkes, who studied in Oxford and attracted at- 
tention bya Greek encomium on Charles II'. In the same century 
England was visited by two other representatives of Greece, the 
Peloponnesian Christ(Sphoros Angelos, who resided in Cambridge 
and Oxford in 1608-17, *"d published at the former university a 
popularaccount of the condition of Greece (1619)*, and Leonardos 
Philar^ of Athens, to whom Milton addressed two Latin letters in 
1652-4. The first of these contains the sentence which has 
suggested 'the inspiring motto of the Philhellenic movement*': — 
'Quid enim vel rorlissimi olim viri vel eloquenlissimi gloriosius aut se 
dignius esse duxenint quam vel suadendo vel forliler faciendo iktuSlpvn Koi 
airatiiiovt rottiaBut nvj'SWtpiajV * 

' P- 375 "Vra- 

* Legrand, Bitliogr. HelUn. xvii s., iji 435 — 471 ! Nkolai, 64 f, 

* Oxon. 1660, Legrand, I.e., ii ii6f; Nicalai, 93. 

* A. Gennadlos, in Pandora (1S51). 81 j ; Legrand, /.c. i iii f. 

° Drakoules, NfahilUnU Langiiagt and Liitrature (Oxford, 189;), 4 

* Cp, [Dfm.) 7 S 30; Milloiti Epp. 1674, J4f, jpf; Legraiid 



The first step towards the recovery of Greek independence 
was a literary revival of the Greek language. It is 
difficult to ascertain how far a knowledge of classical onek little 
Greek was preserved among the common people in ™™ 

the i6th, 17th, and i8th centuries. We learn, however, that in 
Constantinople, in 1575, the clergy preferred to preach in the 'old 
Greek language' {i.e. in Byzantine Greek), although this language 
was intelligible to only two or three in their congregations'. At 
Athens, in 1672, very few besides the three public teachers of 
theoli^, philosophy and language understood the old Greek 
literature'. After visiting Crete in 1700, a French traveller (per- 
haps prematurely) writes that 'in the whole Turkish dominions 
there are hardly twelve persons thoroughly skilled in the know- 
lei^ of the ancient Greek tongue**. At Patmos, in 1801, E. D. 
Clarke declares that neither the superior of the monastery nor the 
bursar (who acted as librarian) was able to read*. Even in an 
important centre of Greek learning, the Byzantine authors were 
sometimes preferred to those of the golden a^ge of Greek literature. 
In 1813, Cyril VII, patriarch of Constantinople, could not com- 
prehend the preference given to Thucydides and Demosthenes 
over 'polished writers' such as Synesius and Gregory Nazianzen, 
and considered the iambic lines of PtOchoprddromos more 
musical than those of Euripides'. It is maintained, however, by 
Finlay' that, during the centuries preceding the Revolution, the 
parish priests had kept up a competent knowledge of the old 
Greek language and that any Greek who could read and write 
had some knowledge of the old Greek literature. A high degree 
of learning was certainly represented among the laity, and nume- 
rous works were published by Greeks in the classical and the 
popular forms of the language. These works were printed in 
many parts of Europe'. Venice in particular long remained an 
important centre for the printing of modern Greek literature*. 

■ Martin Cnisius. 197. " Pere Bahin, Relation (1674), S4f. 

» Toumefort, Voyage, i 10+ (E. T. 1741). 

* Travels, vi 41, ed. )8i8. " Thereianos, 141. • v 183, 

' See the biblic^raphical works of Bretos {1854-7), Sathas (1B68), and 
Legrand, Biblisgr. HilUn. xv, jt'i{i885— 1906), .itiV J. (1894—190,1). 

' Citali^e f'Sii) of Ihe long established house of Glykys, in Carl Iken's 
Liukothea (1815). " '39 '■ 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 

3S8 GREECE. [cent. XVII f 

In 1791 a Greek press was founded in Vienna by GeOrgios Ben- 
ddt^ of Zante, the compiler of a valuable Greek, Italian and 
Romaic lexicon, and the translator of Barthelemy's Anacharsis. 
After his death in 1795 the press continued to flourish, and it was 
here that the important periodical called the Logios Hermes began 
its course in 181 r', The Greek colony at Vienna was connected 
with the Philbmusoi Hetairia, a literary club founded at Athens 
in 1812 which enabled some of the future leaders of the Revolu- 
tion to acquire a European education". 

The traditions of Byzantine rather than classical culture were 

maintained in the patriarchal school of Constanti- 
^»u^t'nopi°" nople- The patriarch Gennadios (1400— 1468), 

who held that office for the five years immediately 
succeeding the Turkish conquest, was an eager student of law, 
theolt^ and philosophy, a translator of some of the works of the 
Aristotelian churchman, Thomas Aquinas, and a persecutor of the 
paganism and an opponent of the Platonism of Gemtstos Plethon'. 
By the side of the ancient patriarchal school restored by the in- 
fluence of Gennadios, rose the famous Phanariote school of 1661 
and that of Kuru-Tschesme founded on the Bosporus in 1803*. 
In 1581, ZygomaUs, the chief secretary of the patriarch, described 
Greece in general as destitute of schools, though the inhabitants 
had a natural genius for profiting by education; 'but the clouds 
of an ever-during calamity suffer not the sun of such blessings to 
shine forth, or learning to flourish". During the interval of little 
more than 30 years, while the Morea was subject to Venice (1684 
— 1 718), education was fostered by the Catholic clergy at the 

college of Tripolitza'. In the early part of that 

brief period the Parthenon was destroyed during 
the Venetian siege of 1687, but, towards its close, the recovery of 
Corinth by the Turks in 1715 was soon followed by the founding 

' Nicolai, 99. ' Finlay, vi 98- 

» «or4 ^liy nX**iwot iiropiaf ir' ' AptaTorfkii, ed. MenSs (Paris, 1858) i 
il 61 supra. Cp. Gibbon, vii 175 f Bury ; Finlay, iii 501, v 137 ; Krumbacher, 
Bys. Liu. iigf ; Nicolai, jjf. Gentile Bellini's ' Gennadios and Mahomet II', 
in frontispiece to Legrand, Biiliogr. HdUn. xv, xvi s. iii (1903). 

* Nicolai, 14, 109. 

• Martin Cmsiiis, Turcograecia (1584), 9+. 



of a Greek School at Athens. About the same time schools 
established in the previous century began to flourish in Mace- 
donia and Thessaly. In 1723 the third of the 
three great schools of loannina came into being 
in the metropolis of Epirus*. Evidence as to the fairly 
flourishing condition of the Greek schools is supplied in 
1714 by Alexander Helladius, who had visited London and 
0)d'ord and had spent some years in Germany'. The year 
1758 marks the dissolution of a once important Athoi 

academy on Mount AEhos, and the foundation of Meioionshl 
another at Mesolonghi'. In 1764 the ancient 
school in the small Arcadian town of Dimitzina was restored by 
the learned Agipios'. During the same century, and especially 
under the rule of Daniel Kerameus', there was a successful school 
on the island of Patmos, which supplied teachers to 
Chios and Smyrna'. In the second half of the Bmyrol 

century the 'Evangelical School of Smyrna' had 
some famous pupils (including Koraes, the future r^enerator of 
the Greek language), and, at the 'philological gymnasium' in the 
same city, the Greek Classics were effectually 
studied in 1809-18'. There were Greek schools at sinop* 

Trebizond and Sinope ; while, in the Danubian 
Principalities, the Hellenic school of Bucharest had assumed the 
status of ati academy in 1698, and the central 
school of lassi was already well known in 1755" 
The study of the old Greek language and literature 
in the above schools, and especially in those of the Danubian Princi- 
palities, was among the causes that led to the Revolution of 1821. 

' Further endowed by Ihe brothers Maruizi in 1741- Cp. Niculai, 54 f> 
and A. R. Kangal)^, Lill. Nio-Hemnique (iSjj), i 54. 

' Sla/ui praiitns e(cl. oritrUalis, dedicated to Peter Ihe Great (Norimb. 
1714) 60, ' iti gymnasiis quae iam E>ei gratia in omnibus Gtaeciae civilatibus 
mediocriter llorenl ' ; Nicolai, 55 f. 

* Nicolai, I rof. 

* Cp. Kast6rches, rtpl t^i ir iri/tTiTiiars iix<>\J)S (Alh. 1847). 

' Thereianos, i 80. ' Nicolai, 110, n. H5. ' Nicolai, 114. 

' Nicolai, 117 f. On Greek education from 1453 lo iBji, see pp. 1—31 of 
C. P. Oikonomos, Die fddagegitchtn Antchauungm dts AJamarUias Kerais, 
1 16 pp. (Leipzig, 1908), and the earlier literature there quoted. 




In Greece itself, early in the century, 'classic history was studied; 
classic names were revived ; Athenian liberty became a theme 
of conversation among men ; Spartan virtue was spoken of by 
women; literature was cultivated with enthusiasm as a step to 

Greek education owed not a little to the influence of the 
Phanariots resident in the Phatiar or Greek quarter of Constan- 
tinople, and in particular to those who attained high positions in 
the service of the Turks. The interests of the Greeks were 
advanced by Panagiotakes NiciSsios, who in 1630 attained the 
diplomatic d^nity of chief interpreter to the Sublime Porte'. 

The same position was ultimately attained by Al^x- 
^*Viam' andros Mavrocordatos (1637^1709), the son of a 

silk -merchant of Chios and the founder of a highly 
influential family. He studied medicine in Italy, produced at 
Bologna a Latin treatise on the circulation of the blood (1664), 
became physician to the Sultan, and, from 1665 to 1672, presided 
over the patriarchal school of Constantinople. He looked down 
with contempt on the popular language of his fellow-countrymen, 
and formed his own style on the old Greek Classics — without 
succeeding in assimilating their merits. His text-book of Greek 
Syntax was deficient in method and in clearness, and failed to 
supersede the current manuals of Gaza and of Lascaris'. After 
his appointment as principal interpreter to the Porte he obtained 
permission to found schools in Constantinople and loannina and 
on the island of Patmos, and presented these schools with texts of 
the Classics printed in Europe*. His example was followed by 
his son, Nicolas, who was the first Greek subject of Turkey to rise 
to the position of governor of Wallachia and thus 'to forge a 
sceptre from his chains". These officials gave a certain impulse 
to education among those who aspired to public appointments, 
but, 'fortunately for the Greeks, other contemporary causes 
tended to disseminate education from a purer source'*. During 
' Finlay, vi 17. ' Kangabe, i 4J— 48. 

* Rizo (lakOb^kes Rizos Nerulos, prime minister uf Wallachia and Mol- 
davia), Court de Utldraturt Gr«que MeHtnie (Cenevs,, 18171,18; Nicolai, 74; 
Finlay, v 141. 

* Rangabe, i Ji. • Finlay, v 145. 

h. |., iiA.OOt^lC 


this time modern Greek literature acquired a higher degree of 
polish under the influence of the pulpit, the synod, and the various 
select societies of Constantinople*. 

The second half of the iSth century was marked by a further 
multiplication of schools and by the translation of European 
works of science, history, fiction and philosophy. These trans- 
lations played an important part in the developement of a literary 
language approximating to the old Greek type. 

Among the scholars who applied their knowledge of ancient 
Greek to giving a literary character to the language 
of the modern Greeks, the earliest name of note is BtiiBari» "' 
that of Eug^nios Biilgaris of Corfu {1716— 1806), 
who was educated at loannina. He studied modern languages 
and Latin in Italy and elsewhere, and was the first reformer of 
the traditional ecclesiastical type of Greek education, as director 
of schools at lodnnina. Mount Athos and Constantinople. He 
subsequently spent ten years in Leipzig, writing works in ancient 
as well as modern Greek (1765-75), and was placed at the head 
of a school for young Russian noblemen in St Petersburg, where 
he died after holding for a time the bishopric of Sclavonia and 
Kherson. His masterpiece in ancient Greek was his rendering 
of the Georgia and Aeneid in Homeric verse; ancient Greek 
was also the language of all his strictly philosophical writings, 
while modern Greek was the medium used in his more popular 

Modem Greek was still more effectively moulded into a 
literary form by the far-reaching influence of Ada- 
niantiosKoraes(i748 — 1833), A native of Smyrna, 
where he was aided in his early studies by the chaplain to the 
Dutch consulate, he spent six years as his father's mercantile 
agent at Amsterdam (1772-8), returned to Smyrna for four years, 

• James Clyde, Metnaic and Modirrt Grak compartd loi/k mte another and 
lailh aiKUnt Greek (Edin. 1855), 45—49; Finlay, Nislery of Greece, v 184 
Toier; Iken, ii 7, losT; Rizo, 34 — 371 Nicolai, 113; Guudas, Blot IlapctX- 
X^Xm, ii (1874) I — 40, with port rail 1 RaugaW, i 63; and esp. Thereianos, 
Adamanlios Korals (18890 i 63 — 76. His industrious and contentious con- 
lempomry, Nedpliytos Kausoltalybites, produced at Bucharest in 1761 a com- 
mentary of 1400 pages on the fourth liook of Theodoras Gaza (ib. 79 f). 



362 GREECE. [cent. XVIII f 

and was allowed by his father to abandon a business career and 
to enter the medical school of Montpellier, where he distinguished 
himself as a student of medicine (1782-8). He removed to 
Paris in 1788, and there devoted himself to literary labours for 
the remaining forty-five years of his life. 

Palriotism and a passion for learning were (he two guiding principles of his 
whole career. One of his earliest works (his ' Emendations on Hippocrates ') 
was printed at Oxford in i;9i'. His excellent edition of Hippocrates, di atre, 
aguis, loHs (1800), was immediately preceded hy the Characters of Theo- 
phrastus, and succeeded by Longus and Heliodoms. The most important of 
his literary undettaltings, the ' Library of Greek literature ', was inspired by a 
distinctly patriotic motive. Long before ihe outbrealt of the Greek revolaljon, 
four brothers of the wealjby house of Zosimades consulted Koraes as to the 
best means for accelerating the regeneration thai had already begun in Greece. 
Koraes advised the publication of the old Greek Clasiiics with notes in ancient 
and introductions in modem Greek. Such was the origin of the celebrated 
' Greek Library ', a series of seventeen volumes edited by Koraes in 1805-16. 
T^t prodromos (containing Aelian's Varia Hh/eria, Heracleides Ponlicus, and 
Nicolaus Damascenus) was followed by two volumes of Isocrates, six volumes 
of Plutarch's Lives, four of Stiabo, the Patiiics and Ethics of Aristotle, the 
Mtmerabilia of Xenophon with the Corgias of Plato, and lastly the Ltecratet 
of the Attic orator Lycurgus. All these were printed by Didot in an 
exquisitely neat type specially designed for the series, the whole cost of 
publication was met by the munificence of the brothers Zosimades, and many 
copies were gratuitously distributed among deserving Greek students in 
Hellenic lands. Meanwhile, Koraes was producing a series of 'paretga' in 
nine volumes, comprising Pulyaenus, Aesop, Xenocrates^ and Galen Di 
AltHunto tx AqiuUilibus, the Medifations of Marcus Aurelius, the Tactics of 
'Onesander'*, five political treatises of Plutarch, Cebes and Cleanlhes with 
the Enc/uiridiim of Epictetus, and the two volumes of Arrian's version of his 
discourses {tZog-if). Homer had already lieen specially edited for the modem 
Greeks', but Koraes produced an edition of Iliad i — iv (1811-30). He also 
edited Hierocles. He translated Herodotus into modern Greek ; his notes on 
Herodotus were printed by Larcher, those on Thucydides by Levesque, and 
those on Athenaeus by Schweighauser : while those on Hesychius were post- 
humously published (1889). His notes in general, especially those in his 
'Greek Library', have met with appreciative teci^nition on the part of 

• Musci OxonieHsis...spicimina. 

' Already published by him in Naples (1794). 

• 'Qriaiaiipat (Christ, § 66j). Ap[iended was a poem of Tyrtaeus, trans- 
lated into modem Greek by Koraes, and into French by Didot. 

• By Spyridon Blantes (1765 — '1830), Ven., with the scholia of Didynius 
(Thtretoo,, il 8.). 



subsequent editors'. The live volumes of his Alaila (1818-35) were largely 
concerned with Greek lexicography. In his writings in general he umed at 
assimilating the language of literature with the living language of modem 
Greece, and, even in his most scholarly works, he showed his interest in the 
idiom of the people, while others, such as Kndrikas and Dnkas, abandoned 
this intetmediale position and went lo the extreme of ignoring the living 
language and uiging the adoption of an artificial style founded on the grammar 
and the literature of ancient Greece*. His autobicgraphy (1S19) was trans- 
lated into Latin and into French. The latter version is prefixed to his Corre- 
spondence, which includes many emendations of the Greek Anthoit^*. 

tie was on Friendly terms with scholars in Holland'. In 1805 Wyttenbach 
wrote lo Larcher describing Koraes as 'not only a Grecian but a veritable 
Greek', and in 1S07 his Isocrates won him the title of the ' patriarch of Greek 
philology'*. His correspondents in England included Thomas Burgess, 
afterwards bishop of Salisbury, and Holmes, the editor of the Septuagint. He 
was an ardent admirer of the United States of America*. In the land of his 
adoption, he was associated with Gosselin and La Porte-du-Theil (and after- 
wards with Lelronne) in a French translation of Strabo (iSoj-ig) begun under 
the generous patronage of Napoleon. Among his principal friends in Paris 
were ^lienne Clavier, the elder Thurot, and Chardon de la Rochette ; he was 
less intimate with Villoison^, while, as a scholar, he was highly esteemed by 
Boissonade*. His devotion to his country's cause was a ruling passion 10 the 
end of his life. With his latest breath he spoke of the land of his fathers, and 
on his death-bed, while his failing eyesight rested on a portrait of Demosthenes, 
he exclaimed : — ' Thai was a man'*. His epitaph, written by himself, told of 
his love for the land of his adoption as well as for the land of his birth", and his 
character is thus summed up by the English historian of Modem Greece : — 

' Koraiis...was the great popular reformer of the Greek system of instruction, 
the l^slator of the modem Greek language, aniT the most distinguished 
apostle of religious toleration and national freedom. ..He was indifferent to 
wealth, honest and independent, a sincere patriot, and a profound scholar... 
He passed his life in independent poverty, in order that he might a 

' Thereianos, paisim. 

' Krumbacher's Feilrfdt, Das Preblem dtr neugritchUcktn Schri/lsfrache 
(19OJ), 44f, and Koraes' Gk Grammitr (posthumously published at Athens, 
i888); Saihas (iSjoJ, and Beaudouin (1883), quoted by Kiumbacher, U. 
195 ; also the criticisms of Halzidakis, La Question de la Laiigui Scritt Net- 
Grecque (1907), 106. 

' Letlres inidites, 1874-7 (Bursian's Jahrtsb. li 87 f). 

• Thereianos, { 103, 105. Cp. J. Gennadios, iplaui tai <siri<ltit, 54-71- 
' Clyde. 50. 

• Thereianos, iii 61 , t«» 'Ayt^'^I^'PI'"*'''''' iiirvpm Sou^MiirTjJt. 
' ii.i i;9f. ' 1*. i +05 f- 

• 'En?i>at TTO irBpuwot, ib. iii 151 f. '* ib. iii 155. 



his whole time, and the undivided strength of his mind, to improve the moral 
and political feelings of the Greeks. His eflbrts have not been fruitless. He 
methodized the literary language of his countrymen, while he infused into their 
minds principles of true libeity and pure morality''. 

The inlermediate position assumed by Koraes in moulding a litemry 
Kniirikt language for modern Greece found its keenest and most 

implacable opponent in Panl^Clikes Kodrik&s (1750—1817), 
an Athenian of distinguished descent, extraordinary gifts, wide learning and 
high social standing. He was an adherent of the ultra-classical Greek style 
that had come down from the Byzantine age arvd was still retained in the 
documents issued by the patriarch of Constantinople and other official per- 
sonages. Before 1801 he was chancellor to the governor of Wallachia ; and 
after that date he was a professor of Greek in Paris, and interpreter to the 
Ministry of Foreign Aflairs. His controversy wilh Koraes began with a letter 
to the editors of the LS^es Htrnils (1S16) urging them to resist the reforms 
proposed by Koraes. As this advice was not followed, he publi^edan anony- 
mous 'Apology for the Greeks in Pisa' (1817), which was promptly repudiated 
by the Creeks concerned. His iinal contribution to the controversy was the 
Mdll'e, dedicated in 1818 to Alexander I, emperor of Russia*. In all this 
bitter controversy the only benefit that incidentally accrued to the cause of 
learning was an admirable treatise published by Koraes under the pseudonym 
of Stephanos Pantaif s'. 

The opinions of Korai^s were, in general, supported by the versatile and 

^ accomplished scholar, Konstanttnos Kumas {17J7 — 1836), a 

native of Laiissa, who studied in Vienna, was head of the 

' Finlay, Hislary ef Grace, v iSf Toier; cp. Gervinns, ap. Thereianos, iii 
155. BfM (Paris, iSjg) ; Fr. T. 1833; Lat. T. 1834-49; Germ., Sinner-Olt 
(Zurich, 1837); Boissonade in Michaud's Biagr. Univ.; I. Bywater in 
y. If. S. i 305-7 ; Nicolai, 103 f ; Rangab*, i 81—90; Constantinides, 331 — 
361 ! and esp. D. Thereianos, Adamanlios Koraes, 3 vols. (Trieste, 1889-90). 
In France he adopted the name of Cotay; Villoison considered that Cora!(s) 
would have been more correct (i^. i 179). Portrait in Goudas, ii 73—108. 
Posthumous works in 7 vols. (Ath. i88t-9), including materials for a French 
and Greek lexicon (1881), Grammar of modem Greek (1888), notes and emen- 
dations on Hesychius (1889), and 3 vols, of Letlcrs (1885-7). On his Letters, 
cp. J. Gennailios, K^tn xai (m^^Ed (Trieste, 1903), and on bis services (o 
Greek education, C. P. Oikonomos, Die pddagogischen Attschauuagm da 
Adamantios Korais (Leipzig, 1908). 

* The presentation copy now belongs to Mr J. Gennadios. 

' On the ancient dt^ma rifuf icaXov, tiiuf ccuov (Leipzig, 1819), Thereianos, 
ii 348f and reprint in iii (Appendix v). On Kodrikis, in general, ib. ii 183 — 
3;j; Nicolai, 130; Rangabe, i 90f; Haliidakis, 7of. His opponent, Daniel 
Philippfdes, regarded the popular type of Greek as ihe true medium of litera- 




school of Kuni-TGchesme in 1S13, joined Stephanos Oekoa6Qios in foandii^ 
the 'philoloEical gymnasium ' at Smyrna in 1810, and spent the last 15 years 
of his life at Trieste. A Greek style resembling that of Koraiis was the 
characteristic of his numerous translations from literary and scienlilic French 
and German works. His publications amounted to 45 volnmes. He produced 
a Greek and German lexicon, founded on Riemer (iSi6), and a Greek 
Grammar (TS33), but his greatest achievement was a universal history, the 
litb volume of which included his own autobiography, tie is held in high 
repute for his teaming and hia patriotism, and also for his remarkable success 
in the organisation of schools'. 

While Eugenios BiJlgaris had done good service as a repre- 
sentative of the old scholastic type of teaching, a new era was 
opened by one who combined intellectual eminence with all the 
intensity of moral force and patriotic enthusiasm. 
This was hone other than Ldmpros Photiades (1750 
— 1805), a native of loinnina, who presided over the Greek 
school at Bucharest for the last 13 years of his life. He was 
interested in imitating Anacreon, Sappho and Pindar, but he fore- 
saw that a reform was needed in the scholastic education of his 
day, and that Greece had a greater need of progressive patriots than 
of imitative grammarians. Instead of spending his time on the 
exclusive explanation of words and phrases, he inspired his pupils 
with admiration for the lofty thoughts of the old Greek writers. 
He is credited with having prepared translations from Herodotus, 
Thucydides, Xenophon, Plutarch and Lucian', but he published 
nothing in person. His two books on the theory of metre' and 
his notes on the text of Synesius and of the Attic orators' were 
printed by his pupils". In his old age he welcomed the reforms 
proposed by Koraes, and, while he is less prominent than that 
great scholar, he did signal service to his nation. He is remem- 
bered mainly as the able instructor of the leading scholars of the 

ture (cp. Rangab^, i 91 f), and the same is true of Athanisios Psalldas, head of 
the patriarchal school at loinnina in 1797 — iSio (Nlcolsi, 141 n.). 

' Iken, i 300 f; Goudas, ii »63— a88 (with portrait); Nicolai, iij ; cp. 
Halzidikis, 73, 106 f. 

* .Liguit Htrmls, i8tl. 

' Ed. Zenobios Pop (Vienna, 1803). * Ed. Dukas (i*. 1811). 

' Cp. in general Nicolai, 117; Rangab^, i 78! ; Thereianos, i Si ; Con- 
stantinides, 330 f ; and Gnudas, ii in~-A% (with portrait ; the original belongs 
lo Mr J. Gennadiot). 



Greek Revolution. Among these, the most conspicuous were Neo- 
phytos Dukas and Georgios Gennadios, who were united in their 
devotion to a common master, but in their published works stood 
in the strongest contrast to each other. 

Shortly after the death of Photiades, a war between Turkey 
and Russia made it necessary to close the school of Bucharest 
, from 1806 to 1810. NeiSphytos Dukas (1760— 

1845), a native of Epirus and a devoted pupil 
of Photiades, had already left for Vienna. In Vienna he pre- 
pared his Greek Grammar, which he dedicated to his former 
master {1804); he also edited (in 1803-15) a. lai^e number of 
Greek authors including Thucydides, Arrian, Dion Chrysostom, 
Maximus Tyrius, the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, Synesius, as well 
as the Attic orators, Herodian, and Aeschines Socraticus. Most 
of these editions included translations. In 1815 he became the 
head of the school at Bucharest. After the war, he established a 
printing-press at Aegina, and continued to spend all his resources 
in producing his editions of the Classics. In 1834-45 he devoted 
himself mainly to editing the poets :— Homer, Euripides and 
Sophocles (1834-5), Aeschylus and Theocritus (1839), Pindar 
and Aristophanes (1842-5). In the controversy as to the best 
literary language for modern Greece, he preferred the old classical 
style to the via media advocated by Koraes', who was far superior 
to him as a scholar and as an editor of Greek texts. Dukas, how- 
ever, deserves credit for the industry which he displayed in adding 
more than 70 volumes of Greek authors to the scholastic libraries 
of his day. His edition of Thucydides in ten volumes alone gives 
proof of any critical faculty, but there is good reason for stating 
that the credit for this is undoubtedly due to his teacher Pho- 
tiades. He continued to teach in Athens to the end of his life, 
and, when he died, he was lamented as a 'benefactor to the 

Constantine Bardalichos (1775 — 1830), a coadjutor of Pho- ' 
tiades, and afterwards director of the schools at ■ 
Bucharest, Chios and Odessa, is best known as the 
author of a Greek Grammar founded on the works of Lennep, 

' Theteianos, ii 171 — iSj. ' Cp- Nieolai, 131 f ; Rtuigali^, i i6j. 



Koraes and Buttmann (1832)'. His memory is enshrined in the 
introduction to the edition of the Cyropaedeia published by his 
colleague at Odessa, Georgios Gennadios. 

Ge^i^ios Gennadios (1786^1854), who belonged to the same 
family as the patriarch of that name', was born at 
Selymbria and was the favourite pupil of Photiades. 
In 1809 he began to study medicine at Leipzig, and, in 1814, 
returned to Bucharest and was soon assisting Dukas in the 
management of the school. In 1817 he became the head of the 
Greek School then founded at Odessa (where he began a series of 
school-books). Three years later he . returned to Bucharest as 
head of his former school- Then, as ever, he gave proof of being 
a bom teacher ; and, in that eventful time, he was also an ardent 
patriot The study of Demosthenes and Plutarch had inspired 
him with the love of liberty, and, under his enthusiastic teaching, 
his pupils at Bucharest were thoroughly imbued with the spirit of 

One oF those pupils, the brilliant scholar, poet, archaeologist, politician 
and diplomatist, Al^xandros Rizos Rangabes, has told us how, on a day when 
his master was expounding some ancient classic, the Panegyric of Isociates or 
the Peridcs of Plutarch, being deeply moved by the recital of the ancient 
glories of Athens, he bade his pupils bar the door and forthwith delivered a 
glowing discourse on the golden age when Greece was still a teacher of the 
nations, thus arousing in hb audience the keenest enthusiasm for the cause of 
liberty*. Not a few of (hose pupils were among the five hundred of the 
Sacred Band, most of whom fell in the first conflict with the foe on the 19th 
day of June, \%i\*. Genoadios withdrew for a time to Odessa and was soon 
afterwards studying theology at Leipzig and Gbttingen. The next great event 
of his life was his patriotic speech beneath the plane-tree in Nauplia, which led 
to his being called the 'saviour of his country''- He distinguished himself at 
the battle of Karystos, and at the close of the war in iftiS he declined the 
rank of general. Early in 1830 he opened the school at Aegina by giving an 
impressive lesson on the Clloice of Hercules, in the presence of Capodistria, 
who 'madeagreat show of promoting education', but afterwards forbade the 
reading of the Gorgias of Plato*. The first modem library worthy of the name 

> Nicolai, 101- » p. 3s8 ™/™. 

■ Mfotoins etc., quoted by Xenophon Anastasiades, Giorgios Gennadies, 18. 

* Kinlay. viii4, 133. 

» 1816 ; ib. 387 ; Anastasiades, 33, 37, 56; J. Gennadios, G. Getina-lias if 
Sa^Xfv (190S-6)- 

' Anastasiades, 4$ f {cp. Finlay, vii ^Sf, 61). 

h. i., 11,1^.001^10 


in the East was founded by Gennadios al A^[na; on its removal to Athem, 
it reni.iined under his care until 184S; and, when (he 'central school' wastiwis- 
ferred to Athens, he presided over it until the day of his death, declining to be 
nominated one of tlie first professors when the university was established in 
1837,— the year in which he took part in founding the Archaeological Society. 
He was inspired by the same spirit as his great contemporary, Koraes. While 
Koraes remained abroad, editing the Greek Classics in a patriotic spirit and 
arousing the martial atdour of his countrymen by a new edition of his iri\Tiff/ui 
voXc/iurr^/Mor, Gennadios actually fought in the war. While Koraes was a 
great writer, Gennadios was a great teacher, and in this respect was the true 
heir of Ihe traditions of Photiades. It is from his Greek Grammar of 1831 
that the modem Greeks have learnt their own ancient language for the last 
three generations. As an honorary doctor of Leipiig, he was described as vir 
di lillais in Crateia inslaurandii bent mtritus. His tomb in Athens has been 
adorned with elegiac verses in ancient and in modem Greek, but he can hardly 
have a terser tribute to his memory than a single line from the Elegy of Zaia- 
costas' that is thus translated in the Greek Lays and Idylls: — 

'Here the apostle of light and the father of learning is sleeping''. 
' Father of learning ' is a free translation for ' father of teachers '. Of his 
many pupils the most distinguished was A. R. Rangab6s. Some of Ihem, 
such as Phyntiades and Kustrattides, look an active part in the work of Ihe 
Archaeological Society; among the rest were Papasliotes (i8ao — 1877) and 
Mavrophr^es (1818 — i8fi6), both of whom were thorough scholars and 
exemplary preceptors. The latter wrote on elegiac poetry and on Lucian, 
besides publishing mediaeval texts, and preparing a history of Ihe Greek 
language (1871)'. 

The university of Athens had been preceded by the university 
of Corfu. Owing to the influence of the French 
itiandcthc Revolution a literary and political Htttutia had 
"""cMfu*^ "^ been founded in that island in 1802; this was fol- 
lowed by the 'Ionic Academy' of i8o8; and, finally, 
in 1824, the famous philhellene, Frederick North, fifth Earl of 

* Anastasiades, 107. Cp. Goudas, ii 311 — 338; Xenophon Anastasiades, 
Georgiat Geanadies (with portrait), ill pp., London, 1901; J. Gennadios, 
Gforgias Gennadios it NouxMy, 1905-6; Constantinides, 450 — 431; and L. 
Sergeant, Gretee in Itie xixlk «fl/Hrf ( 1 897), 335, 370, Of his sons the eldest 
(Athanasios) is a Greek scholar still living m Athens, whose emendations on 
the 'XBifa'.iot iroXtrtfa have been mentioned in the preface to my edition of 
that work, while the second was Creek Minister in London in 1886-91 ('^P- 
I/ellmic Aanual 1880, 143—153). 

' Rangabi, Lilt, i i6m, r;,;. 


Guilford (1766 — 1827), who had joined the Greek Church in 
179 1 and was Governor of the Ionian Islands, founded the 'Ionian 
Academy', as the first university of modem Greece, a university 
which lasted to the end of the English occupation in 1864. 

The first professor of Greek at Corfu was Kdnstantinos 
Asipios (a 1790 — 1872), who had been educated 
under Psalidas at lodnnina, and (with the aid of 
Lord Guilford) had continued his studies in Gottingen, Berlin, 
Paris and London. He had taught at Trieste since 1817 and 
was professor at Corfu in 1824-43, when he accepted a call to 
Athens. His most important production was an unfinished 
History of Greek Literature, prefaced by a history of Greek 
philolt^y (1850). His 'Introduction to Greek Syntax' is a 
diffuse work of 1000 pages (1841)'. 

The first professor of Latin was another proteg^ of Lord 
Guilford, Christ6phoros Pbiletiis', the author of a 
Latin Grammar (1827), while tbe first professor of pfkioit' 
philosophy was N. S. PIkkolos (1792 — 1865), who 
afterwards taught in Paris and Bucharest, and prepared a supple- 
ment to the Greek Antholt^y (Paris, 1853), and editions of 
Aristotle's Jfistoty of Animals {i/i. 1863)' and of Longus (1866)'. 

An account of the successive 'Academies' of Corfu and of the 
scholars contemporary with them' was written by 
Andreas Mflstoxydfis (1785 — 1860), a native of the 
island, who was nearly 40 years of age at the foundation of the 
university. He published his Italian history of Corfu in 1804 
and was historiographer of the Ionian Islands until 1819, besides 
receiving academic distinctions in France, Germany and Italy. In 
1820, a diplomatic position (that of secretary to the Russian envoy 
at Turin) was assigned him by the Foreign Minister of Russia, 
Capodistria, who, as President of Greece nine years later, made him 
Director of Education. After his patron's assassination in i83r, 
he spent the rest of his life in his native island, where he founded 

' Goudas, ii iij — 141 (with portrait); Nicolai, i^if; Rangabj, i 171; 
Thereianos, *i\o\o7M«i tFOTVirisiHii (1885), 116 — 115. 

* Thereianos, 158 f. * Nicolai, 141. 

* Tliernanos, Kbraes, i 378 f, iii 7. 

' Pandora, %' , 188—198, _^ 

!. 111. ,..,.ih,.^OOQlc 

370 GREECE. [cent. XIX. 

a philological and historical journal, the HtlUnomnemdn^. He 
was restored to the position of historic^rapher, and, at the time of 
bis death, was at the head of the education department Early in 
his career (in 1S12) he dedicated to Koraes the 80 new pages of 
Isocrates, De Permulatione, which he had discovered in the MSS 
of the Ambrosian and Laurentian libraries. In 1816-7, in con- 
junction with Demfitrios SchinAs of Constantinople, he published 
five small volumes of Ambrosian Anecdota, including 'arguments' 
to seven of the orations of Isocrates, and the scholia of Olympio- 
donis on Plata Lastiyi he contributed to a collection of Italian 
translations of Greek historians an excellent translation of Hero- 
dotus {1822) and some notes on Polyaenus. 

One of the most scholarly members of the ' Ionian Academy' 
was a favourite pupil of As^pios named J, N. Oeco- 
nomfdSs (1812^1884). He was a member of a 
wealthy family in Cyprus, which fled from the Turkish dominions 
to Trieste in i8ai,andtwo years later to Corfu, where he completed 
his education. He taught Greek and Latin in the local gymna- 
sium, and, when Sir George Bowen was anxious to introduce into 
the curriculum a translation of an English text-book, Oeconomides 
pointed out the mistakes in the original and won the goodwill of 
the governor. Late in 1857 he became secretary for education, 
early in the following year professor in the Ionian Academy, 
and, in i860, minister of education as the successor of Mustoxjfdfis. 
Towards the end of his life he returned to Trieste, where he died 
in obscurity and destitution, 64 years after his first arrival in that 
city as a fugitive from Cyprus. 

His works have been the theme of a full and inleresting monograph b7 one 
of his ablest pupiU, who gives a complete analysis of his master's dissertation 
on Cleatithes', and of his scholarly interpretations of passages in Thucydides 
and other Greek Classics, besides dealing full]' with his studies on Syntax and 
on Synonyms and on Comparative Philology. Oeconomfdes contributed to 
Mustox^des' History of Corfu a lengthy monograph on the local inscriptions, 
including that on a silver lamp belonging to the treasurer of the Ionian 
Islands*. He elaborately elucidated two Locrian inscriptions in the same 

' Athens, 18+3-53. 

^ I. 1845 ; Theieianos, #iXoXiry»iu i-rorvwuistii, 131 — 171. 

' James Woodhouse ; i^, i^^l; Curt Wachsmulh in RMn. Mm. xviii 

(lasj) 537—583- 


collection, (1) a covenant between Oeanlhia and Chaleion on the Corinthian 
gulf, and (1) a law of the Opunlian Locrians regulating their lelations with 
Iheir colonists a( Naupactus'. He also wrote a comprehensive monograph on 
the fonn fri^iKSaBav in an Athenian inscription on the settlement of Chalcis*. 

A special aptitude for surveying the history of classical learn- 
ing and analysing the published works of classical 
scholars was displayed by Dionysios Thereiands (c. 
1833 — 1897) a native of Zante, who was educated at Corfu under 
Oeconomldes. His excellent account of the life and writings of 
that scholar fills the last 269 pages of the ^iXoXoyuial firortnrtMrcis 
published in 1885 at Trieste, where the author was for many 
years editor of the Kldo*. The work includes a short essay on 
the political and literary developement of the ancient Greeks, 
and an ample literary and historical dissertation on 'Hellenism'. 
An admirable retrospect of the modern history of Greek learning 
from Chrysolords to Photiades fills the first chapter of the three 
volumes in which he fully sets forth the varied aspects of the life 
of Koraes. Some of his hero's minor writings are reprinted in 
the appendix". It is a work in which the highest degree of learn- 
ing is expressed in the most pellucid form of modem Greek prose. 
The eloquence and the accuracy of the author have been justly 
commended by Constantintdes'. 

Leaving the shores of the Adriatic, we turn once more to 
Athens. When the university was opened in 1837, the Acharnians 
of Aristophanes was the theme of the first lecture, which was given 
by the professor of Greek, Ludwig Ross'. The first professor of 
Latin was H. N, Ulrich, who had already taught that language in 
the 'central school' at Aegina and Athens, and had produced a 
Greek Grammar and Reader. His Latin and Greek lexicon was 

' Aojt/nicij «riTjJQ0^, Corfii, iSjo ; Hicks, no. 31 ; Thereianos, 173-7. 
' 'EroiKia Aocpur ypiiiimTa ; Hicks, no. 63 ; Thereianos, 17 7 — 187. 

* Hicks, no. 18 ; Thereianos, 187 — 196. 

* ' A treasury of literary and political informalion, written in as admirable 
a style as any modem Greek has yet attained ' (L. Sergeant, Greece in tie 
xixlk Cen/ury, 375). 

' Demetrio E^onomo, Trieste, 1889. He aDerwards published a iiAypaima 
ZrwiK^ ^xXnro^ai, |8()2. 
' NeB-HellenUa, 337. 
' ErinnervngiH (Berlin, 1863) ix and x. 


372 GREECE. [cent. XIX. 

published in 1843, the year of revolution that 'put an end to the 
government of aUen rulers", and even removed foreigners from 
the public service. For obvious reasons the study of Latin has 
been much neglected in Greece', but Latin scholarship has been 
well represented by Kast6rches, Kumantfdes, and Bas€s. In the 
more congenial department of Greek literature, a comprehensive 
Homeric dictionary was produced by I. Pantazfdes. The Homeric 
question has been elaborately discussed by G. Mistri6tes (sub- 
sequently a professor of Greek at Athens), who maintains the 
unity of the Iliad and Odjssey and regards Homer as the author 
of both', and a French treatise on the topography and the strategy 
of the Iliad was published in Paris in the same year by the Cretan 
scholar, M. G. Nicolafd^s, while private life in Homer has been 
ably treated by K. R. RangabSs (1883)'. The criticism of the 
Greek dramatists is well represented by the Antigone'' 
of Semftelos (1828 — 1898), who subsequently pub- 
lished numerous emendations on the text of Euripides'. The 
Jerusalem palimpsest of that poet has been carefully described 
by A. PapaddpQlos-Kerameus (1891), who has also catalogued a 
large part of the numerous mss in the patriarchal library of Jerusa- 
lem, as well as all the mss and works of art in the ' Evangelical 
School' of Smyrna (1877). An excellent edition of the scholia in 
the Laurentian ms of Sophocles is the principal work of P. N. 
Papagefii^ios of Thessalonica (1888). Treatises on the discourses 
of Isocrates and on the Hellenica of Xenophon were produced by 
A. Kyprian6s of Paros (1830 — i86g). A critical text of the 
G N Betnar- Moralla of Plutarch' was published by G. N. Ber- 
d4kCB nardakes (1834 — 1907), a native of Lesbos, who 

studied in Germany and, after holding a professorship at Athens, 
spent the evening of his life in the island of bis birth. 

1 Finlay, vji (;8. ' Birlin. Phil. Wad. 1884, i)6r f. 

' Leipzig, 1867. The same subject has been discussed by Theieianos, 
N. Balettas, and A. Blachos. 

* N. Balettas, be^des writing on the life and works of Homer, has been 
associated with Kypriands in the translaiion of MUller and Donaldson's Grtfi 

' Athens, 1887 ; cp. Bcrl. PAH. iViKh. 1888, p. I077f. 

' Buisian, Ixxi 139. 

' Teubner, 1888-96, 7 vols, with Efilcgus; a\io Dt V.lin DelJ>Mi, 1894. 



He bad Trequenl controversies with scholars in Holland, Germany, and his 
own country. His review of an edition of the Ciw^W by MislriStes (1871) led 
to a war of words between the editor and ibe reviewer'. His attack on Cobet 
for 'appropriating' the emendations of KoraSs met with a good-tempered and 
dignified reply'. His own rejoinder? to the criticisms of Wilamowitz' may be 
found in the prefaces to the second and fourth volumes of his Plutarch, and in 
his Epilogui. Lastly, his controversies with Kdnslanttnos Kontos, profiissor 
of Greek at Athens', have left (heir mark on many passages of a work pub- 
lished by a pupil of Kontos, named Charitonides'. 

The Cretan, Dem^trios Bernardakes, fortnerly professor of 
History at Athens, followed the example of Kuma- 
n(ides° in combining the cult of literature with that ^'^^" 
of scholarship. He was a dramatist and satirist, as 
well as the author of an excellent Greek Grammar'. Another 
professor of History at Athens, Constantlnos Papar- 
rigdpulos of Constantinople, produced an important 'JIoim 

work in five large volumes on the History of Greece 
in classical, Byzantine, and modern times. A French abridge- 
ment of this work has been published in a single volume. Its 
general aim is to set forth the continuous life of Greek civilisation 
from the earliest ages to the present day*. Among recent books 
of reference one of the most important is a Lexicon 
of ancient and modem fireek, the concluding 
voltime of which was published in 1907 by An^ste ConstantinidSs. 

Many of the Greek Classics have been translated into modern 
Greek, but these translations are less and less 
needed in proportion as the literary langu^e 
approaches a more classical standard*. Among them may be 
mentioned the version of Plutarch's Lives by A. R. Rangabes, 
who also made the experiment of rendering the first book of the 
Odyssey into accentual hexameters'". The versification of ancient 

' BuTsian, xvii I43 f. ' p. 1S6 supra. 

' Gottingen pr(^. 1889; dermis, xxv (iSgj) '99f; ^^"- GrUkrI. Am. 
(1896) .04- 

* Author of fft/i/iiicii tpiriti, in B.C.N, i— iii, elc. 
' *«El\a ^iXoXiryKii, 907 pp. (Ath. 1904). 

* p. 383 infra. ' Kangab^, i 164, ii 1 1%. 

* Ranga1>£, i 184 f; medallion portrait in L. Set^eanl's Greect, facing 
p. 375. ' Nicolai, 201 f ; RangaM, i 164 f. 

'" Rangabi, ii 73 ; Constanlinides, (13. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


Greece was skilfully imitated by A. G. Levkfas of Philippopolis, 
who wrote 2200 hexameters on the coronation of king Olho', 
Philippos I&dtinu of Thessaly, professor of philosophy at Athens, 
translated into classical Greek the Germania of Tacitus, with 
three of Virgil's Eclogues, two of the longer poems of Catullus 
(Ixiv and Ixvi), and the first five books of Ovid's Metamorphoses, 
besides composing original poems in the old (Jreek style". The 
same volume includes his well-known rendering of a Klephtic 
poem into Homeric hexameters : — 

SoiAiSiir S6raiJju- rirpvrai ftw ulap trior'. 

His letter to Bret6s on the controversy as to the best literary 
language for the modern Greeks is an excellent introduction to the 
study of that subject*. 

For moie than nineleen centuries the Greek nationality had survived 
subjection to the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Turks; and, for all those 
centuries, the Greek language had maintained an unbroken 
''^ QteA^' ''**' *•"' '" '"'^ divergent forms. The tirst of these was the 
literature language of the higher literature ; the second the language 
of ordinary life and of the popular literature founded on the 
popular language. At the end of the classical period (about 300 B.C.), the 
Attic dialect survived all others as the normal type for prose and as (he 
foundation of a universal literary languBge^ Its earliest important representa- 
tive is Polybius. Since his lime the natural developement of the common 
literary language has been avtilicially checked at three successive stages : — 

(l) in the first four centuries of our era, when Attic Greek was specially 
cultivated by DIonysius of Hallcamassus and his followers ; (i) in the last four 
centuries of the Byzantine empire, when there was a marked revival of interest 
in classical Greek ; and (3) in the nineteenth century, when the purists gained 
a predominant position In the prose literature of modem Greece*. 

The spoken language of ordinary life is represented in the Alexandrian age 

by the non-literary papyri, and even to some extent in the 

'^'onhM*'* Egypto-Aleiandrian dialect used in the cramped translational 

life style of the Septuagint'. It is also represented in the lai^er 

part of the Greek Testament'; and it has left its mark on the 

' Rangab^, ii 198— 106. ' *iXoXo7n4 xdptp7ii ( 1 865), i*. 107 f, 

* Constant inides, 390. * i860; Constantinides, 1—16. 

" Cp. Thumb, Die gr. Sptatht im Zeilaiter des Hellmismus {tgoi). 
' Krumbacher's Fislrttlc, Das Problem dcr neugriechisckm Stkri/tsfrtKhe 

' Delssmann'sSii/(.S'/ii^i(E. T. 1901), 66 f. and Giessen Vortrag, 1898- 
° J. H. Moulton's Winer, 1906, Deissmann in TAeol. RimdicluM (1901) 


Chronicles of John Mnlalas (cent vi) and on that of Theophanes (ik), and on 
the writings of Constantine Porphyrogenilua (x)'. The first important repre- 
senlalive of the distinclively popular lileialure is (he great national epic of 
Digenis Akrilas (the earliest elements in which are ascribed to the itCh 
cenlury)'. This popular literature flourished in Crete in the i6lh and ijlh 
centuries, its most prominent products being Ihe Erolokritt! of Vincenio 
Cornaro and (he Eropkile of Georgios Chortalzes'. I( also found represen- 
tatives in the Ionian Islands in the i6th and in the early iijth century. In the 
latter the most conspicuous name is that of Sot6m6s of Zante, who has been 
succeeded by Bataoriles (Valaoritis) of Leukas, and, later still, by I. Polylas 
{d. 1896), and G. Kalo^uros (d. 1901), the translators ot the //iarfand the 
Proniethem respectively*. 

The conlioTcrsy turns mainly on the question whether the literary language 
should be founded on the language of the people' or on the language of Ihe 
purisls. Of (he purists a majority have fallowed in the general lines al the 
compromise between colloquial and classical Greek ad¥oca(ed by Koraes', 
while some have ui^ed a return lo a more stricdy classical standard'. This 
apparently interminable controversy is preeminently one (hat must be settled 
by tbe Greeks themselves. They are apt to warn foreign scholars that a 
stranger must not intermeddle in the fray, but it has its points of interest to 
every student of the history of classical scholarship, to whatever nation he may 
belong. Some of these points are indicated in (he calm and dbpassionate 
language of an eminent representative of modern Greece, who has a special 
right to be heard on this subject; — 

58 f; Thumb, ib. 8s fj and Milligan on Thns. (1907) iJif; also Deissmann's 
Ltclura on Biblical Crak (1908). 

' Krumbacher, 16 f, 33 f. ' ib. 35. ' ib. 39. 

* ib. 53 f, and Byi. Lilt. 787 — 801 f. For specimens of the popular 
language of Ihe earlier part of centuries v to xvi, see E. A. Sophocles, Ck Lex. 
51 — 56, and, for that of the whole period, M. Constantinides, NeehtUenica 
(1895)60-80, 14-2 f, r73f. 

' J. Polylas, 1; 0iXiAa7u)i )Mt ^Xwtfdo (Ath. 1S91) ; Psycharis, ^ia, tal 
fi^Xa (Alh. 1901), and Krumbacher's Futrede (Munich, 1903) with Ihe litera- 
ture there quoted. 

• G. H. Hatiidakis, La QueUign de la langui kritt nle-grecqui (Ath. 190;), 
and earlier works. Many examples of (his intermediate style, beginning with 
the Greek Testament and ending with 1759, are quoted ib. 133— IS9- 

' S. D. Byiantios (the lexicographer, (835), P. SQtsos (poet, and author 
of the vln tx<i\ii) and G. Chrysob^i^fs, who have been opposed by the 
moderate purists AsfSpios, D. Bemardikes, KontiSs, and Hatzidikis {La 
QtuUion, 75 f). For a conspectus of the existing forms of modem Greek, cp. 
Jannaris, Modem Grak Dictionary (1895), p. xiii. This scholar has also 
produced an ' Ancient Greek Lexicon for Modern Greeks', and a ' Historical 
Greek Grammar' (1897). 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 

376 GREECE. [cent. XIX. 

'The Greek people were guided in ihe progressive developmeni of iheir 
tangnage by practical and urgeni needs. The movement which has made, 
wilhin (he last century, such rapid and giant strides, nas not the result of 
scholastic pedantry or of political fanaticism ; it was not imposed or foiced ; it 
was not mechanical. It was Ihe result of the spread of education and of the 
grradual re -civilization of the country. I( is a remarkable fact that it preceded 
political emancipation. The culture of tbe Greek languagje and the study of 
Greek literature have undoubtedly had, at all limes and places, and still have, 
as an immediate result, the awakening of a sense of individual dignity and of 
national freedom. But that is one of the primary reasons why the study of 
Greek is advocated the world over as an indispensable adjunct to a liberal 

Another important controversy, that on the pronunciation of Greek, must 
here be very briefly noticed. The earlier stages of this con- 
*'"'!' P.™' troversy have been duly set forth by Blass'. Tbe 'Erasmian' 
method, dating from 1518, prevails in various forms through- 
out Europe, and has even been accepted in Russia'. This method has been 
criticised by Theodoros Dcmelrakopulos' and others*. The modern Greeks in 
general hold that their own pronunciation has descended to them by an un- 
broken tradition from the Greeks of the classical age. This view has, how- 
ever, been refuted by their foremost living scholar, G. N. Hatzidakis. who 
has shown that neither the 'Erasmian' nor the modern Greek pronuncia- 
tion can be identical with any single ancient pronunciation of the language, 
although he admits that, in many points, and especially with regard to the 
vowels, the 'Erasmian' method comes theoretically nearer to the truths 

The East has retained a comparatively scanty store of its 
ancient classical manuscripts. During the Revival 
Conatanti- of Learning, and in particular between 1408 and 
"*^"' 14271 scholars such as Guarino, Aurispa and Filelfo 

transferred not a few important mss from Constantinople to places 
of greater security in the West*. On the fall of Constantinople, 
large numbers of Greek MSS are said to have been sold by tbe 
Turks'; but there is no reason for believing that any were delibe- 
rately destroyed, though they may easily have been damaged or 
lost for want of proper care. In 1574 Martin Crusius wrote to 

' J. Gennadios, Preface to Kolokotrones, ed. Mrs Edmonds, 1891, p. vii. 
' ProHuniialion of AncUnt Greek (E. T. 1890), 1 — 6. 
' pimwc! Tiir wipi T^i 'EXXi|)'i]t5i rpo^pa! ipaa/iitulr dioieifeaip. 
* Cp. J. Gennadios in Nineteenlh Century, Oct. 1895 and Jan. 1896, and 
in Conteniporttry Reman, March, 1897 i and Constantinides, 304 f. 
° 'Aruiji/ieird dm^niir/iaro (1904), 184 f (Knimbacher, 91). 
' ii 36 f iupra. ^ i 437 f ^/™- 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


Stephan Gerlach, chaplain of the German legation, inquiring after 
Mss of Aristotle's Constitutiora, Theophrastus etc., and was 
informed in reply that even the more learned Greeks confined 
their reading to the Fathers, to the neglect of the old poets and 
philosophers, and that any mss of the Classics which still survived 
had doubtless been bought up by the agents of Italy or France'. 
When the library of Michael Cantacuzenus (who had fallen into 
disfavour with the Sultan) was sold, a few Greek mss were bought 
by Gerlach' and ultimately sent to Germany'. In 1543 Soliman 
the Magnificent presented a smalt collection to Diego de Men- 
do^ the envoy of Charles V. After 1561, under the same 
Sultan, another envoy, Busbecq (1522 — 1592), sent to Vienna 
some 240 MSS, including the famous illustrated Dioscorides (v), 
which he had bought from a Jew, the son of the physician to the 
Sultan*. In 1565-75 catalogues of private libraries in Constanti- 
nople and Rhaedestos* included mss of Ephorus and Theopompus, 
Philemon and Menander, but the authority of these ascriptions is 
very doubtful'. The collection of mss in the old Seraglio, the 
ancient palace of the Sultans, which presumably includes part of 
tlie former library of the Palaeologi, has long been veiled in a 
certain degree of mystery. During the revolution of 1687 the 
Paris Library acquired from the Sultan's collection fifteen Greek 
MSS of centuries xi— xv, including a Herodotus (xi) and a Plutarch 
(xiii)*. On the same occasion, 203 other Greek mss were dis- 
persed, and the representative of France informed the librarian 
in Paris that there were 'no Greek mss left. It was almost exclu- 
sively Latin mss from the library of Matthias Corvinus that were 
restored to Budapest in 1869 and 1877'. During the 19th cen- 
tury several scholars had access to the mss, including J. D. Carlyle 
(i8oo), Weissenborn (i857)'», and E. Miller (1864)". To the last 

' Turca-Gratcia, 419, 48;. ' ib. 509. 

' Krumbacher, Byi. IMI. jofi'. 
' Graux, L'Escurial, iji— 183. 

> Ep. iv (1561) ad Jin.; Life and Lttters {ed. Forster and Diniell, 1881), 
i 417. 

• R. Foersler (Rostock, 1877). ' Krumbacher, 509*. 

' Delisle, Cabitut dcs MSS, i (iSfiS) 396 f; list iu Nicolai, 58 1 
» Blass in ffimies, xxiii (1888) 128. 
" Ntuejakrb. Ixxvi (1857) joi f. " Melangis, p. iv. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


of these we owe the list of Greek Mss reproduced by Blass in the 
account of his visit in 1887*. This list includes paper mss of the 
Hiad (xiii) and Polybius i— v (xv). Among the six other Greek 
MSS independently noticed by Blass is a volume on Tactics (xv). 
One or two of the ecclesiastical mss may have belonged to the 
library of the Palaeologi. A I^ivy mentioned by Miller was not 
found by Blass. It was in a private collection that the ms of 
Joannes Lydus (x) was identified by Choiseul-Gouffier in 1785. 
and It was in the ancient library of the Jerusalem monastery, in 
the Greek quarter, that the unique ms of the 'Teaching of the 
Apostles' was discovered in 1873 by Bryennios (ed. 1883)*. 

An important ms of the Constantinian excerpts from Polybius 

and other historians was discovered in Cyprus in 

1631 by the agents of Nicolas Peiresc'. 

In 1650 the library of the patriarch of Jerusalem contained 

'more mss than could be read in a life-time'*, 

but it now has little of classical interest except a 

palimpsest of parts of Euripides', fragments from the comic poets, 

and from the Bibliotheca of 'Apollodorus'*, and some of the 

letters of the emperor Julian. 

The MSS belonging to the monastery of St John, founded in 
1088 on the island of Patmos, have been recorded 
in three early catalogues dated 1201', 1355' and 
1382. At the earliest of these dates the number was already 330. 
When Villoison visited the island in 1785, the monks assured him 
that, twenty years previously, they had burnt from two to three 
thousand!' The library was 'in a most neglected state' in i8or, 
when E. D. Clarke identified and purchased the important us 
now known as the Bodleian Plato'". Next year, after the monks 
had become better aware of the value of some of their possessions, 

' Hirmes, xxiii i\^\, 6ij f. 

' The library of ihe Syllngoi has been caialogued by A. Papadopulos 
Kerameus (1891)1 who has also catalogued ihe mss in Jerusalem, Smyrna, 
Lesbos etc. (Knimbacher, Sio^O- 

' i 4O5 iupra. * Nicolai, 61. 

' p. 371 supra. ° Rhtin. Mas. xlvi (1891) i6[ f. 

'■ Diehl in E. Z. \ 488 f. * Mai, Nova palrum bib!, vi (i) 537 f. 

» E. D. Clarke, Travels, vi 44 n. 

"' ib- 47; and cp. Sakkelion in AfXrfoi', ii 417. 



an inscription in unmetrical hexameters to the following effect was 
placed over the door of the library : — 

In ihis place are lying whatever hss there are of note ; more estimable are 
Ihey to a wise roan than gold ; guard Iheiu, therefore, watchfully, more than 
your life; for on Iheir account is this monastery now become conspicuous'. 

The library is now 'a spacious and airy room, and the books 
are arranged in cases along its walls'^. Its 735 hss, including 
a not very important Diodorus (xi), have been catalogued by 
I. SakkeHon', who discovered certain scholia on Thucydides^ 
Demosthenes and Aeschines'; and some scholia on Pindar in two 
copies of the edttio princtps. These last were published by Semi- 
telos ; those on the Pythian odes (which correspond to the scholia 
in the Breslau Mss) have been ascribed to Triclinius*. 

On the monastic library of Megaipelaion, near Corinth, we 
have only to note that some of the many mss saved 
from the fire of 1600 were acquired m 1840 for the 
library of the Sorbonne'. The mss found in different parts of the 
kingdom of Greece are now preserved in Athens, 
but only 14 of the 1856 MSS are connected with 
classical Greek". 

The libraries of Mount Athos were successfully explored by 
Janus Lascaris on behalf of Lorenzo de' Medici*, 
and by Nict5laos Sophian6s on behalf of Mendoza, 
the envoy of Charles V'°. mss of Homer, Hesiod and the Greek 
dramatists and orators are mentioned by travellers in the i8ch 
century, and in the first third of the 19th". In and after i8zo 
many were destroyed. The codex Athous of Ptolemy's Geography, 
formerly part of the same volume as the Strabo (xii), has been 

' Walpole, ib. 44 n. * Tozer, Iilaadi of Ike Aegean, 190. 

' Ath. 1890; cp. Krumbacher, 510'. 

* Revue de PhUoIogie, i 181 f. 

' B.C.Xi 1-16, 13,- isj (BunUn. i. ijj). 
' Bursian,_/ii^nM^. V 10;. 

^ Th. Zographos, HeflaUphos (Ath. 1861) 143 f. 
' Nos. 1055-68 in Sakkelion's Catalogue, 1891. 

* ii 37 sufim. ■" p. 377 supra. 

" J. D. Carlyle in Watpoie's Turkey, 196, and Hunt, H. 101, 109; E. D. 
Clarke, viii 19 (ed. (gi8) ; and R. Curzon's Monasteries of the Levant, 309, 

38o GREECE. [cent. XIX. 

published mfacsimik^. In 1880 Spyridon P. Lampros spent four 
months in cataloguing the mss, and his woik, in its fmkX form, wa^ 
published by the Cambridge University Press'. Among the very 
few classical mss there recorded are single plays of Sophocles, 
Euripides and Aristophanes, and separate speeches of Demos- 
thenes, with parts of Plato and Aristotle. There are also several 
MSS of portions of the fables of Aesop and of Babrius. 

Babrius is the author special]]' associated with Minofdes MenSs or 'Mynas' 
(1790 — 1860), formerly professor of philosophy and rhetoric 

MinSf* ^' Serrae in Macedonia, who fled to France on ihe outbreak 
of the Greek Revolntion of 1811. Id 1840 he was commis- 
sioned by Viltemain to search for MSS in the East. In Ihe library of Si Laura 
on Mount Athos he discovered a us confining lU fables of Babrius, of which 
he made a fairly accurate transcript. This transcript was promptly edited by 
Boissonade (1844) and more accurately by Lachmann and his friends*. On a 
subsequent visit he acquired ihe original, a parchment ms (x or xi], which was 
purchased by Ihe British Museum in 1857. In this MS, fable 113 was repre- 
sented by a single line, bul Menas in his transcript added six bart>arous lines 
of his own'. The success of this little venture led him 10 produce 95 more 
fables, his copy of which was purchased by the Museum in the same year, and 
edited in 1859 by G. C. Lewis, who was fully conscious of the imperfections 
of the text but accepted it as Equine". The spuriousness of ihis second 
collection was, however, soon detected and exposed by Dilbner* and Cobet'. 
It was from a genuine Ms found by Menas that Boissonade produced in 1S4S 
a new edition of Ihe Faceliat of Hietocles and Philagrius. Menas also brought 
hack from Mount Athos a MS of century x including a new cotleclion of 
Poliorcetica and part of Ihe work of a previously unknown but unimportant 
historian, Arislodemus, once believed to be a foi^ery' bul now accepted as 
genuine'. Laslly, he discovered an important ms ideniified by E. Miller as 

' Paris, 1867, with introd. and biblic^. by V. Langlois. 
' Two large quarto vols. 1895, 1900. He has since written on the medi. 
aeval and modern Greek copyists and collectors of MSS (Ath. 1901-3). 
' p. 119 SMfira. 

* Rutherford's ed., p. Ixvii f 1 cp., in general, Freli^nuna to ed. by 
O. Crusius (1896). 

' This continued to be ihe view of Bei^k and Benihardy. 
' Seviit di Pittslruclian fuHique en Belgique (i860) 84. 
' MHtm. ix (i860) 378 f (cp. viii (1859) jjgf). See also Ficus in Ross- 
bach, .Mfw.' 808 f. 

' C. Wachsmuth, in Rhtin. Mus. xxiii 303 f. 

* Cp. Schwaiti in Pauly-Wissowa. 



the lost books iv—x of the 'Refulalion of all Heresies', sometimes called 
(frotn the title of liook i) the Philesofhttaitna of Hippolytus'. 

It vas also on Mount Athos that, in or tiefore 1851, the lost ' Sktpkerd of 
Hermas' was discovered by Constaotine Simonides ([814— 
1B67). The discoverer made a copy of sin leaves, carried off . g1"^JUe°* 
three others, and submitted the whole to certdn scholars at 
Leipzig, where the author was at once identified by Gersdorf and the work 
published by Dindorf (1856)'. The discoverer described himself as a native 
of Hydra, who had been educated at Aegina and on his mother's native island 
of Syme, N.W. of Rhodes. It is beyond the scope of these pages to dwell on 
his extensive travels and his extraordinary adventures'. SufBce it to say that 
he paid three visits to Mount Alhos, in 1839 f, 1S48 and [S51 f. On the lirst 
of these visits he professed to have discovered a secret store of mss, including 
an Anacreon, a Hesiod and a Homer of unprecedented antiquity. In iS^S 
these MSS were examiaed at Athens without any unanimous result, and they 
were afterwards bought in England by Sir Thomas PhilHpps*. Simonides 
pretended to have found (among many other Hss) the lost work of Demetrius 
Magnes 'On authors bearing the same names', and, being unaware that the 
writer in question lived in the first century n,C.', repeatedly quoted it as his 
authority for mailers of later date, such as the life of Nunnus in the fifth, or of 
Uranius in the fourth century A.D., the 'Egyptian History' of the latter being 
one of his most flagrant forgeries. In 1861 he even claimed to have written 
on Mount Athos in 1840, the most ancient MS of the Greek Bible, the Codtx 
SinaiUcut discovered by Tifchendorf on Mount Sinai in 1844-59, a MS which 
(curiously enough) ends with the opening chapters of the 'Shepherd of 
Hermas''. Many years had then passed since the Greeks themselves had 
discovered that Simonides was an impostor. Kumaniides had pronounced 
against him in 1S48; Rangahes had denounced all his MSS as foigeries in 

' p. 1J4 sHpra. Minoides Menaa wrote 00 Greek pronunciation (1814), 
edited the ' Dialectic' of Galen (1844), and translated into French .Aristotle's 
Rhttark (183;) and Philostralus, De Gymnatlica (1853). He was the first to 
print in 1858 the treatise of the patriarch Gennadios against the Platonism of 
Plethon. He has sometimes been unjustly confounded with Constantine 
Simonides (as in Chrbt's Gr. Litt. pp. 655, 9«'). 

' On these six leaves see Lampros in Catalogue, no. 643 and in Dr Aimilage 
Robinson's pamphlet on Hermas (Cambridge, 188S); also Prof. Lake's prekce 
to t.\\e facsimile (Oxford, 1907). 

' Cp. C. Stewart's Memoir, 78 pp., 1859; and J. A. Farrer's Literary 
Forgeries (1907), 39—66. 

* Athenaeum, 4 Feb. 1857. * i 161 supra. 

' On this claim, cp. Prothero's Life ef Henry Bradshain, 9* — 99; also 
Journal of Saered LiUralure, Oct. 1861 (148—253) and Jul. 1863 (478—498), 
and (on Uranius) Apr. i8j6 (134-9). 

382 GREECE. [cent. XIX. 

1851 *, while in 1849 Mustoxydes, on receiving from him a presentation copy 
of the 'Symais of Meletios', acknowledged the gift in a Tetter of exemplary 
courtesy, making it perfectly plain that he had detected the fraud'. The fact 
that he was a notorious impostor is almost ail that is now generally associated 
with his name. It is only fair, however, to remember that some of his MSS 
were genuine and some of his statements were true. The true and the &lse 
uere, in fact, so strangely intermingled that he might with perfect truth have 
said of himself in the words of the poet whose 'most ancient' MS he falsely 
claimed to have discovered : — 

While the old Greek Classics (as edited by Koraes and 
others) have naturally been studied with enthusiasm in modem 
Greece, a prottiinent place has also been taken by the study of 
archaeology. Kyriak6s Pittakes (^. 1806^1863), 
who in 1836 succeeded Ludwig Ross as Conser- 
vator of Antiquities at Athens, had published in 1835 a meri- 
torious work entitled VAncUnne Atfutnes. He spent most of 
his energies on editing inscriptions*. The interest in archaeol<^y, 
exhibited in 1837 by the foundation of the Greek Archaeological 
Society and the c^jj/«pU apx^f^oyi'"?. was revived by the energy 
of Al^xandros Risos Rangabes (1810 — 1892), who 
was born at Constantinople, was educated at 
Odessa, and studied in Munich. At Athens he successively 
became Minister of Education (1832), professor of Archaeology 
(1845-56), and Foreign Minister (1856-9). He was afterwards 
Greek Minister in Washington, Paris and Berlin, As professor, 
he published his Antiquities HelUniques (1842-55) and his Hel- 
/eniai{i&55). He excavated part of the Heraeumof Argos(i855)', 
translated Plutarch's Lives into modern Greek (1864-6), wrote 
a history of modern Greek literature (1877), and published no 
less than fourteen volumes oJ philological 'AroitTa (1874-6)'. 

' Pandata, 185 if, and Lilt. NtohiUhi. i 188— rpi. 

* /liBfltra, 1(1851) 163; Constan tin ides, 376—380. 
' Hesiod, Tkeog. 17. 

* Cp. Michaelis, Arch. Enid. 49; RangaM, i 179; Edmond About and 
S. Reinach quoted by Th. Reinach in L'NtlUnismc, 1 July 1907. 

' Michaelis, 111. 

* Cp. Litt. Nh-HtlUn. ii 48 — 104 ; portrait in Hellenk Aanual {Lond. 
1880) 140. 

h, i.MiA.OOt^lC 


The Archaeolt^cal Society founded amid the ruins of the 
Parthenon in April, 1837, was, for the first thirty years of its 
existence, mainly concerned with inscriptions^. A valuable col- 
lection of Greek epitaphs was published in 1871 by Stephanos 

KumaniidSs* (1818 — iSgg). It comprised more 

„ , . , , , , . , Kum»nMe» 

than 2800 Items, it represented the work of sis and 

twenty years, and was printed at the author's own expense. The 

author, a native of Philoppopolts, was an ideal scholar and an 

ideal teacher. He had bfeen appointed professor of Latin in 

1845, had made his mark as a poet {1851), and, owing to his 

high character and his many-sided learning, had been appointed 

instructor to the young king of the Hellenes on his first arrival in 

Greece. Meanwhile the Society had resumed the excavation of 

the Dionysiac theatre, vigorously taken in hand by Strack in 

1862". The success of Konstantinos Karapanos at Dodona 

(18750 pfonipted the Society to explore the precinct of Askle- 

pios, S. of the Acropolis (1876), the shrine of Amphiaraiis at 

Orfipus (18S4-7), the sacred sites of Eleusis (1882-91) and Epi- 

daurus (1881-3)', ^^^ '^^e Heraeum of Samos (igoz)*. The 

excavation of the platform of the Acropolis, begun by Stama- 

takes in 1884, was completed by his successor Kabbadias', the 

explorer of Epidaurus. 

A Hellenic Philolt^ical Society was founded in Constanti- 
nople, and was supported by Germans such as Mordtmann, 
Frenchmen such as Dethier, and Englishmen such as Alexander 
van Millingen'. Smyrna, which has for centuries been a place 
of resort for collectors of antiquities, ending with the numis- 
matist, Borreli, is well known as a centre of Greek culture". 

A series of mediaeval Greek texts has been edited by 
Konstantinos Sathas'. The History of the study of Byzantine 

' Kastorches, 'loropii:?! fnffivit (1837-79), Ath. 1879 ; Kabbadias, 'laropla 
T^ 'Apx^o^T"^ ' Eroi/K (hi. 1900; and Th. Reinach, Za Gri^e retmuvie 
par la Grus, in VHiUiaistne for i July— i August, 1907. 

' P- 373 '«f<^' 

* Michaelis, 104. The excavation extended over twenty years (1858-78). 

* ib. 106. ^ oiiXXoyoi, i86of. 

* Cp., ingenera.1, Slark, 345. 

» MwoiBWiirii jSi^Xioe^mj, i— vi (Veo. 1871 ; Paris, 1874-7) i M«w«!ii, i ii 

h, i.MiA.OOgIc 


and Modem Greek lies beyond the limits of the present work. 
An interesting outline of the scope of such a History, with a 
summary of the extant literature of the subject, has been given by 
Krumbacher, the scholar who is most competent to fill the lacuna*. 

In Russia, the systematic study of the classical langu^es 
goes back to the seventeenth century. In the 
ecclesiastical ' Academy'of Kiev, founded in 1620, 
I-atin was thoroughly studied from 1 63 1 to the end of the century ; 
in fact, it was almost the only medium of instruction, and the 
use of even a single word of the vernacular language was severely 
punished'. One of the students produced a translation of Thu- 
cydides, and of Pliny's Panegyric. 

From Kiev the study of the Classics was transmitted to 
Moscow. The Latin Grammar in use was that of Alvarez'. The 
printing-school, founded at Moscow in 1679, was the first insti- 
tution involving the study of Greek, that was subsidised by the 
government. Throughout the eighteenth century, the Slavo- 
Greco-Latin Academy (founded in 1685) was the principal source 
of classical learning. The first teachers of note were two brothers 
of Greek origin, named Likhftdes, who were natives of Cepha- 
lonia. They had taken their doctor's degree at Padua ; and, 
under their tuition, the students acquired a remarkable facility in 
Latin*. The Academy was highly favoured during the reign of 
Peter the Great (1689— 1725). 

During the eighteenth century, and the early part of the 
nineteenth, classical publications were limited to translations. 
The principal Greek and Latin authors were translated in twenty- 
six volumes by Martynov (1771 — 1883). The first quarter of 
the nineteenth saw the publication of the earliest works on the 
archaeolc^y of the Northern shore of the Black Sea*. 

(Paris, iSSo-l) ; Digtnis Airitas (ed. Sathas and E. S. Legrand. 1875); His- 
tory of Psellus (London, 1899). Cp-, in general, BuT^an, ii IJ44-8. 

' Ff stride, 186 f. 

' Boulgakov, Hist, de rAeadhnie dt Kiev (Kiev, 1873) 13, 175 f. 

' ii. 163 su/<ra. 

' Srsmenski, Les Icelts tccllsiasliqats en Russit avani la riforme de 1808 
{Kazan. 1881), 740. 

• Moutaviev-Apostol, Li voyage en Tauride en i8so (St P^teisbourg, 


CHAP, xxxrx.] MOSCOW. 38s 

At the university of Moscow (founded in 1755) R. T. Tim- 
kovski (1785 — 1820), who had listened with admi- 
ration to Heyne's lectures at Gottingen, produced Timvovsiii 
an edition of Phaednis, and a Latin thesis on the Kriukov 
Dithyramb (1806), in which he gave proof of his' ivanov 
command of a clear Latin style. D. L. Kriukov eonuev 

(1809 — 1845), who attended the lectures of Morgenstern, Francke, 
and Neue at Dorpat, and of Boeckh in Berlin, published papers 
on the age of Quintus Curtius, and on the tragic element in 
Tacitus, with an edition of the Agricola, and a work on the 
original differences in religion between the Roman Patricians and 
the Plebeians'. K. K. Goerz {1820 — 1883), one of the earliest 
professors of archaeology in Russia, wrote on the Peninsula of 
Taman, also on Italy and Sicily, and on the discoveries of 
Schliemann. The admirable Latin scholar, G. A. Ivanov (1816 — 
1901), besides producing excellent renderings of the niasteq>ieces 
of Latin literature, wrote on Cicero and his contemporaries (1878), 
and translated Plutarch, De facie in orbe lunae, and the ' Harmonic 
Introduction ' ascribed to Euclid. Leontiev, who lectured on 
Roman Antiquities and Greek Mythology, and published a work 
on the worship of Zeus in ancient Greece, founded in 1850 a 
periodical called the Propylaea, including papers on classical 
subjects by Katkov (on Greek philosophy), Kudriavtsev (on 
Greek literature and on Tacitus), and Kriukov (on Roman litera- 
ture and antiquities). 

The university of Vilna, founded in 1803, was superseded in 
1833 by that of Kiev, which was not placed on the 
same level as the other universities until 1863-84. 

At the university of St Petersburg (founded in 1819), 
N. M. Blagoviestschenski (1821 — 1891), who attended the lectures 

1813 i German Iransl. 1815-6 ; Italian transl. 1833). J. Stemporalii, 
Retkirches sur la sUaalion des anriennts lehnies grxi/ues ilu Pmil-Eaxin, 
St P^t., 1816). Both of these schokts published many other works in 
Russian and in French. — For the principal works in Greek and Latin scholar- 
ship published in Russia, cp. Paul Prozorov, Index SystSnialiqut, xvi + 374 pp., 
St Pet., 1898; and Naghouievski's Bibliographie de rkistoire de la littiralurc 
lalineen Russie 1709—1889, +8 pp. (Kaian, 1889). 

' Posthumously published under the pseudonym of Dr Pellegrino (Leipiig, 

^- "'■ h, i.,ii,i?5oo^ic 

386 RUSSIA. [cent. XIX. 

of Hermann, W. A. Becker, and Haupt at Leipzig, and of Creuzer 
and Schlosser at Heidelberg, was the earliest notable 
* ,*"", "'^ professor of Russian birth. His masterpiece was a 
schensjci worlc OH Horace and his age^. He also produced 

lerniKcdt ^" annotated translation of Persius, and wrote 
papers on Vii^il's Cofia, on Niebuhr's views as 
to the relation of the lays of ancient Rome to the early 
histories of the city, and on the coincidence between the story 
of the Matrona Epkesia of Petronius and a popular narrative 
of the district of Perm. Karl Joachim Lugebil (1830 — 1888), 
who was of German parentage, studied at St Petersburg, where 
he dedicated to the memory of Graefe an able dissertation 
De Venere Coliade Genetyllide (1859). Accompanied by his wife, 
he travelled in Germany, Italy and Greece. His best-known 
works were connected with Athens: — (i) On Ostracism and 
(z) On the history of the Athenian Constitution'. His Cornelius 
Nepos passed through several editions. Among his contributions 
to classical periodicals may be mentioned his papers on the 
untrust worthiness of the Alexandrian system of accentuation'. 
He was a man of fine character, and an admirable teacher*. 
V. K. lemstedt {1854 — 1902), one of the best of Russian Hel- 
lenists, produced an excellent edition of Antiphon {1880)', which 
had been preceded by studies on the minor Attic Orators- 
He also published the 'Fragments of Attic comedy acquired by 
bishop Porphyrius' (1891), adding largely to the portions of 
these fragments that had been deciphered by Tischendorf', and 
contributing many important criticisms on points of palaeography 
and exegesis. The Historico- Philological Institute was founded 
at St Petersburg in 1867 with a view to training school-masters 
in history, literature, and the classical languages. 

At the university of Kazan (founded in 1804), the earliest 
writings of D. T. Bieliaev (1846 — 1901) were 
mainly concerned with ' Hiatus in the Odyssey ', 
and with the political and religious opinions of 

1 1864; ed. 2, 1878. 

' Jahrb.f. d. PhU. Suppl. iv— v (1861-71). 

' Rkein. Mus. 1888. * Biogr. yakrb. 1888, 16—35. 

" Cobet, in Aftum. v i6gi. • Ed. Cobet, 1876. 



Euripides (1876). He is best known in connexion with his 
Byzantina, a work including a detailed commentary on the court 
of Constantine Porphyrogenitus'. 

At the university of Odessa (founded in 1865), L. F. Voe- 
vodski (1846 — 1901) studied Homer, and the 
primitive Greek mythology. In his earhest work, 
'on cannibalism in Greek Mythology', he regarded 
the myths as inspired, not by a creative imagination, but by the 
observation of the daily phenomena of nature (1874). His 'in- 
troduction to the mythology of the Odyssey' (i88rl was mainly 
on 'Solar Monotheism'. 

Lastly, at the university of Kharkov (founded 1804), 1. 1. Kro- 
neberg {1788 — 1838) was one of the foremost 
representatives of classical scholarship in Russia 
during the early part of the rgth century. He ' " 's 

was of German origin, but acquired a perfect mastery of the 
Russian language. His Latin -Russian Dictionary passed through 
six editions (1819-60). He also published a compendium of 
Roman Antiquities, and editions of Horace's Epistola ad Au- 
gustum, Cicero pro lege Manilia, and Sallust, and a paper of 
literary criticism on Persius. His numerous articles on the 
Classics, as well as on general literature and art, appeared in the 
periodicals entitled, Amalthie, Brochures, and Minerve, which 
filled the same place at Kharkov as the Profylaea founded by 
Leontiev at Moscow. He was celebrated for his aphorisms, e.g. 

' Tout livre doit etre cosmopolite; mais il y en a qui ne reflitent que la 
nielle, ou lis sont nes'i 'Tel bomme lessemble i un livre, et (el livre 
ressemble i un homme. La. vraie lecture est une lutte. On ne commence 
souvenl k aimer un homme qu'aprcs s'etre bien querelle Bvec lul ; il en est de 
m?me pour leslivres''. 

The above survey is mainly limited to scholars of Russian 
birth, among whom Lugebil and Kroneberg alone 
were of German parentage. The university of 
Dorpat, founded in Livonia by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, was 

» Cp. Byx. Zeilschr. 1 .i+s, iii 184. 

' Almost (he whole of the above account of native Russian Scholarship is 
abridged from a survey of the subject, which Prof. A. Maleyn of St Petersbui^ 
has kindly written in French on my behalf, at the request of Prof. Zielinski. 


h. i., ii^l^.OO^IC 


reconstituted by Alexander I in 1802. Four years previously, 
all Russian subjects had been recalled from the universities of 
Germany, but Dorpat remained a centre of German influence 
from 1S02 to 189s'; thenceforward the Russian language alone 
was allowed to be used in the lecture-rooms. 

The university of Finland, founded by Sweden at Abo in 
1640, was transferred to Helsingfors by Russia 
in 1827. The professor of Latin in that uni- 
versity, F. W. Gustafsson (b. 1825), has published criticisms on 
the text of Cicero De Finibus, and on that of Apollinaris Sidonius. 
At Borgo, E. of Helsingfors, a professorship of Classics was as- 
signed in 1837 to the Swedish poet, Runeberg (1804— 1877), 
who was thoroughly familiar with the Greek and Latin poets. 
The earliest of the German scholars, who resided in Russia 
for a large part of their lives, was Christian 
Russia: Friedrich Matthaei (1744 — 1811), He had been 

a pupil of Ernesti at Dresden, and had also studied 
at Leipzig; he was rector and professor in Moscow 
(1772-85), and, after spending four years as head of the school 
at Meissen, and sixteen as professor of Greek at Wittenberg, 
returned to Moscow for the last six years of his life. He is best 
known for having discovered at Moscow in 1780 a MS of the 
Homeric Hymns, including the Hymn to Detneier (first published 
by Ruhnken') and twelve lines of a Hymn to Dionysus'. Almost 
all his own work was connected with Byzantine literature. 

One of Hermann's pupils. Christian Friedrich Graefe (1780 — 

1851), who became professor, librarian, and keeper 

"* * of Antiquities at St Petersbuig, studied Meleager 

and the Bucolic poets, and edited Nonnus (1819-20). He gave 

' The lung lisl of Germans appointed to teach classical or cognate subjects 
at Dorpat b^ns with K. Moi^enslein (i8ci), C. L, Struve (1805), J. V. 
Francke (r8ii), W. F. Clossius (1814). F. K. H. Kruse (i8^8). C. F. Neue 
(1831), L. Preller (1838), and E. Osenbruggcn (1843). Among ihe latest was 
L. Mendelssohn ([876). 

' Bursian, ii 551 f- Matthaei mutilated certain Greek Mss in Moscow and 
carried his plunder off to Cermany. He was charged with this theft as early 
as 1789, and the charge has since been conRimed (Oscar von Gebhardt, in 
Cenlialbl. fiir Btbl., i8()8). 




instruction in Greek to his friend Count Uvarov (1785 — 1855), 
the Russian Minister of Education, who wrote in French on the 
Mysteries of Eleusis and in German on the Poetry of Nonnus 
and on the Prae-Homeric Age- He uses German in his work 
on Nonnus because 'the revival of classical learning belongs 
to, the Germans". He exemplifies the influence of the New 
Humanism beyond the borders of Germany'. 

Friedrich Vater, son of J. S. Vater, studied at Berlin, where 
he died {1810— 1866). Of his earlier works, the best 
known is his edition of the R/iesus (1837). His 
papers on Andocides, begun in Berlin, were continued at Kazan, 
and he also published at Moscow an edition of the Iphigenia in 
Aulis {1845). During the forties, classical studies in Russia were 
much influenced by German scholarship, as represented by 
Boeckh and K. O- Miiller on the one hand, and by Ritschl on 
the other. The last 33 years of the life of Nauck 
(1822-92), and the greater part of the last 28 years L^Miiiier 
of that of Lucian Miiller (1836-98), were devoted 
to the teaching of Greek and Latin respectively at St Petersbui^'. 

Jacob Theodor Struve (1816 — 1886), who studied at Dorpat 
and Konigsberg, taught for twenty years at the 
university of Kazan, was Greek professor at 
Odessa (1865-70), and Anally, for eight years, director of the 
gymnasium at St Petersburg, He is best known for his criticisms 
on Quintus Smymaeus'', having been led to study that poet by 
his uncle, Carl Ludwig Struve, whose Opusmla SeUcta he edited. 

' Reprinted in his Eludes. Cp. Geoiu Schmid, Ziir rmHschen Gelehrttn- 
^eschiihte, 99. Count Uvarov's German Essa.y was dedicaled in 1S17 to 
Goethe, who calls him eitten Jdhigen, talentvoUin, gdsireick gcaiandlm Mann 
(in Ftrams iiber deutscke Lilleratur, xxvii 150 Cotta, quoted by Schmid l.i: , 
mSuss, Rtvue, xxv 77 — 108, ij6 — i6j). 

'' For ten years (1S56-46) Graefe counted among his colleagues the pro- 
fessor of Latin, T. F. Freflag (1800—1858). Most of the brief memoranda 
on classical scholars in Russia, prinled by Creuzer, Zur Gtsch. do- cl. Pkitol. 
(1854), 166—171, were supplied in 1846 by Fieytag, who, besides the more 
obvious name;, mentions Groddeck (1762 — 1814), professor at Vilna, and 
Karl Hofmann in Moscow, editor of Thucydides, 1S40-J. 

* See pp. i49fand i8gfj/i/ra. 

* Petrop., 1843; Casani, i860. 

h. i.MiA.OOgIc 

H. Kilhler 


At Odessa, he worked at the local Greek inscriptions, publishing 
the results of his researches in his Pontiscke Brie/e^iZTiY- 

The study of classical archaeology in Russia dale^ from the reign of Feler 
the Great (A. 1715). The Academy of Sciences, founded in 
Arch>col<^>» jj^^^ included the name of Theophil Siegfried Bayet (1694— 
1738) of Konigsberg, who applied an accurate knowledge, oi 
numismatics to his works on Greek Chronolc^, the Achaean League, and the 
Greek rule in Asia, besides writing a monograph on the ' Venus of Cnidos ', in 
connexion with a statue (lurchased in Rome by Peter the Great in 1 ; 18. 

The conquest of Ihe Crimea in 1783, and of the Northern coast of the 
Black Sea in 1791, led lo those former sites of Greek civilisation being 
explored by Russia under an organisation whose centre was in St Petersburg. 
Under Alexander 1 (iSoi-is) Classical Philoli^y and Archaeology were 
delinitely recognised in the Academy of Sciences, and the President of Che 
Academy, Count Uvarov, took the keenest interest in the atchaeotf^cal 
exploration of the southern parts of Rus^a. The discoveries in that region 
were the Iheme of the letters addressed to the Academy by a 
pupil of Heyne, Heinrich K. E. Kohler (tjfis — 1838), who 
devoted most of his time to the study of ancient gems. His collected papers 
on archaeolt^ical topics were edited for the Academy in six volumes by 
Ludolf Slephani (1850-3). Von Stackelberg (1787—183+), 
who studied al Gotlingen, and spent many years in Dresden 
and in Greece and Italy in the study of archaeology', did not return to Russia 
until the last year of his life. In the meantime, his German contemporary, 
Hermann's pupil, Graefe', who was elected a member of the Russian Academy 
in 18)0, was working at the Greek inscriptions of the South coast, while 
Moi^enstem of Halle (1770—1851) was awakening an interest in Greek ait 
at Dorpat. The archaeological work begun by Kohler was ably continued by 
Stephani (1816—1887), "ho studied at Leipzig, was professor 
at Dorpat (1846-50), and keeper of the Antiquities of the 
Hermitage at St Peterslmrg for the last 37 years of his life. He was the 
author of many important monographs on the archaeological discoveiies in 
South Russia'. 

Hungary was among the homes of humanism in the reign of 
Matthias Corvinus (d, 1490), whose library was 
scattered on the occasion of the capture of the 
capita] by the Turks In 1526'. 

' BUgr. yahrb, 1886, 11—13. 

" p. 2 18 SHjn-a. ' p. 388 sufra. 

* P- 123 "'/»'•'■ 

s ii 175 and iii 377 sufra. 



Latin long remained in use as a living language in Hungary'; 
the debates of the Diet were conducted in Latin until 1825'; 
but there was little interest in classical literature until the middle 
of the nineteenth century, when there was a revival of learning 
attested by numerous translations of the Classics, as well as the 
publication of classical text-books. Among those who aimed at 
producing works of more permanent value was 
Ivan Telfy (1816— 1898), Greek Professor at Buda- " 

pest, whose Studies on Greek pronunciation (1853) were followed 
by his Corpus Juris A Uia {1&68), and by his edition of Aeschylus 
(1876). On his retirement in 1886, he was succeeded by Eugen 
Abel (1858 — 1889), who owed his knowledge of 
English and German to his mother (a native of 
England), and who added to the French that he had learnt at 
school the Italian that he acquired at the university. At Buda- 
pest he attracted the attention of the restorer of classical learning 
in Hungary, Emil Thewrewk de Ponor'. In 1877 he laid the 
foundation of his knowledge of palaeography, and of the history 
of humanism in Hungary, in the study of certain mss from the 
library of king Corvinus, which were then restored by the Turks. 
He was thus led to explore the libraries of Europe in quest of 
MSS of the Epic poets of Greece and the humanists of Hungary. 
On his return he succeeded T^lfy as professor of- Greek, but held 
that position for three years only, dying at Constantinople on the 
eve of his examination of the ancient mss of that city. 

In Ihe department of Greek Epic poetry, he produced critical editions of 
KoUuthos (18S0), ihe Orphic Lithska and tlie Orphica (18S1-5), the Homeric 
Hymns and Epigram!, and the Battle of the Frogs and Mice (18B6). He 
introduced the digamma into his ediliAi of the Homeric Hymns; his 
Hungarian commentary on the Odyssey was preceded by a Homeric Giaminar 
published in 18S1, a year before that of Monro. He also edited two volumes 

' On the language of Latin literature in Hungary, cp. Bairlal, Glossarium 
mediae et infimai Laltnilalis rtgni Hungariae (Leipzig, 1901). 

> In Hungary, Croatia, and Transylvania, 'Latin conversation was last 
heard in 1848, and then only from Croat lips' (67. Rev. xxi 117). Possibly 
here (as in Italy) colloquial Latin was killed by the revival of learning. 

' Born 18385 founder of the Budapest Philolc^ical Society, and joint- 
editor of its literary organ, since 1871. 

h. 1. iiA.OOgIc 


o( scholia on Pindai{iS84-Qi), and published tlie Ancient and Mediaeval Lives 
of Terence (1887). Among his publications connected with the history of 
humanism in Hungary were his Anaiecia on [he Hungarian humanists and ihe 
'learned society of the Danube ' (1880), his article on Hungarian unlveisilies in 
the Middle Ages 088i)> and his edition of the remains of Isofta Nogarola of 
Verona (iS86). His work in this department is of special importance for the 
period between the accession of king Corvinus (1464) and the battle of 
Mohacs (1516)'. 

The publications of the Hungarian Academy are in the 
Magyar language, which is also used in the principal philological 
journal", but a medium of communication with the scholars of 
Europe is provided by the Likrarische Berichte aus Ungarn and 
by the Ungarische Revue*. 

' Biogr.Jahrtsb. i8go, 47—51; cp, Bursian's/a^riwA. xv (1878) ijof. 
' Egyetimis phiUlogiai kdztony, 1871 f. 
^ Bursian, ii 1143, 




Dr Parr, who died in 1825, writes thus in his Diary: — 
' In the reign of Plulemy Greece boasted of her Pleiad ; England, in my 
day, may boast ol a Decad of literary luminaries, Dr Samuel Butler, 
Dr Edward Makby, bishop Blomfield, dean Monk, Mr E. H. Barker, 
Mr Kidd, Mr Surges, professor Dobree, professor Gaisford, and Di Elmsley. 
They are professed critics : but in learning and tasle Dr Routh of Oxford is 

The last of these, Martin Joseph Routh (1755 — 1854), died 
in the hundredth year of his age, after having been 
President of Magdalen for three and sixty years. 
He edited the Euthydemus and Gorgias of Plato in 1784, lived to 
produce the fifth volume of his Relliquiae Sacrae in 1848, and, at 
the age of 92, summed up his long experience in the precept : — 
'I think, sir, will find it a very good practice always to verify 
your references'". Edward Maltby {17 70 — 1859), of Winchester and 
of Pembroke, Cambridge, successively bishop of 
Chichester and of Durham, was the author of a useful Kidd'"'' 
Lexicon Graecoprosodiacum (1815)'. Thomas Kidd 
(1770 — 1850), of Trinity, Cambridge, head-master of Lynn, 
Wymondham and Norwich, edited the philological and critical 
works of Ruhnken, the 'Tracts' of Porson, and the 'Miscellanea 
Critica* of Dawes. ' It was amusing', says Maltby, ' to see Kidd 
in Person's company; he bowed down before Porson with the 
veneration due to some being of a superior nature'*. 

' Memoirs, \ 751 n. 

' Billion's Twelve Good Men, i 73. 

' Founded on Morell's Thesaurus (1761). In supplementing that work 
Maltby, the pupil of Parr and the friend of Porson, received valuable assist- 
ance from both. 

* Ri^rs, Table Talk, Persmiana, 325. 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 


The Porsonian tradition passed for a time from Cambridge 
to Oxford in the person of Peter Elmsley (1773 — 
1825) of Winchester and Christ Church. After 
spending several years in Edinburgh, he lived in Kent from 1807 
to 1816, when he paid his first visit to Italy. For the rest of 
his life his headquarters were at Oxford. He spent the winter 
of 1818 in Florence, studying the Laurentian ms of Sophocles. 
He collated the ms in 1820, and the earliest recognition of its 
superiority is to be found in the preface to his edition of the 
Oedipus Coloneus^. In 1819 he aided Sir Humphry Davy in 
examining the Herculanean papyri in the Museum of Naples. 
For the last two years of his life he was principal of St Alban 
Hall and Camden professor of Ancient History at Oxford. 

At Edinbui^h he edited the text of Tliucydides with a Latin translation 
(1804), and contributed to the Edinbur^ Review scholarly articles on Heyne's 
Uiad, Schweighauser's Alhenaeus, Blom field's Prometheus Vinttus, and 
Porson's Hectiba^. His most important works were his editions of Greek 
plays, all of them published at Oxford, namely the Acharnians of Arislo- 
phanes, the Oedipus Tyrannus and Oedipus Coloneus of Sophocles, and Ihe 
Heraclidae, Medea, and Bacchae of Euripides. His editions of the Media 
and Heraclidae were teptinled by Button, with additions from Elmsley'i 
papers. The latter were also the source of the readings of the Laurentian us 
printed in the Oxford Sophocles of 1816. 

As a scholar whose editorial labours were almost entirely confined (o the 
Greek drama, Elmsley had a close affinity with Porson, who held him in high 
esteem until he found him appropriating his own emendations without men- 
tioning his name. Porson's property was thus annexed by Elmsley in his 
review of Schweighauser's Athenaeus^, and in his edition of the Achamiaits'. 
Elmsley attempted to suppress the latter, but found to his dismay thai it had 
already been reprinted at Leipzig". In his Media be observed that an editor's 
duly consisted in two things : — correcting the author's texl, and explaining his 
meaning ; Ihe foimei duty had been dischai^ed by Porsun, while Ihe latter 
had been neglected. In all his edilions of Greek plays, Elmsley devoted 

' 1813 ; Jebb, in Pref. to Facs. 10, n. 5, and in Inlro,i. to Text (1897) 
xliii f. 

' Nos, 4, 5, 3;, 37 respectively. He reviewed Markland's three plays in 
Ihe Quarterly; Hermann's SufipUces and Hercules Furms in the Cl./aumal; 
and published his own notes on the ^/«jr in ihe Museum Cn/Kwm,! 351 f, 4691. 

' Edin. Rev. no. 5, Oct. 1803; cp. Quarterly Rev. v 107. 

' Church cf England Quarterly Rev. v 413 f. 

' Walson-sZyia//b™»,3.of. 



him&etr mainty lo Che illustration of the purport of the text, and to the 
elucidation of the laws of Atlic usage'. He had a wide knowledge of modem 
history. He was 'an accurate critic, and a profound and el^ant scholar', 
remarkable for ' the charm of his conversation ', and for ' the gentleness and 
goodness of his heart''... He was also a man of caltn temper and impartial 
ju^ment, while his fondness for light reading was one of the points in which 
he resemhled Person'. In his illustralive notes he showed himself fully alive 
to the value of ihe worli done by his predecessors, such as Brodaeus and 
Barnes, Heath and Musgrave*. Elsewhere he says of Casaubon's Athenaeus, 
' we know of no work, except perhaps Bentley's Dissertation on Phalaris, in 
which the reader-is presented with such a mass of pertinent infoimation''. 
His merits as a scholar were highly esteemed by Hermann', whose edition of 
the Bacchae was published solely as a supplement to that of Elmsley, cuius 
viri el dettrinam admiror it anitni ingcnuitattni maximi facio. 

Among the merits of Elmsley was a high appreciation of the 
value of the Laurentian ms of Sophocles. His a \ t rA 
careful edition of the scholia in that ms was brought 
out by Thomas Gaisford (1779 — 1855), who was bom only 
six years later than Elmsley and survived him by thirty. A 
native of Ilford in Wiltshire, he was appointed Regius professor 
of Greek at Oxford in 1812, and was dean of Christ Church 
for the last twenty-four years of his life. The Gaisford prizes 
for Greek verse and prose were founded in his memory. 

, Early in his career he produced school-editions of the W/«j/i'j, £'/<rc/r3, and 
Andromache, and saw through the press Musgrave's Hecuba, Orestes, and 
Pkotnisioe, and Markland's Suppliies and the two IphigettHas. In 1S09 he 
published the paraphrase of the Nicomachean Ethics by Andronicus of 
Rhodes, and in the following year first made his mark by the edition of 
Hephaeslion, which led Hermann lo describe its editor as dignus qui multa 
cum iaude commeniorarelur'' . When Ihe professorship of Greek fell vacant in 

' His notes on the Heraclidae, Medea and Bacchai, 
linguam usumque quantum attinet' were reprinted in Gretton's Elmsleiana 
Criliea, 1833.' 

' Brilish Crilic, April. 1817, 181. 

' Gentleman's Mag., April, 1815, 374-6 (ascribed by Luard to Edward 
Copleston. then Provost of Oriel). Luard's bound volume of Elmsleiana has 
been lent to me by Professor Mayor. 

' Preface lo Heraclidae. ^ Edin. Rev. Oct. 1803, 185. 

• Opasc. vi 95, 

'Ed. (with Proclus, Chrest.) 1810 (Leipzig, 1821); and (with Ter. 
Mautus) i8j6. 


Thomas Gaisford. 

Reproduced (by permission of Messrs Ryman) from the loezzolint by 
T. L. Atkinson (18+8) of Ihe porltail hy H. W. Pickei^lt, R,A., 
in the Hall of Christ Church, Oxford. 



1811, acting on the judicious advice of Cyril Jackson, Ihen dean of Christ 
Charchi he sent a handsomely bound copy of his Hepkaeslion (with a tetter, 
dictated by the dean) lo Lord GrenviJle, the ministei in whose hands the 
appointment lay ; and, shortly aflerwards, he was duly appointed to the posi- 
tion which he adorned for the remaining forty-lhree years of his life'. 

In igii he published catalogues of the Greek Hss of D'Orville and of 
E. D. Clarke, followed by readings from Ihe Bodleian Plalo in his Lecliones 
Ptatoniceu fiSio). In the latter year he produced a variorum edition of 
Aristotle's Rhetoric, and completed the critical notes and scholia to a new 
edition of Winterton's Pailae Minsres Graeii. He also edited the Fleriltgium 
and the Eclogae of Stobaeus, as well as Herodotus, Sophocles, Sutdas ( 1834-7), 
the Elymelogic-uBi Magnum {1S4S), and Pearson's Adiietsaria Hesyekiana, 
besides editions of the Greek Proverbs, and the Latin writers on metre, with 
Choeroboscus, several of the works of Eusebius and Theodoret, and the 
Septuagint. It was in allusion to his Suldas and his Elymolegicum Magnum 
that the future lexicographer, Robert Scott, in his Homeric verses, described 
Gaisford as Sou ivyj.xb'Tt'.a riXkua' \ Xtfiua Sva^araicTa*. 

With a view to his editions of the Greek poels, and of Stobaeus and Sutdas, 
he spent four months at Leyden studying (he MSS in Ihe Library, ti^ethei 
with the Adversaria of Valckenaer. His visit was agreeably remembered by 
his constant companion, Bake*. During this visit one of the professors made 
some metrical mislSike, whereupon Gaisford poured forth in Latin a flood of 
learning from Ilephaestion and other authors, till the Dutch professor held up 
his hands, and exclaimed : — O vir mtignat profecto sapiailiat, si lam in rtbiis 
qaam in verbis imalidsses*. The learning and industry that be bestowed on 
the Greek Poels were eulogised by Hennann', wbo, on being visited by an 
English scholar, after enpressing in vigorous language a certain contempt for 
Scholefield, reverently added: — 'But Gaisford I adore'*. George Gaisford 
used to relate how, when he went with his father to call on Dindorf at 
Leipzig, 'the door was opened by a shabby man, whom they took to be the 
famulus, but who, on the announcement of Gaisford's name, rushed into 
his arms and kissed him''. 

' H. L. Thompson's Life 0/ If. G. Liddell, 139; cp. Jourtial of CI. and 
Sacred Philology, ii 343 f, iii (13; W. Tuckwell's RtminiSMtues of Oxford, 

» W. Tuckwell, 566. ' Schol. Hyp. vol. n v— vii. 

* H. L. Thompson's Zjft of H. C. Liddell, 15. 

s 1831, <3/wc. vigS. 

' The English scholar was George Butler, Head Master of Harrow. I 
owe this anecdote to his son, the Master of Trinity. In Opusc. vi 97 Hermann 
notices the lack of originality in Schotetield's Aeschylus (i8i8). while he 
describes the editor of the Potlae Minores as ' der fleissige und gelehrie 
Gaisford ' {ib. 98). 

' W. Tuckwell, 131. 




A certain deflexion from the critical Porsonian tradition is ex- 
emplified bySamuel Butler (1774 — 1839), the editor 
of Aeschylus. He was educated at Rugby, and was 
on the point of being entered at Christ Church under Cyril 
Jackson, when, by the advice of Dr Parr, who had been struck 
by a copy of his Latin verses, he became a member of St John's 
College, Cambridge. At Cambridge he won the gold medal for 
the Greek and the Latin Ode, and was also Craven Scholar and 
Chancellor's Medallist. A year before his M.A. degree, his 
College elected him head-master of Shrewsbury, a position which 
he held to the great advantage of the College as well as the 
School from 1798 to 1836, when he became bishop of Lichfield 
for the last three years of his life. 

The Syndics of the Cambridge Press had invited Porson to edit Aeschylus, 
with Stanley's text, llie offer, which had been declined by Porson, was 
accepted by Butter, whose edition filled four quarto volumes (1809-11;), 
including Ihe Gieek scholia, and all the notes of Stanley and his predecessors, 
with selections from those of subsequent editors, and a synopsis of the 'various 
readings '. 

It was ably reviewed by C. J. Blomfield', who protested against Ihe 
' literal reprint of Ihe corrupt text of Stanley's edition ', againsl ' the extreme 
deficiency of illustration from Aeschyliis himself and his brother Imgedians', 
and ' the implicit deference ' paid lo ' the authority ' of Hesycbius, Suldas, and 
the Etymologicum Magnum. He also r^retted that the lucubrations of 
Tumebus, Muretus, and Beroaldus. and 'their unworthy imitator, Schiltz', 
tilled up ' a space which would have 1>een more advantageously occupied ' by 
the 'more useful and concise' notes of the critics of the Dutch school, 
Hemsterhuys, Valckenaei, Pierson, Koen and Ruhnken; it was 'an indiscrimi- 
nate coacervation ' of all thai had been 'expressly written on Aeschylus'. Butler, 
in the course of his reply, remarks Ihat ' probably no man ever undertook a 
work of this nature with so little assistance. ' Of the many thonsand passages' 
from ancient authors ' not one has been pointed out to me by any learned 
friend '. He honestly confesses to certain mistakes, but ' continually betrays 
ibe jealousy which Pan's circle entertained towards the Porsonians''. Many 
yeara afterwards bishop Blomfield said of Butler, 'he was a really learned as 
well as amiable man, but his forte did nol lie in verbal criticism''. His 

> Edin. Reu., Oct. 1809, and Jan. 1810; Feb. iSii (full extracts in 
J. E. B. Mayor's ed. of Baker's Hitt. of St yohnh Coll. ii 908—911); cp. 
Life and Ltlters of Dr S. BulUr (tig6), i 11 f, 53—6*. 

= Lcller to the Rev. C. J. Blomfield, 1810 (J. E. B. Mayor, 911—915). 

> ib. 9.7. 




' Praxis on the Latin prepoMtions ' (1813) held its ground for about twenly-five 
years, when it was superseded by books of less interest. The only other work 
that need here be mentioned is his ' Sketch of Modem and Ancient 
Ge<^aphy' (1813), which passed through ten editions, ic^ether with 'An 
Alias of Ancienl Geography ' (1811, elc.)'. In his 'Ancienl Geography' he 
'endeavoured to make a dry catalogue of names interesting and useful, by Ihe 
application of history, chronology and poetry', and especially by quoting 
select passages from the best classical poets*. His interest in classic travel is 
well exemplified in one of his letters to Parr : — 

' My journey, though very laborious, and not free from peril, completely 
succeeded. I visited every spot connected with the most interesting parts of 
the Roman hbtory — including Mons Sacer, Tibur, Tuscutum, and Alba, and, 
of course, pari of the old Appian way. From Cicero's Tusculan Villa I 
looked down upon that of his neighbour Cato.... I visited the Alban Villa of 

Domitian,.,.and the emissary of the Alban Lake, made by Camillus At 

the grotto of Egeria I trod upon a fragment of marble and drank from the 
stream running once more through its native tophus..,'^. 

The Porsonian type of scholarship, represented at Oxford by 
Elinsley, was maintained at Cambridge by Dobree, 
Monk, and C. J. Blomfield. The first of these, Peter 
Paul Dobree (1782 — 1825), was born in Guernsey, and was 
indebted to the place of his birth for the mastery of French that 
made him so acceptable during his visit to Leyden in 1815*. 
Meanwhile, he had been elected a Fellow of Trinity and had 
joined in founding Valpy's Classical Journal in 1810, while he 
was a frequent contributor to Bumey's Monthly Review. He 
edited (with many additions of his own and in particular with his 
own commentary on the Plutus) Porson's Aristophanica (1820)°, 
which was followed by Porson's transcript of the lexicon of 
Photius (1822). When Monk vacated the Regius Professorship 
of Greek, Dobree was elected in his place and held that position 
for the two remaining years of his life. His Adversaria on the 
Greek Poets, Historians, and Orators, were posthumously pub- 
lished in four volumes (1831-3) by his successor, Scholefield'. 
His transcript of the Lexicon rhetoricum Cantabrigiense was printed 

' Republished by Dent, without date, 1907. 

" Mayor, l.c. 936. • Parr's Werh, vii 371 (i8it). 

* Bake's Schol. Hyp. 11, ii— v. 

* Cp. Hermann, Ofust. vi 96. 

' Ed. Wagner b l vols. 1874, with the Oiservatiaiies Aristopkaneae of 


in 1834, and his 'Miscellaneous Notes on Inscriptions' in the 
following year. 

While Dobree was a follower of Porson in the textual criticism 
of Aristophanes, he broke new ground as a critic of the Attic 
Orators, and of Demosthenes and Lysias in particular. In the 
Praelection that he delivered as candidate for the professorship 
once held by Porson, he dilated on Person's merits, and, after 
expressing the general regret that Porson had mainly confined his 
attention to the poets, himself discoursed on the Funeral Oration 
ascribed to Lysias, giving conclusive reasons for supporting 
Valckenaer's opinion that it was a spurious production. In the 
person of Dobree, the old alliance between the scholarship of 
England and the Netherlands received a new ratification that re- 
called the age of Bentley and of Hemsterhuys, 

James Henry Monk (1784 — 1856), who was educated at 
■ Charterhouse and was Fellow of Trinity, held the 
professorship of Greek from 1809 to 1823, having 
in 1822 been appointed dean of Peterborough. He was conse- 
crated bishop of Gloucester in 1830, and held the bishopric of 
Gloucester and Bristol from 1836 to his death twenty years later. 
Following in the footsteps of Porson and Elmsley', he edited four 
plays of Euripides, the Hippolytus and the Alctstis, while he was 
still professor, and the two Iphigeneias, when he was already a 
bishop. All four plays were republished in 1858. In conjunction 
with E. V, Blomfield he edited the two volumes of the Museum 
Critiattn (1814, 1826), which was continued under the name of 
the Philological Museum (1832-3). The year of his consecration 
as bishop was that of the publication of his admirable Life of 

Monk's fellow-editor of Person's Adversaria in 1812 was 
Charles James Blomfield (1786—1857), who was 
educated at Bury St Edmunds, and was a Fellow 
of Trinity. He edited with notes and glossaries the Prometheus^ 
Seplem, Persae, Agamemnon and Choiphoroe (1810-24), and it 
may safely be assumed that he would have edited the Eumenides, 
had he not been appointed bishop of Chester in 1824. Four 
years later he was transferred to the see of London, which he 

' Cp. Hermann, Opusi. vi ^. 

h. 1. iiA.OOt^lC 

C. J. Blomfield 


held for the remaining nineteen years of his life. Besides the 
Aeschylean plays above mentioned, he edited Callimachus {1815), 
and contributed to the Museum Criticum (1814-26) editions of 
the fragments of Sappho', Alcaeus, Stesichorus and Sophron. 
The best characteristic of his edition of Aeschylus was the 
glossary'. He was an active and vigorous contributor to the 
Classical periodicals of the day'. 

His younger brother, Edward Valentine Blomfield (1788— 1816), Scholar 
of Caiu5 and Fellow of Emmanuel, was an admitable writer 
of Greek verse, who translated Matlhiae's Greek Grammar, ^- ^fi^fa'"""" 
and began to prepare a new Greek Lexicon. The former 
was published after his death by his elder brother*. 

E. V. Blomfield's contemporary, Edmund Henry Barker (1788— 1839), of 
Trinity, Cambridge, was ihe author of controversial works 
on C. J. Blomfield (1811), followed by Arisiarehus Anti-Blom- ' ^"^" 

fieUlianus (iSio)'. In the latter jiear he produced from a Paris MS the tditio 
pritKtps of Arcadius ■•epi tlivaif. Besides writing reminiscences of Person and 
Farr, and editing text-books, he took an important part in A. J. Valpy's 
edition (1816-15) of the Greek Thesaurus of Stephanus. 

A very successful edition of the Greek Testament, and an excellenl anno- 
lated translation of Thucydides (1819), were the principal 
works of Dr S. T. Bloomfield, of Sidney Sussex College, *" '^j^''"""" 

Richard Valpy {1754 — '836), of Pembroke, Oxford, the successful head- 
master of Reading (1781 — 1830), produced many classical 
school-books in 1809-16, including the well-known Greek 
Delectus (1816, etc.). His younger brother, Edward (1764 — 1831}, of Trinity, 
Cambridge, head-master of Norwich, edited (he Greek Testament ; while, of 
his sons, Abraham John (1787—1854), Fellow of Pembroke, Oxford, was 
publisher of a classical journal and pari -editor of numerous classical texts in 
1807-37, including a reprint of the Delpbin Classics, 1819-30; and Francis 
Edward Jackson (1797 — 1882), of Trinity, Cambridge, produced a 'second' 
and ' third ' Greek Delectus and an Etymological Latin Dictionary. 

' Cp. Hermann, Opusc. vi 100. Blomfield's recension of Sappho, Alcaeus 
and Stesichorus was included in vol. iii of the Leipzig edition of Gaisford's 
Poetae Minores Graeci (1853). 

' Hermann, l.c. 96. 

' Memoir by Luard in Journal of CI. and SacreJ PhUal. iv (1858) 96 — 
100; and by A. Blomfield, 18G4, chaps, i, ii. 

* Memoir in Musmm Criiiium, ii 510-8. 

> A reply to C. J. Blomfield's brilliant article on Ste|diens' Greek Thetau- 
rus in the Quarlerly Rev. Jan. 1810 ; cp. Memeir of C. J. Blomlield, le f, 

s. III. ,M,,,,;^oogic 


C. J. Blomfield was attacked in Valpy's Cla$skal Journal^ by George 
Bui^s (1786? — 1864}, formerfy of Charterhouse, Fellow of 
Trinily, who was for many years a private tutor in Caiobridge. 
Blomfield was charged with plagiarising certain emendations from Person's 
unpublished papers, and eflTecClvely repelled the chaise in the Museum 
CritUum^. Burges edited several Greek plays' and some of Ihe minor 
dialogues of Plato. His rashness as a textual critic is the theme of several 
pages in Foppo's Thucydides', but a kindlier judgement is passed on him by 
the Dutch scholar, Bake, who saw much ofhim at Leyden^ 

In 1815 a contemporary of Blomfield aud Surges, James Scholelield, 
Fellow of Trinily (1789—1853), was elected over the heads of 
Julius Charles Hare and Hugh James Rose to the Greek pro- 
fessorship vacated by Monk's successor, Dobree. He did good service to the 
memory of his predecessors in the Chair by seeing through the press three 
editions of Porson's Euripides (1826, '29, 'jo), and two volumes of Dobree's 
Admrsaria (1831-3), which were followed by the Lixiion RhetoricHm Canta- 
brigiense and the NoUs on Imiriptions. His life-long mterest in Ihe Greek 
Testament is partly embodied )n his 'Hints for an improved Translation' 
(18.^1). In 1818 he had repriuted Bishop Middleton's 'Treatise on the Greek 
Article'; in the same year he produced his edition of Aeschylus, the earliest 
English attempt to embrace in a single volume the results of modem criticism on 
that poet. A second edition (1830) was reviewed in the FhUologkal Museum 
of 1831 by John Wordsworth, who describes the text as mainly a reproduc- 
tion of the ultra- conservative text of Wellauer. Scholefield was not endued 
with the acumen of a Benlley or a Porson, but he fully appreciated their skill 
and readily accepted Ihe results of their able contributions to the criticism of 
the text. In a separate edition of the Eumenides {1843) he commends K. O. 
Miiller for 'rising beyond the school of mere verbal criticism '°, and he is not 
held in high esteem by Miiller's opponent, Hermann'. Dr T. W. Peile, who 
gratefully acknowledged that he owed to Scholefield 'his first effectual intro- 
duction to the gigantic mind of Aeschylus'", described his scholarship as ' more 
exact, perhaps, than elegant, but always sound and solid and practically 
useful''; while Dr Kennedy was 'accustomed to regard him as a strong, 

' xxii (e8io) 104—118; cp. xxiv (1811) 403 — 424. 

' No. vii, Nov. 1811, vol. ii 496 — 509; cp. Memoir of C. J. Blomfield, 30. 

> Eur. Tre. Phoen., Aesch. Suppl. Eum. P.V., Soph. Phil. Cp. 
Hermann, Opusc. vi 97. On his additions to the Bacehai, see Appendix to 
the present writer's ed. (ed. 1885, etc.). 

* Pars 111, vol. iv (1838) pp. iv— vii. 
' Schol. Hyp. II pp. viii— xii. 

* W. Selwyn's 'Notice of prof. Scholefield's Lectures and Editions' on 
pp. 3^3—339 of Memoir by his Widow (185s), 337- 

' Scholejieldium nihil moror was one of his phrases ; see also p. 397 supra. 
" il>- 3'8. * ib. 339. 




sound, Greek scholar, with fair critical a 
brilliant imagination, and exquisite taste, h 

Among the ablest of Samuel Butler's pupils at Shrewsbury 
was Benjamin Hall Kennedy (1804 — 1889), who 
entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1823, 
was thiice awarded the Porson Prize for Greek Iambic Verse, 
and ended a brilliant undergraduate career as the 'Senior Classic' 
of 1827. After spending two years as a Lecturer at Cambridge, 
and six as a Master at Harrow, he was in 1836 appointed by his 
College to succeed Butler as head-master of Shrewsbury, a 
position which he filled with the highest distinction and success 
for thirty years. For the last twenty-two years of his life, he was 
Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge 
(1867-89). He was elected to an honorary fellowship at St John's, 
where his portrait by Ouless may be seen in the College Hall, 
while a marble bust of the great school-master has a place of 
honour in the College Library. It bears the following inscription 
from the pen of Professor Jebb : — 

KoGpoJ itiuf, Kdfiov r&p Sorajitaat nXiot- 
tlt S' a»J/iot TeX^DiTii a appoot fHf So^Sp/nj 

wSXXdp iUI ao^at dr^ea SpfTTdpervf. 
■yijpoWiw Sf rd>Liy SpHreipa a ii4ia.T0 rpatni, 

OT^fif/a KaXbv toXiAv ffflira joj Ap^l ic6fxas. 

His best-known works are his 'Latin Primer" and his 'Public 
School Latin Grammar'^ He also published, with translations 
and notes, the Agamemnen of Aeschylus, the Oedipus Tyrannus 
of Sophocles and the Birds of Aristophanes, as well as the 
Theaeielus of Plato. His school-edition of Virgil' was followed 
by an edition of the text. His name is associated with a large 
number of admirable renderings in Greek and Latin Verse, as 
the principal contributor to the Sabrinae Corolla, and as the sole 
author of Between Whiles'. His extraordinary facility as a Latin 
poet may be exemplified by the fact that he was even able to 

' Mimeir, 358. 

■ 1S66 (rounded on his worli of iSfj); revised, 1888. Cp. his Crilicat 
Bxam. e/Dr Donaldsoti'i Latin Grammar (1855). 

» 1871, * 1876; ed.3, 1881. ' 187;; cd. », 1881. 


compose a Latin epigram of twel